Consumer Needs and Involvment - Consumer Behavior - Solved Quiz, Exercises for Consumer Behaviour. Gandhi Institute of Technology and Management
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dipendu13 October 2012

Consumer Needs and Involvment - Consumer Behavior - Solved Quiz, Exercises for Consumer Behaviour. Gandhi Institute of Technology and Management

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Microsoft Word - module 6

MODULE 6: PSYCHOLOGICAL INFLUENCES ON CONSUMER DECISION MAKING

MODULE 6.1: CONSUMERS NEEDS & MOTIVATION, EMOTIONS AND MOOD,

CONSUMER INVOLVEMENT LESSON – 13

FAQS (FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS): Ques 1 Distinguish between a Need and a Want. Ans 1 The two terms “need” and “want” often used interchangeably hold two different meanings. A need is a state of felt deprivation while a want is a desire for a specific

satisfier.

Example: A person is hungry. Need: Hunger

Want: The person may desire Chapaati Sabji or a Dosa or a Sandwich. The various

options are the wants.

A want may further get translated into a brand too, eg., the person desires a Dosa but

from Sagar Ratna Restaurant or a Udipi.

Ques 2 Explain the Need-Want-Goal-Satisfaction Process in the context of Consumer Behavior. Ans 2 As consumers begin to identify and feel that a need exists, there occurs an inner urge or a drive towards taking an action so as fulfil the need. This inner urge and the

impelling action to put in efforts to fulfill the need and attempt at satisfaction is referred to

as motivation. In terms of consumer behavior, when a consumer realizes that there

exists a state of felt deficiency (need), it gets translated into a variety of options (wants)

from which a consumer may chose. The need/want lead to a state of tension in the mind

of the consumer and an urge to act (buy/consume), so as to fulfill the need or want. This

manifests itself into a goal, which is actually the behavior (act to purchase or consume),

which puts an end to the urge to act. The entire action may ultimately lead to feelings of

satisfaction, neutrality or dissatisfaction. Thus, the study of consumption behavior begins

with when an individual recognizes a need and begins to take action to satisfy it. What

he desires is an ultimate goal i.e. satisfaction of a need/want.

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Ques 3 Discuss the nature of forces that operate in Motivation. Ans 3 Needs are primarily of two types, viz., physiological needs and psychological needs.People possess and experience a variety of such needs

simultaneously.

-Needs and wants exhibit multiplicity. Various kinds of physiological and psychological

needs have been proposed and listed; while physiological needs are few and universal,

psychological needs are many and varied.

-A person may experience many needs and wants simultaneously and one may be

sacrificed at the cost of the other.

-Needs/wants/goals/motives vary from person to person. They also vary within a person

across situation to situation.

-Needs/wants are never fully satisfied. Wants are satisfied temporarily but needs are

never satisfied. They keep on emerging. As one need is satisfied, another emerges and

so forth, and as they emerge, they trigger off desire and motives.

-Needs/wants/goals/motives grow, develop and change in response to an individual and

his environment.

-Needs and wants may also lie dormant. They may suddenly trigger owing to

physiological factors, social factors, and/or external environmental factors.

-Success and failure to fulfill needs and wants also affect the future choice of goals. SELF EVALUATION TESTS/QUIZZES: Section A True/false:

1. The two terms “need” and “want” are synonymous. 2. Marketers can create needs. 3. Psychologists and consumer researchers agree that human beings have the

same needs; however, these needs gets translated differently into different

wants, resulting in varied motives.

Section B Fill up the blanks: 1. A _________________ is a state of felt deprivation. 2. This inner urge and the impelling action to put in efforts to fulfill a need by

purchase and consumption of a product/service offering is called

________________.

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3. The __________________ conflict is a situation where you choose between the devil and the deep sea.

Section C Multiple choice questions: 1. The entire need want  goal  action  satisfaction chain comprises which of the following components:

a) cognition

b) affect

c) behavior

d) all of the above.

2. Which of the following is a correct statement? a) Motivation can take a positive as well as a negative form

b) Psychological needs are few and universal

c) Needs and wants never lie dormant.

d) All of the above

Section D Short answers:

1. Mention the two types of needs.

2. Conflicting goals could lead to three types of intra individual conflict. Name them.

KEYSection A True/false:

1. False 2. False 3. True

Section B Fill up the blanks: 1. Need 2. Consumer Motivation 3. Avoidance-avoidance

Section C Multiple choice questions: 1. d 2. a

Section D Short Answers:

1. Primary/physiological/biogenic and secondary/psychological/psychogenic needs

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2. Approach-approach, approach avoidance, avoidance-avoidance conflict

______________________________________________________________________

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LESSON – 14

FAQS (FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS): Ques 1 Assess in the context of consumer behavior, Maslow’s Heirarchy of Needs Theory. Ans 1 The Heirarchy of Needs Theory, proposed by Abraham Maslow, a clinical psychologist in 1943, is regarded as one of the most important contributions to the field

of motivational research. Maslow proposed that human needs could be classified into

five basic levels, viz., basic /primary needs, safety/security needs, social/affiliation

needs, ego/esteem needs and self-actualization needs. According to the theory, these

needs are hierarchical and an individual will go level by level, starting first with the

fulfillment of the lower-order needs (basic/primary needs, safety/security needs) and

gradually move towards the fulfillment of the higher-order needs (social/affiliation needs,

ego/esteem needs and self-actualization needs). A person cannot move to the second

level unless the first level is satisfied. Once a level is satisfied, it ceases to be a

motivator and the moves to the next.

The theory was indeed a pioneering piece of work and has been versatile

enough to be applied across social science disciplines. Consumer behaviorist have

found the versatility of the theory highly useful while testing consumer motivation. The

five needs and the terminology has been universally used and tested across disciplines.

The need classification is generic enough to include needs that individuals possess.

However, critics argue that the pyramidical structure fails the test of real life situations

and practical testing. Even consumer behavior researchers have pointed out its

limitation especially in terms of consumers moving hierarchically across needs from

lower levels to higher levels. Consumers experience multiplicity of needs and wants and

often satisfy them simultaneously rather than looking at their relativity. Consumers also

often sacrifice one need for another.

Ques 2 Explain with an example Prof. Jagdish Sheth's Consumer Motives. Ans 2 Professor Jagdish Sheth, proposed a classification of needs more pertinent to marketing management. While he primarily researched in the area of treval

industry, the findings are equally applicable across most products and services. Sheth

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classified motives into five dimensions, viz., functional motives, aesthetic/emotional

motives, social motives, situational motives and curiosity motives. According to him,

each of these is oriented to the achievement of specific goals.

a) Functional motives: this refers to the utility of a product/service, the utility and the

function that is performed.

b) Aesthetic/emotional motives: this refers to the attractiveness in terms of appearance

and looks of the product/service.

c) Social motives: this is the esteem value attached to the product/service.

d) Situational motives: this refers to the unanticipated and unexpected benefits attached

to a product/service, like discounts and allowances.

e) Curiosity motives: this is the interest aroused by a product/service.Example: A person, in sub-urban Mumbai, turns successful as a s businessman. He now

desires to migrate to the posh Juhu area of Mumbai and purchases a bungalow in the

posh locality, next to seaside.

Table: Example: Motives and Versatility Motives Example: Versatility

a) Functional motive b) Aesthetic/emotional motive c) Social motive d) Situational motive e) Curiosity motive

Purchase of the flat - play to stay. - good looking bungalow - appealing interiors and exteriors - beautiful location, nest to the seaside, beach and palm trees - reflects upper class status, lifestyle and values - it was bought unexpectedly; the person who owned it earlier was desperate to sell as he needed money (otherwise property in Juhu was unavailable) - bought it at a good bargain - always wanted to experience a seaside living with palm trees all around, and rich people all around - it is a new experience

Ques 3 Critically assess the nature and importance of motivational research? Ans 3 Human motives are hypothetical in nature; they are varied across people and also across situations; they are abstract and sometimes cannot be exactly identified

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by people themselves. They could also remain outside the preview of exact identification

and measurement by researchers; thus, the measurement of consumption motives and

the processes that underlie consumption processes and patterns of behavior have been

a subject of question and debate.

Consumer behaviorist and researchers use multiple tools and techniques for measurement of consumer motives. These include consumer surveys and projective

tests to study underlying motives, and observations of consumers at store to study direct

behavior. These tools are useful if used in conjunction with each other; they complement

each other and help facilitate drawing up of valid and reliable findings.

Motivational research attempts to identify underlying motives, desires and

feelings concerning consumption of product/service offerings and corresponding

consumption patterns. Its understanding has relevance and applicability for marketing

managers who could benefit from such research for reasons that are many.

SELF EVALUATION TESTS/QUIZZES: Section A True/false:

1. Maslow proposed that human needs could be classified into four basic levels.

2. A product and service offering helps meet a multitude of needs.

Section B Fill up the blanks: 1. Sheth classified motives into five dimensions, viz., functional motives,

aesthetic/emotional motives, _________________motives, _______________

motives and curiousity motives.

2. ____________________ proposed the Trio of Needs Theory.

Section C Multiple choice questions:

1. People get attracted towards fast cars, robust engines and speed. This exhibits the need for __________.

a) Achievement

b) Power

c) Affiliation

d) Esteem

2. Which of the following is a false statement?

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a) Human motives are hypothetical in nature.

b) Motives are varied across people and also across situations

c) Motives can be exactly identified by people themselves

d) All of the above

Section D Short answers:

1. Give an example to highlight the versatility of Maslow’s Heirarchy of Needs

Theory.

2. What is the implication of Mc Clelland’s Theory for Marketers?

3. Give three reasons as to why motivational research is important and applicable

to the study of consumer behavior?

KEY

Section A True/false: 1. False 2. True

Section B Fill up the blanks: 1. Social, Situational 2. Mc Clelland

Section C Multiple choice questions:

1. b 2. c

Section D Short Answers:

1. Example: The lady of the house turns professional. She picks up a part-time job,

and works during such timings when her children are aw to school. Out of her first

salary, she buys a Samsung Microwave, 32 litres capacity for Rs. 16000.

Table : Example: A Microwave Owen: Need versus Appeal Needs Appeal

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- basic /primary needs - safety/security needs - social/affiliation needs - ego/esteem needs -self actualization

The appeal would show: - microwave owen can help cook food quickly and easily. - how safe the product is for use of self, children. - how safe it is for the food that is cooked and consumed and for the environment (non-radiation). - how the lady of the house can sit with the family/friends/guest while the food is being cooked. She does not have to keep standing in the kitchen while the food is cooked. She can auto-time it. - she can afford it. - she is a proud owner. - she bought it out of her first salary.

2. According to Mc Clelland Theory, needs can be classified into three categories,

and thus constitute the Trio, viz., Needs for power (nPow), affiliation (nAff) and

achievement (NAch). The theory has implications for marketers. The trio of needs

theory could explain why people get motivated towards purchase and consumption

patterns of certain product/service offerings;Needs for power (nPow): fast cars,

motorcycles; Need for affiliation (nAff): membership to clubs; Need for achievement

(nAch): admission to professional courses. Drawing upon such needs and their

relevance, the marketer can take a lead towards developing effective segmentation

and positioning strategies.

3. Motivational research is important and applicable to the study of consumer

behavior because of the following reasons:

i) Motivational research helps discover and identify the forces/needs/desires,

urges/drives and resultant behavior in the marketplace. In other words, it helps

explain the actual reasons underlying consumer behavior.

ii) The marketer could use findings from motivational research to influence

consumer decision making to his favor.

iii) Knowledge of consumer motivation can help a marketer trigger off motives to his

advantage. Once a need/motive is activated, it leads to an urge/desire to act. So

marketers can trigger off needs/motives by presenting desirable/required stimuli, so

that they can experience desirable consumption behavior.

______________________________________________________________________

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LESSON – 15 FAQS (Frequently Asked Questions): Ques 1 Define (a) Emotions (b) Moods Ans 1 a) Emotions: The term “emotion” has been defined variedly and lacks a consensus on definition

primarily because of its very nature. Emotions are personal states, private and

subjective. A bodily state that could change differently in response to the environment, it

varies within a person and across persons, and gets reflected as a psychological

arousal. Thus, emotions are changes in the body state that impact psychological

processes thereby resulting in expression of feelings and observable behavioral

reactions. They comprise pairs of opposite states, viz. pleasantness/unpleasantness,

joy/sadness, acceptance/disgust, anger/fear etc. Thus emotions can be positive or

negative; they can give happiness and pleasure or unhappiness and discomfort.

While some emotions are conscious and clear, others remain at the sub

conscious level and are abstract. Also, emotions can be slight or intense and remain for

short or ling periods of time.

Moods: Moods are defined as emotional states that are less intense and short term. They are

also described on a continuum as good or bad, and thus have a positive and negative

valence. Like emotions, they are also triggered by noticeable and unnoticeable stimuli,

be it persons, objects, situations and are specific. However, we as human beings are

more aware and conscious of emotions, than we are of moods. What may put on or put

off the moods may be not always be clear. Similar to emotions, moods can be inferred

through our body language, gestures and behaviors.

Ques 2 Explain how do emotions and moods impact Consumer Behavior? Ans 2 Emotions are feelings that arise from deep rooted and value laden beliefs;

As consumers, for example, we experience pleasantness or unpleasantness (positive or

negative feelings) towards product/service offerings; these reactions are based on our

beliefs which are in turn a result of our motives, learning and cognition, experiences,

socialization processes etc. We also experience feelings of joy or sadness, with respect

to certain brands, or other marketing stimuli, and the changes made therein. These

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emotions have a bearing on the moods that are emotional states specific to a stimulus,

and like emotions, they are good or bad, positive or negative.

Consumer emotions and moods have implications for a marketer. A good

understand of these psychological states can help a marketer design a stimulus that

leads to positives states; the assumption being that when a consumer is on a positive

state as far as emotions and moods are concerned, he would be more receptive to the

product/service and the brand offering. The study of emotions/moods can be useful for a

marketer in the following ways:

1. An understanding of the subject can help the marketer in triggering positive

emotional states and pleasant receptive moods amongst consumers.

2. Emotions and moods states also influence consumer recall of products and

services as well as evaluation of products and services.

3. Triggering positive emotional states and pleasant receptive moods amongst

consumers also benefits marketers during post-purchase evaluation by the former.

SELF EVALUATION TESTS/QUIZZES: Section A True/false:

3. Because they exist in pairs as opposites, emotions tend to replace one another

4. Moods are defined as emotional states that are less intense and short term. Than

emotions.

5. Human beings are more aware and conscious of moods, than they are of

emotions.

Section B Fill up the blanks: 3. _____________ are feelings that arise from deep rooted and value laden beliefs.

4. When emotions pertain to a company, its brands, its marketing strategy and/or

the component(s) of its marketing mix, it is referred to as ____________emotion.

Section C Short answers:

1. Differentiate between emotions and moods?

2. Briefly explain relationship between Emotions and Moods and Consumer

Behavior.

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KEYSection A True/false:

2. True 2. True 3. False

Section B Fill up the blanks: 2. Emotions 2. Consumer

Section D Short Answers: Ans 1. Difference between emotions and moods:

EMOTIONS MOODS -Emotions are changes in the body state that impact psychological processes thereby resulting in expression of feelings and observable behavioral reactions. - Emotions comprise pairs of opposite states; can be positive or negative; can give happiness and pleasure or unhappiness and discomfort. - We as human beings are more aware and conscious of emotions, than we are of moods.

-Moods are defined as emotional states that are less intense, transient and short term. - They are also described on a continuum as good or bad, and thus have a positive and negative valence. - We are less aware of moods; they suddenly put on and put off.

Ans 2. When emotions pertain to a company, its brands, its marketing strategy and/or

the component(s) of its marketing mix, it is referred to as consumer emotion. Consumer

emotions towards product/service offerings and the 4 Ps can be positive or negative;

they can bring pleasure or discomfort; they can last for short or a long period of time.

When they are specific to a marketing stimuli and last for a short period of time, they are

referred to as moods.

Consumer emotions and moods have implications for a marketer. A good

understand of these psychological states can help a marketer design a stimulus that

leads to positives states; the assumption being that when a consumer is on a positive

state as far as emotions and moods are concerned, he would be more receptive to the

product/service and the brand offering.

An understanding of the subject can help the marketer in triggering positive emotional

states and pleasant receptive moods amongst consumers. Emotions and moods states

also influence consumer recall of products and services as well as evaluation of

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products and services. Triggering positive emotional states and pleasant receptive

moods amongst consumers also benefits marketers during post-purchase evaluation by

the former.

______________________________________________________________________

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LESSON – 16

FAQS (FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS): Ques 1 Define consumer involvement. Discuss the nature of Consumer Involvement. Ans 1 Consumer involvement is defined as a state of mind that motivates consumers to identify with product/service offerings, their consumption patterns and

consumption behavior. Involvement creates within consumers an urge to look for and

think about the product/service category and the varying options before making

decisions on brand preferences and the final act of purchase. It creates within a person

a level of relevance to the product/service offering and this leads to an urge within the

former to collect and interpret information for present/future decision making and use.

Involvement affects the consumer decision process and the sub processes of

information search, information processing, and information transmission. As Schiffman

has put it “Involvement is a heightened state of awareness that motivates consumers to

seek out, attend to, and think about product information prior to purchase”.

Herbert Krugman, a researcher is credited with his contribution to the concept of

consumer involvement. According to him, consumers approach the marketplace and the

corresponding product/service offerings with varying levels and intensity of interest. This

is referred to as consumer involvement.

Nature of Consumer Involvement:

1. It is an inner urge that creates within an individual an interest/desire to hold certain

product/service offerings in greater relevance/importance.

2. Involvement possesses certain properties:

a) It has a level of strength and intensity that determines the degree of involvement that

a consumer possesses. This could be high or low.

b) The length of time that the consumer remains in this heightened state determines the

level of persistence. It could be short term and situational interest in the product/service

category; or it could be long term and enduring.

c) It is directed towards any or all of the elements of the marketing mix. A person may

show involvement towards the product (its features/attributes and benefits), the price,

the store or the dealer or even the promotional effort (advertisement/sales promotion

etc).

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3. A mechanism underlies the very process of involvement. As a process, involvement is

impacted by certain “antecedents” that get restrained by “moderating factors,” and finally

affect its degree of intensity and level of persistence.

Antecedent factors are certain factors that precede and lead to involvement; these

include the person himself and the individual determinants; the object, stimuli or the

product/service offering; and, the purchasesituation.

Moderating factors arefactors thatcan restrain the impact of antecedents so as to

impact the level of involvement include the opportunity available to the person to collect

and collate facts and information, the cognitive ability to process information and draw

conclusions, and the time available in hand.

4. The antecedents, moderators and the properties of involvement finally converge to a

response in terms of information search, information processing, information

transmission, the purchase decision and post purchase behavior. Consumer

involvement affects the ways in which consumers seek, process, and transmit

information, make purchase decisions and make post purchase evaluation.

Ques 2 What are the two types of consumer involvement? Discuss with an example. Ans 2 Depending on whether the involvement is short term or long term, consumer involvement could be of two types, viz., situational and enduring.

1. Situational involvement: This is a state of arousal directed towards attaching

relevance to a person/object/situation for a short term. As an affective state, it creates a

level of involvement when a person thinks about a particular person/object/situation. It is

specific to a situation and is thus temporary in nature.

For example, a middle aged lady suddenly decides to gift a laptop to her son on

his birthday. She is not techno savvy and has little interest with the product category.

She goes to the electronics mall and visits the various stores that sell computers and

laptops. She collects information on the product features, prices, etc and finally takes the

help of her middle aged neighbor to reach a final decision. Her involvement with the

purchase activity would be regarded as a situational involvement.

2. Enduring involvement: When the level of involvement towards the product/service

category extends over a period of time across situations, it is referred to as enduring

involvement. The person shows a high-level of interest in the product category and

spends time collecting and processing information and integrating it within his memory.

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For example, a person desires to buy a laptop for his son to be gifted to him

when he goes to college, which would be three years later. The father plans well in

advance, tries to collect information through advertisements, brochures, trade journals,

visits to dealers, and word of mouth from peers and colleagues. Within this period he

gets involved with the product category and after three years is in a position to take a

decision based on the facts that he has collected. This is referred to as enduring

involvement.

SELF EVALUATION TESTS/QUIZZES: Section A True/false:

1. Consumers approach the marketplace and the corresponding product/service

offerings with varying levels and intensity of interest.

2. High involvement consumers are more difficult to please and satisfy.

3. In terms of low involvement purchases, there is cognition followed by attitude

followed by behavior; Cognition Attitude Behavior.

Section B Fill up the blanks: 1. _____________________is defined as a psychological state that motivates

people to be more aware and careful about persons/objects/situations.

2. The length of time that the consumer remains in this heightened state determines the level of __________________.

3. In terms of high involvement purchases, the sequence across the three

components is as follows? Cognition _____________ _______________.

Section C Multiple choice questions: 1. The antecedents, moderators and the properties of involvement finally converge to a response in terms of:

a) information search

b) information transmission

c) Only “a”

d) Both “a” and “b”

2. The properties of involvement include all but one of the following. Identify.

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a) Intensity

b) Direction

c) Unipolar

d) Persistence

Section D Short answers: 1. Define the term Consumer Involvement.

2. What is situational involvement?

3. What do you mean by “antecedent factors” and “moderating factors” in involvement?

KEYSection A True/false: 1. True 2. True 3. False

Section B Fill up the blanks: 1. Involvement 2. Persistence 3. Attitude, Behavior

Section C Multiple choice questions: 1. d 2. c

Section D Short Answers: 1. Consumer involvement is defined as a state of mind that motivates consumers to identify with product/service offerings, their consumption patterns and consumption

behavior. As Schiffman has put it “Involvement is a heightened state of awareness that

motivates consumers to seek out, attend to, and think about product information prior to

purchase”. Herbert Krugman, a researcher is credited with his contribution to the

concept of consumer involvement. According to him, consumers approach the

marketplace and the corresponding product/service offerings with varying levels and

intensity of interest. This is referred to as consumer involvement.

2. Situational involvement is a short term state of arousal directed towards attaching relevance to a person/object/situation. As an affective state, it creates a level of

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involvement when a person thinks about a particular person/object/situation. It is

specific to a situation and is thus temporary in nature. 3. A mechanism underlies the very process of involvement. As a process, involvement is impacted by certain “antecedents” that get restrained by “moderating

factors.”

Antecedent factors are certain factors that precede and lead to involvement;

these include the person himself and the individual determinants; the object, stimuli or

the product/service offering; and, the purchasesituation.

Moderating factors arefactors thatcan restrain the impact of antecedents so as

to impact the level of involvement include the opportunity available to the person to

collect and collate facts and information, the cognitive ability to process information and

draw conclusions, and the time available in hand.

______________________________________________________________________

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LESSON – 17 FAQS (FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS): Ques 1 Write short notes on: a) The Low-Involvement Learning Model b) The Level of Message Processing Model Ans 1a) The Low-Involvement Learning Model:

Low involvement products are those products that are inexpensive or maybe

moderately priced; they are low in value and risk; and, are frequently purchased. Often,

they are purchased as a matter of routine. Example, toothpaste, soap, bread etc. For

such products, the consumer gives little thought, and feelings may not be formed for the

product until after the purchase has been made. So the tri-component, cognition, attitude

and behavior are arranged in a manner such that cognition leads to behavior that finally

leads finally to attitude. Cognition Behavior Attitude.

Marketing communication through audio visual media, i.e. TV and radio follows

this principle. Through the advertisement, the marketer educates the consumers about

his product offering and the brand; this may be a new product or a modified version of an

existing product; he tries to create awareness and form beliefs about the brand. At this

stage he does not aim at forming/changing attitudes; he just aims at developing

cognition through the message content. Thus, the marketer tries to replace the old

beliefs with new ones, without first changing the attitude. Further through special effects

and picturization of the product/service offering, message context, jingle and music, as

well as the celebrity/spokesperson, the marketer tries to elicit a behavior on part of the

consumer to buy his product. If the consumer is satisfied with the purchase, he feels that

he has received a positive reinforcement, and he learns to buy the same brand again.

On the other hand, if he is dissatisfied, he receives a negative reinforcement and the

likelihood of repetition of that behavior (i.e. of buying the same brand) is reduced.

Ans 1 b) The Level of Message Processing Model:

The level of involvement has an impact on the information gathering and

processing. Based on this premise, the level of message processing model states that a

consumer’s attention to advertising is influenced by varying levels of involvement, and

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runs across preattention, focal attention, comprehension, and elaboration. Each of these

levels is indicative of different level of message processing, and is explained as follows:

a) Preattention: This level of involvement requires only a limited processing and, thus

the desire is just to gain some amount of familiarity;

b) Focal attention: A degree greater than the first stage, here the consumer

concentrates on the message source and context, and becomes receptive to basic

information like product/brand name and usage.

c) Comprehension: At this level, the consumer focuses on the message content and

tries to understand it in terms of features, attributes, benefits, price, availability etc.

d) Elaboration: During this highest stage of involvement, the consumer integrates the

message into his memory, forms beliefs and either adds to or modifies the information

that already exists in his memory.

Ques 2 Explain the Learn-Feel-Do Heirarchy Model and suggest implications for the marketer. Ans 2 With implications for marketing communication, the learn-feel-do- heirarchy model, was proposed by Vaughn and his colleagues in the 1980’s at Foote,

Cone and Belding; thus, it also acme to be known as the FCB Matrix,. Consumer

decision making varies across the nature of product/service offerings. According to the

model, some purchases are backed by a lot of cognition and thinking, while others are

based on feelings and emotions. The combination of these reference points produces a

strategy matrix. The marketer has to choose appropriate strategies for different kinds of

product/service offerings. Heneeds to analyze the nature of his product, and design his

promotion strategy accordingly; the advertising medium should relate to the product

category.

The learn-feel-do model is a simple matrix that links consumer decision making

and consumer choices to three components which are information (learn), attitude (feel),

and behavior (do). The matrix classifies consumer decision-making along two

dimensions, high/low involvement and thinking/feeling. Involvement as a dimension is

represented on a continuum as high and low; over time one moves from high to low

involvement. Thinking and feeling represent the other axis again as two ends of a

continuum; with time, there is a movement from thinking toward feeling.

As illustrated in the matrix, based on cross combinations, there are four cells,

viz., High Involvement/High Thinking, High Involvement/High Feeling, Low

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Involvement/Low Thinking and Low Involvement/Low Feeling. Put together they Each of

these quadrants holds relevance to designing of marketing communication and can be

explained as follows:

a) High Involvement/High Thinking: This quadrant of the matrix consists of high

involvement and thinking, typically signifying higher level of rationality. Products that fall

into this quadrant are high involvement products, where decision making involves a lot of

thinking. Because of the nature of product/service offerings that fall in this category,

consumers have a high need for information. Also, consumer decision making is driven

by economic motives. Examples of products that would fall into this quadrant include

cars, laptops, real estate etc as well as innovative products. The strategy model is learn

feel do.

High Involvement INFORMATIVE

(THINKER)

Car-Laptops-Real estate- New Products

Model: Learn-Feel-Do

Media: Print media;

brochures

AFFECTIVE (FEELER)

Sports cars and motorcycles

Fashion apparel and jewellery, Perfumes

Model: Feel-Learn-Do

Media: Audio visual media; image based

HABIT FORMATION (DOER)

Staples, Bread,

Stationery, Soap Model: Do-Learn-Feel

Media: Audio visual

media; image based; POP stimuli

SELF-SATISFACTION (REACTOR)

Cigarette, Liquor, Movies

Model: Do-Feel- Learn

Media: POP stimuli

Thinking Feeling

Figure: The Learn-Feel-Do Hierarchy

Low Involvement

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b) High Involvement/High Feeling: This quadrant is representative of situations which

are high involvement and high feeling; while there is a level of involvement, information

and thinking is less important than the feeling factor; this is because such purchases are

related to the persons self-esteem. The affect component is stronger than the

information factor. The person is drawn by the feeling, emotional and psychological

motives; and, they become a "feeler" about the product. Examples include sports cars

and motorcycles, fashion apparel and jewellery, perfumes etc. The strategy model is

feel  learn  do.

c) Low Involvement/Low Thinking: The third cell requires minimal effort on the part of

the consumer, both in terms of involvement and thinking. It actually results from habit

forming within the consumer (or the doer), as a result of habitual buying and purchase.

He becomes a reactor in the sense that whenever he has a need, he reacts and

immediately purchases whatever brand he has been purchasing. Over a period of time,

almost all products would fall into this quadrant. Examples of products that would involve

the low involvement/thinking dimensions include staples, bread, stationery, soap etc.

The strategy model is feel  learn  do.

d) Low Involvement/Low Feeling: The products that fall in this quadrant signify low

involvement and low feeling; yet, they promote self satisfaction. Consumers buy such

products to satisfy personal tastes, many a times influenced by peer influence and social

pressures. Examples include cigarettes, liquor, movies etc. The strategy model is do

feel  learn.

Implications for a marketer:

1. For high involvement/high thinking products, the marketer should provide such

information about the product/service and the brand offering that helps build a favorable

attitude for his brand, so that it could lead to a purchase. The focus of the advertisement

should be on factual relevance.

2. For products that fall in the high involvement/high feeling quadrant, a marketer should

devise a promotional strategy that arouses an affective state that is positive and

favorable. A good psychological emotional and mood state would create an urge within

the consumer to learn more about the offering, and finally buy the product/service. The

advertisement should focus on both facts and entertainment.

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3. For low involvement and low thinking products, the marketer needs to create and

maintain brand loyalty; promotional strategies should focus on creation of brand recall.

The advertisement should focus on both facts and entertainment.

4. This proves to be challenging for marketers as consumers are driven by social

pressures and brand loyalty is short lived. The promotional strategy should include social

appeals with an entertainment orientation.

Ques 3 Why is the study of Consumer Involvement important for a marketer? Ans 3 Consumer involvement affects how consumers gather, comprehend and transmit information, make purchase decisions and make post-purchase evaluation. As

the level of consumer involvement increases, the consumer has greater motivation to

gather, comprehend, elaborate and assimilate on information. Thus a marketer needs to

understand the process and design his marketing mix in a manner that can activate the

involvement process to his favor. The study of consumer involvement can be useful for a

marketer in the following ways:

1. The study of consumer involvement helps a marketer assess how the majority of

your target market relates to the purchase of the particular product/service category, in

terms of high/low involvement.

If the majority of the target segment views it as a high involvement, the decision making

becomes rational, although there may be an emotional and egoistic element too. For

example, while buying an automobile, a rational mind would look to mileage, engine etc.;

an emotional mind would think of color, aesthetics, style; and an egoistic mind would

relate it to pride and prestige.

On the other hand, if the majority of the segment treats it as of low involvement, the

decision making becomes emotional.

2. The marketer could gain insights into high involvement and low involvement

purchase situations, and accordingly bring about changes in his marketing strategy.

For high-involvement purchases, the consumer searches for information extensively;

thus a marketer the marketer needs to provide information about the product category as

well as the brand. Marketing communication should focus on product features, attributes,

benefits etc. Information on brand differences also needs to be emphasized upon.

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Longer format media need to be used like (i) print in newspapers, magazines, journals

and brochures; (ii) videos.

As far as low-involvement purchases are concerned, these are generally routine in

nature; the marketer needs to use emotional appeals. Attempts should be made to

create and maintain brand loyalty. Point-of-purchase stimuli, store display and attractive

merchandise can also help boost sales. Advertising should focus on audio visual media

through emotional appeals.

3. If a marketer is confronted with both high involvement and low involvement

segments, he can deal with both the segments separately by bringing about changes in

the marketing mix. However he needs to take such a decision after understanding the

size and potential of each of such segments; if only a small segment operates on a low-

involvement or on high involvement, may not be feasible to cater to both.

SELF EVALUATION TESTS/QUIZZES: Section A True/false: 1. For high involvement products, the tri-component model arranges cognition, attitude

and behavior in a sequence as follows: Cognition Behavior Attitude.

2. For high involvement/high thinking products, the focus of the advertisement should be

on factual relevance.

3. Brand switchers are price sensitive and respond to price.

Section B Fill up the blanks: 1. The learn-feel-do model is a simple matrix that links consumer decision making and

consumer choices to three components which _____________, feel and ___________.

2. _______________________results from habit forming within the consumer.

3. ____________________are consumers that are highly involved with the product

category as well as the brand

Section C Multiple choice questions: 1. Which of the following is false about High Involvement/High Thinking situation?

a) Decision making involves a lot of thinking.

b) The strategy model is Feel  Learn  do.

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c) Consumers have a high need for information.

d) Consumer decision making is driven by economic motives.

2. Which of the following is true about Brand loyalists?

a) Consumers who fall in this category are neither involved neither with the product

category nor with the brand.

b) Such consumers are price sensitive and respond to price

c) Consumers put in efforts to search out collect information about the product category

and the various brands

d) None of the following.

3. Promotional messages for Information Seekers must lay emphasis on

_______________ rather than emotions.

a) Information b) Behavior c) Trial d) All of the above.

Section D Short answers: 1. Name any two products that fall into the category Feel-Learn-Do.

2. Mention characteristics of the high involvement/high feeling quadrant of The Learn-

Feel-Do Hierarchy Model?

3. Name the four levels of the Message Processing Model?

KEYSection A True/false: 1. False 2. True 3. True

Section B Fill up the blanks: 1. Learn, Do 2. Low Involvement/Low Thinking 3. Brand loyalists

Section C Multiple choice questions: 1. b 2. d 3. a

Section D Short Answers:1. Fashion apparel and jewellery, Perfumes. 2. The person is drawn by the feeling, emotional and psychological motives, and they

become a “feeler” about the product. The strategy model is feel  learn  do.

3. Preattention, Focal attention, Comprehension and Elaboration

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