Cross-Cultural Issues - Experimental Research Methods - Lecture Slides, Slides for Research Methodology. Agra University
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Cross-Cultural Issues - Experimental Research Methods - Lecture Slides, Slides for Research Methodology. Agra University

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Some of the key topics in Experimental Research Methods course are: Conducting, Cross, Design Exercises, Designing, Ethics in Psychological Research, Internal and External Validity, Multiple Independent Variables, Organ...
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The Basics of Experimentation II

The Basics of Experimentation II: Final Considerations, Unanticipated

Influences, and Cross-Cultural Issues

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Types of Participants

• Types of Participants: Three guidelines to help you choose participants for your research project: – Precedent • An established pattern • If your literature review indicated that a particular type of participant has

been used successfully in prior research projects in your area of interest, you may want to consider using this type of participant.

– Availability • Availability refers to using an easily accessible population from which to

draw participants.

– Nature of the Problem • Type of Research Project • Often the type of research project will determine the type of participant you

decide to use. docsity.com

Number of Participants

• Once you have decided what type of participant to use in your research project, you must then determine how many participants you are going to test.

• In making this decision, there are numerous factors that you must take into account:

– Finances • How much will it cost to test each participant?

– Animals need to be purchased and cared for.

– It may be necessary to pay humans for their participation.

– Does the person who actually conducts the experiment need to be paid?

– Time • As you test additional participants, time requirements will increase,

especially if you test participants individually. docsity.com

Number of Participants

• Availability – The sheer number of participants that are available may influence how many

you choose in your experiment.

• The less within-group variability (i.e., the more homogeneous the participants), the fewer participants you will need.

• The greater the within-group variability (i.e., the more heterogeneous the participants), the greater the number of participants you will need.

• Power – The number of participants tested is related to the power of your statistical

test.

– Power is the probability that a statistical test will be significant (i.e., the experimental hypothesis is accepted when it is true).

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Apparatus

• IV presentation

– Often the nature of the IV will influence the type of apparatus one chooses to use.

• DV recording

– How the DV will be recorded:

• Use of a prepared data sheet in a naturalistic observation study.

• Use of video recording equipment when its presence will not cause reactivity effects.

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The Experimenter as an Extraneous Variable

• Experimenter Characteristics – Physiological • Characteristics such as age, sex, and race can have an influence on participants’

responses.

– Psychological • Characteristics such as hostility, anxiety, introversion, or extraversion can also have

an influence on participants’ responses.

• Experimenter Expectancies: Expectations that cause the experimenter to behave toward participants in such a manner that the expected response is more likely shown.

• Rosenthal Effect: The experimenter’s preconceived idea of appropriate responding influences the treatment of participants and their behavior. – The results of experimenter expectations are often called Rosenthal effects

because Rosenthal and his colleagues were among the first to systematically study them.

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Controlling Experimenter Effects

• Physiological and Psychological Effects

– At present the most common procedures for controlling general experimenter characteristics are to:

• Use standardized methods

• Use careful training to a set standard when the experimenter administers procedures

• Standardize appearance, attitude, and so forth as much as possible

• If findings are replicated with a different experimenter, then experimenter effects are less likely to be a factor.

• A thorough literature review will help make you aware of any relevant experimenter variables in your area of research interest.

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Controlling Experimenter Effects

• Experimenter Expectancies

– The instructions that the experimenter gives to the participants should be carefully prepared so their manner of presentation will not influence the participants’ responses.

• Tape-recorded experimenter instructions to participants

• Printed instructions

• Computer displays

– Any instructions concerning scoring the participants’ responses should be as objective and concrete as possible and established before the experiment is started.

• Automated equipment can ensure the accurate recording and storage of response data.

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Controlling Experimenter Effects

• Single-blind Experiment: The experimenter has no knowledge regarding which participants receive which treatment.

• Double-blind Experiment: The experimenter and the participants do not know who has actually been exposed to treatment.

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Participant Perceptions as Extraneous Variables

• Demand Characteristics: Features of the experiment that inadvertently lead participants to respond in a particular manner. – Participants in psychological research may attempt to figure out how they are

supposed to respond and then behave in this manner.

• Good Participant Effect: The tendency of participants to behave as they perceive the experimenter wants them to behave.

• Response Bias – Yea-sayers: Participants who tend to answer yes to all questions.

– Nay-sayers: Participants who tend to answer no to all questions.

• Response Set: The experimental context or testing situation influences the participants’ responses.

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Controlling Participant Effects

• Demand Characteristics – We can conduct double-blind experiments.

• Yea-saying – The most typical control for yea-saying (and nay-saying) is to

rewrite some of the items so that a negative response represents agreement (control for yea-saying) or a positive response represents disagreement (control for nay-saying).

• Response Set – The best safeguard against response set is to review all questions

that are asked or items to be completed to see if a socially desired response is implied in any manner. – The answer given or response made should reflect the

participant’s own feelings, attitudes, or motives rather than an attempt to appear intelligent or well-adjusted or otherwise “normal.”

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The Interface Between Research and Culture

• Culture: Lasting values, attitudes, and behaviors that are shared by a group and transmitted to subsequent generations.

• Cross-Cultural Psychology: A branch of psychology whose goal is to determine the universality of research results.

• Culture, Knowledge, and Truth

– Etic: A finding that is the same in different cultures.

• Represents an absolute truth.

– Emic: A culture-specific finding.

• Represents a truth relative to a specific culture.

• Ethnocentricity: Other cultures are viewed as an extension of one’s own culture.

– If other cultures are viewed as an extension of one’s own, the result may be research findings that cannot be generalized beyond one’s own culture. docsity.com

The Effect of Culture on Research

• Choice of the Research Problem

– In some cases there may be no doubt that the choice of your research problem is culture dependent.

• For example, studying the nature of a crowd at a rock concert.

• Nature of the Experimental Hypothesis

– Cultural differences may lead to different experimental hypotheses.

• For example, studies of personal space.

• Selection of the IV and the DV

– For example, IV presentation and DV measurement may be accomplished by computer in technologically advanced cultures but not in cultures unfamiliar with computers.

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Methodology and Analysis Issues

• Participants and Sampling Procedures – The basic question here is whether the sample of participants is

representative of the culture from which they were drawn. • For example, extreme differences may exist between samples

drawn from large urban centers and those drawn from rural areas.

• Type of Survey or Questionnaire Used – Although an existing survey or questionnaire may work in a few

instances, most likely the researcher will not be able to use it for research in a different culture.

• Cultural Response Set: The tendency of a particular culture to respond in a certain manner. – If differences exist among the groups tested in various cultures, a

cultural response set may be operating.

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