Decent Work Programme
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akramhijazi

Decent Work Programme

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Decent Work Programme, ILO Methodology
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The Palestinian Decent Work Programme 2017 – 2020

July 2017 DRAFT

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Contents

ACRONYMS ............................................................................................................................................................3

FOREWORD.............................................................................................................................................................4

1. INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................................................................5

2. COUNTRY CONTEXT: DIAGNOSTIC AND SITUATION ANALYSIS .......................................................6

2.1 Situation Analysis and Socio-Economic and Political context.......................................................................6

a) Political context…………………………………………………………………………………….......….6

b) Economic Context………………………………………………………………………………………….6

c) Labour Market situation…………………………………………………………………………………...7

d) Tripartism and Social Dialogue………………………………………………………………………...…8

e) Lessons Learnt from the First DWP: Key findings and recommendations from the DWP Review……...8

g) Links to National Development frameworks…………………………………………………………....10

3. COUNTRY PRIORITIES AND COUNTRY PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (CPOS) .....................................12

a) Programme Outcomes, Strategies, Indicators and Targets........………………………………………..12

Priority I…………………………………………………………………………………………………..12

Priority II……………………………………………………………………………...………………….17

Priority III………………………………………………………………………………………………...21

4. MANAGEMENT, IMPLEMENTATION PLANNING, MONITORING, REPORTING AND EVALUATION

ARRANGEMENTS ..............................................................................................................................................24

a) Implementation, performance monitoring and evaluation arrangements, including roles of ILO

constituents…………………………………………………………………………………………………….24

b) Role of ILO Constituents…………..………………………………………………………………….24

c) Synergies and coordination with other development partners…………...………………..…………...25

d) Risks…………………………………….………...…………………………………………………...25

5. FUNDING PLAN……………………………………………………………………………………………....25

6. ADVOCACY AND COMMMUNICATION PLAN…………………………………………………………..25

ANNEX 1: NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORKS…………………………………………………..27

APPENDIX 1: DWP RESULTS MATRIX……………………………………………………………………

APPENDIX 2: MOU OF DWP………………………………………………………………………….

APPENDIX 3: DWP RESULTS MONITORING PLAN………………………………………………

APPENDIX 4: IMPLEMENTATION MONITORING PLAN …………………………………………….

APPENDIX 5: TOR FOR DWP NATIONAL TEAM……………………………………………………….

APPENDIX 6: CHECKLISTS……………………………………………………………………..

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ACRONYMS CCA Common Country Analysis CEB Chief Executives Board for Co-ordination CPO Country Programme Outcome DWP Decent Work Programme FOW Future of Work GBV Gender-Based Violence GDP Gross Domestic Product ILO International Labour Organization ILS International Labour Standards IUG Islamic University of Gaza KAB Know About Business LMIS Labour Market Information System M&E Monitoring and Evaluation MENA Middle East and North Africa NGO Non-governmental organisation NPA National Development Agenda OPT Occupied Palestinian Territory OSH Occupational Safety and Health PA Palestinian Authority P&B Programme and Budget PCBS Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics PGFTU Palestinian General Federation of Trade Unions PFCCIA Palestinian Federation of Chambers of Commerce, Industry and Agriculture PFESP Palestinian Fund for Employment and Social Protection PPP Purchasing Power Parity PwD People with Disabilities SDGs Sustainable Development Goals SIYB Start and Improve Your Business SPF Social Protection Floor TOF Training of Facilitators TVET Technical and Vocational Education and Training UFW Unacceptable Forms of Work UN United Nations UNCT United Nations Country Team UNDAF United Nations Development Assistance Framework

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FOREWORD to be completed/signed by the ILO RD and the tripartite constituents

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1. Introduction

The International Labour Organization’s (ILO) longstanding commitment to social justice for the Palestinian people started over three decades ago – at the 66th session of the International Labour Conference in 1980 – with the adoption of a resolution mandating the production of an annual report on the situation of workers in the Occupied Palestinian Territory (OPT). Since the establishment of its Representative Office in 1995, the ILO has and continues to collaborate with its tripartite constituents, namely: the Ministry of Labour, the Palestinian General Federation of Trade Unions (PGFTU), and the Palestinian Federation of Chambers of Commerce, Industry and Agriculture (PFCCIA) to respond to the challenges facing the Palestinian people in the world of work and to promote the Decent Work Agenda.

The ILO Second Decent Work Programme (DWP) 2017-20201 aims to support the State of Palestine’s National Policy Agenda (NPA) (2017-22): Putting Citizens First with its three main pillars: i) Path to Independence, ii) Ending Occupation and iii) Sustainable development. It also aligned with the Labour Sector Strategy and the Social Protection Sector Strategy2. The DWP provides a framework of collaboration between the Palestinian Government and Social Partners on various aspects hinged to the three pillars of the Decent Work Agenda and the ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work with technical and financial assistance from the ILO. The DWP supports ongoing national and UN efforts to sustain social cohesion, justice and equality. It also contributes to the forthcoming United Nations Development Assistance (UNDAF) for the State of Palestine 2018-2022, which has embraced the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development3 imperative of “leaving no one behind” as an overarching priority. While it contributes to the overall 2030 Agenda, the DWP primarily contributes to Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 8 (decent work and economic growth), 1 (no poverty), 5 (gender equality), 10 (reduced inequalities), and 16 (peace, justice and strong institutions).

The development of the Second DWP has built on key achievements of previous and ongoing ILO work in the OPT, and has been informed by the findings and recommendations of review of the First DWP (2013-2016) that was conducted in the second half of 2016. It supports the vision of the Palestinian tripartite constituents and responds to their priorities expressed during ongoing consultations in November 2016 and February 2017. Additionally, the Programme development process benefited from a series of technical missions, thematic consultations and analytical research that were organized by the ILO in the areas of labour governance, social dialogue, occupational safety and health, employment, social protection, skills and entrepreneurship development, gender equality, and cooperative development, and the future of work in the OPT.

As a result of this consensus-building exercise, the ILO and its constituents agreed on three chief priorities for the period 2017-2022, which they wish to jointly pursue to promote Decent Work for all Palestinian workers. The DWP offers a flexible framework that can accommodate changes in the programming context and the needs of Palestinians. Regular monitoring and reviews will help the ILO and its constituents determine if and how changes in the context need to be reflected in the framework.

The three overarching Decent Work Priorities include: Priority 1: Enhance employment and livelihood opportunities for Palestinian women and men Priority 2: Strengthen labour governance and the realization of fundamental principles and

rights at work through freedom of association, strengthened collective bargaining and improved social dialogue mechanisms

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1 The First Palestinian Decent Work Programme was implemented over the period 2013-2016. 2 A more detailed overview of these national strategies is provided in annex 1 of this document. 3 https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/sdgs

Priority 3: Support the implementation and development of the Palestinian social security system and the extension of social protection to all

2. Country context: diagnostic and situation analysis

2.1 Situation Analysis and Socio-Economic and Political context

The situation in the OPT continues to be characterized by a stalled peace process, increased political instability, a protracted fiscal crisis, heightened tensions resulting in outbursts of violence in the West Bank, and high levels of deprivation in Gaza in the context of a blockade that has now entered its tenth year. All of this has strained the livelihoods of hundreds of thousands of Palestinians, limiting their access to economic opportunities and decent work. In particular, the occupation has impaired the Palestinian private sector, dampened the investment atmosphere and de-developed many sectors of the economy; thus, contributing to high levels of unemployment, underemployment and inequality. This situation has also been affected by the decline in total donor support and nonfulfillment of pledges of 2014 for the reconstruction of Gaza.

a. Political context

Since the 1967 Arab-Israeli war, the West Bank (including East Jerusalem) and the Gaza Strip have been under military occupation by the Government of Israel. At its most fundamental level this 50-year occupation has not only prevented Palestinians from realizing their right to self-determination but poses a challenge to their basic human rights.

It has also meant the territorial fragmentation of the OPT4, limited control over macro-economic policy and trade; severely restricted access to land, water and other resources; and major restrictions on Palestinian movement and access within and between the Gaza Strip, the West Bank and East Jerusalem. Movement restrictions come in the form of military checkpoints, gates, restricted roads on which Palestinians are forbidden from travelling, a permit regime which constrains Palestinian movement, the construction of a 708-kilometer barrier and Israeli settlements built in breach of international law, with an estimated population of 4.75 million in 2015 and a projection to grow to 6.9 million by 2030.5

Between October 2015 and early 2016, there was high tension in the West Bank, East Jerusalem and the Gaza Strip between the Palestinians and Israeli settlers. Since then, demolitions, land confiscations, settlements and settlers, checkpoints and roadblocks have increased in the West Bank and East Jerusalem. In Gaza, the blockade has made living conditions far more difficult, and the aftermath of the 2014 is visible due to heavily constrained reconstruction process. Furthermore, the division among the major political factions in Palestine continues to hamper national unity and is creating a political obstacle for the Palestinian Authority (PA) jeopardizing any development policies and similarly its enforcement.6

b. Economic Context

The OPT falls in the lower middle income category (per capita gross national income equals $4699.2 in 2011 Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) dollars7). However, there are significant internal disparities in gross domestic product (GDP per capita with GDP per capita in Gaza reaching only 60 per cent of that in the West Bank. Palestinian GDP in 2015 grew by a modest rate of 3.5 per cent, falling short of expectations. This was comprised

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4As part of the Oslo Accords, the West Bank (excluding East Jerusalem) was divided into three administrative areas: Area A where the PA holds control over civil and security affairs, Area B where the PA holds civil powers but does not control security, and Area C (62% of the West Bank) where Israel holds civil and security control. Areas A and B consist of the main population centers, while Area C is the only contiguous area in the West Bank. 5 Second UNDAF for the State of Palestine 2017-2020. 6 ILO, “The situation of workers of the occupied Arab territories”, Report of the Director-General, International Labour Conference 106th session, 2017, available at: http://www.ilo.org/ilc/ILCSessions/106/reports/reports-to-the-conference/WCMS_554441/ lang--en/index.htm 7 United Nations Development Programme (2017), Human Development Indicators: Palestine.

of a growth rate of 6.8 per cent in Gaza, and 2.5 per cent in the West Bank. Measured at 2004 prices, real GDP per capita in Gaza (US$1,003) remains 27 per cent lower than a decade earlier.

The occupation has left a negative impact on the Palestinian economy in an impaired Palestinian private sector, a dampened investment atmosphere and de-development of many sectors of the economy, thus, contributing to high levels of unemployment, underemployment and inequality. Poverty, inequality in economic opportunity and high dependency rates exacerbated by limited employment opportunities, as well as increasing environmental constraints have been identified in the Second UNDAF for the State of Palestine as key economic drivers of vulnerability.8

Within the overall context of occupation, the Palestinian Authority (PA) has also become heavily reliant on donor aid in the form of external direct budget support (which accounted for 70.5% of the PA’s deficit and 35% of its financing gap budgeted in 20159) and funding for development projects. Yet, over the past five years, there has been a steady trend of reduced donor aid to the OPT. This is caused by a number of factors, including the global economic slowdown, the recognition of Palestine as a non-member observer state in 201210, , and the eruption of crises in the Arab Region, which has diverted the attention of many development partners supporting the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) Region away from the OPT. For example, only 51 per cent of the pledges for the reconstruction of Gaza committed in the Cairo Conference were disbursed11, while donors external direct budget support declined by a third between 2014 and 201512. The PA has therefore accumulated significant arrears to the private sector and debts to banks, with little funding dedicated to development projects. In fact, the government expects in 2017 to run a budget deficit of 1.06 billion USD, roughly 15 per cent of the GDP.13

c. Labour Market situation

The stagnation of economic growth in the OPT has resulted in further distress to the already weak Palestinian labour market. In addition to the occupation-related factors that have retarded Palestinian trade, the labour market has suffered for many years from the Israeli closure policy, the heavy dependence on the Israeli labour market, as well as the lack of viable productive employment opportunities.14 Labour movement restrictions have not only resulted in unemployment for a large number of the Palestinian labourers by blocking their access to their work, but also have further reduced employment opportunities by hampering economic activity.

According to the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS) the overall unemployment rate was 25.7 per cent in Q4 2016, rising to 40.6 per cent in Gaza, among which the total unemployment rate for males was 21.0 per cent compared with 43.9 per cent for females. Unemployment is highest for youth aged 20–24 years, at 41.6 per cent. Very low labour force participation rate for women persists at 19.1% as well as higher unemployment rate for women with higher educational attainment. In addition, the gender wage gap persists despite substantive gains women have made in recent years in terms of education and employment experience. 15 In fact, data from

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8 United Nations Country Team, “Common Country Analysis 2016”, available at: http://www.unsco.org/Documents/Special/UNCT/ CCA_Report_En.pdf 9 Estimated from Ministry of Finance and Planning. Monthly Financial Report December 2015, (2015). 10 On 29 November 2012, the United Nations General Assembly adopted resolution 67/19, which upgraded Palestine to non-member observer state. 11 http://www.worldbank.org/en/programs/rebuilding-gaza-donor-pledges 12 United Nations Country Team, “Common Country Analysis 2016”, available at: http://www.unsco.org/Documents/Special/UNCT/ CCA_Report_En.pdf 13 “Drop in Foreign Funding to Force Cuts in Palestinians' Budget”, 3rd January 2017, available at: http://www.voanews.com/a/drop- foreign-funding-force-cuts-palestinians-budget/3661598.html 14 UNCTAD, (2016) “Report on UNCTAD assistance to the Palestinian people: Developments in the economy of the Occupied Palestinian Territory”, available at: http://unctad.org/meetings/en/SessionalDocuments/tdb63d3_en.pdf 15 ILO, (2016) “Exploring the gender pay gap in Occupied Palestinian Territory: A qualitative study of the education sector”, available at: http://www.ilo.org/beirut/information-resources/factsheets/WCMS_542472/lang--en/index.htm

2015 points to a significant gender pay gap, with women’s median daily wage (USD $21.2) comprising 76% of the median daily wage for men (USD $27.8).16

d. Tripartism and Social Dialogue

With ILO’s support, tripartite social dialogue in the OPT has resulted in concrete achievements, notably the adoption of the Minimum Wage, the Social Security Law, the development of a National Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Policy and Programme, a labour inspection strategy and action plan, and a tripartite methodology for labour law reform. However, tripartite social dialogue is still lacking the absence of legal framework and institutionalization including legal and institutional pillars that govern social dialogue, whereby the role of the state is a key requirement. Moreover, there is a need to continue strengthening the capacities of constituents with a view to promoting an understanding of mutual interests and building confidence amongst social partners. The Tripartite Committee for Labour Affairs should be further strengthened and streamlined to ensuring relevance and coherence of socio-economic policies and fostering comprehensive and sustainable development. The Second Decent Work Programme is going to capitalize on the achievements and address the needs and challenges particularly through consensus building among the social partners.

e. Lessons Learnt from the First DWP: Key findings and recommendations from the DWP Review

In the second half of 2016, the ILO conducted a review of the first Palestinian DWP with the aim of extracting key lessons learnt from its design and implementation in terms of relevance, coherence, impact and effectiveness, efficiency and sustainability. It found that the achievements and all DWP priorities ranked high in the above mentioned evaluation criteria, although the sustainability and advances made under ILO’s 2015 Gaza Emergency Response (GER) remained questionable and there was a lack of conceptual and strategic links between the GER and the DWP. The most notable achievement of the DWP was the enactment of the new social security law by the President of OPT on 30 September 2016, fully in line with ILO’s Standards.

At the priority level, the review called on tripartite constituents to take advantage of the formulation of a new DWP to reaffirm common commitments to International Labour Standards (ILS), enforcing the national minimum wage and building the new ILO-compliant social security system.

A future DWP will have to ensure that labour inspection is built in and upgraded in the design, both for purposes of OSH and minimum-wage enforcement. Furthermore, the review points to the need to rethink the “employment” Priority in order to have focused interventions at macro level, in order to monopolize on the ILO’s comparative advantage beyond small scale employment outcomes.

In addition, it recommended to continue to apply social dialogue, with an expanded tripartite-plus approach. It noted that the community of worker and employer organizations is quite diverse for such a small territory, but also the degree of informality of enterprises and workers is high. Thus, it recommended that broader inclusiveness is necessary in the further steps to develop the national social security system. ILO’s continued efforts to work with social partners to include more of this diversity could help build the constituency for the policy outcomes sought within the DWP.

At the programmatic and management levels, the review recommended to design the second DWP in such a way that reflects a greater balance in the specificity of the Priorities and Outcomes such that it could better facilitate resource allocation across the Programme. This would improve the evaluability of the new DWP through improved and more specific performance indicators, subject also to review and revision throughout the implementation period. Periodic and regular DWP review meetings should take place at both the technical level, as well as the constituent level to ensure coherence and a results focused approach to implementation.

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16 Palestinian Bureau of Statistics, 2015. Average Daily Wage for People Age 15 and above by Gender. Available at http://pcbs.gov.ps/Portals/_Rainbow/Documents/wages-201502-a.htm

Finally, it stressed the importance of targeted and coordinated efforts on the part of the ILO to mobilize adequate resources in moving forward with a second Palestinian DWP.

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f. Links to National Development frameworks

The year 2016 was a strategic one for the OPT in terms of mid-term development planning and priority setting. Following a consultative process involving all concerned stakeholders and building on the National Development Plan, the National Policy Agenda 2017-2022 along with a set of sectoral strategies, including one focusing on Labour Sector, were developed. These frameworks concentrate on strengthening institutions, improved labour market governance, sustainable and inclusive economic development and social development and protection. Further details on their priorities can be found on the Annex 1.

In tandem with the national development planning process, the UNCT developed its CCA, which was the basis for a second UNDAF for the State of Palestine for the period 2017-2020. Aligned with the national priorities, the UNDAF is premised on the principle of “Leaving No One Behind” of the 2030 Agenda and its 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

The table below demonstrates how the DWP priorities are aligned with: the national priorities, the UNDAF priorities, the SDGs, and the outcomes of ILO’s Programme and Budget (P&B) 2016-17.

Linkages between the Decent Work Programme Priorities, the National Development Frameworks, UNDAF, the SDGs and ILO’s P&B

DWP National Development Frameworks (2017-2022) UNDAF (2018-2022) SDGs Priority 1

Enhance employment and livelihood opportunities for Palestinian women and men

NPA

- Building Palestine’s future economy

- Creating decent job opportunities

- Improving Palestine’s business environment

- Promoting Palestinian Industry

Labour Sector Strategy

- Reducing unemployment rates in OPT

- Developing the vocational and technical system to provide skilled workers according to labour market needs

- Empowering the role of cooperatives in employment

- Strengthening the labour sector’s human and financial capacities and enhancing its role at local and international levels

- Promoting cooperative principles and concepts as means for socioeconomic development

- Providing support and expand the base for cooperatives with sustainable and viable business ideas

- Continuing to develop the structure and legal framework for the cooperative sector

Strategic Priority 3: Supporting sustainable and inclusive economic development

Goal 8: Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all

Priority 2

Strengthen labour governance and the realization of

NPA

- Upholding democratic principles - Strengthening accountability and transparency - Gender equality and women’s empowerment

Strategic Priority 2: Supporting equal access to accountable, effective and responsive democratic governance

Goal 5: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls

Goal 16: Promote peaceful

fundamental principles and

rights at work through improved social dialogue mechanisms

- Ensuring community security, public safety and the rule of law

- Social Justice and Rule of Law by promoting corporate social responsibility and tripartite social dialogue

Labour Sector Strategy

- Promote Decent work by national OSH policy framework and well developed labour administration system

- Reform and development of the legal framework of the labour sector - Working continuously to provide the legal environment and practical requirements for a social protection system

- Fill gaps in legal framework to enable development of economic and social policies

- Enhancing tripartite relationship in accordance to law provisions and collective agreements

- Promote freedom of association

- Promoting social dialogue as a means for developing and regulating the labour sector

for all Palestinians and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels

Priority 3

Support the implementation and development of the Palestinian social security system and the extension of social protection to all

NPA

- Strengthening social protection

- Ensuring community security, public safety and the rule of law

- Meeting the basic needs of communities

Labour Sector Strategy

- Working continuously to provide the legal environment and practical requirements for a social protection system

- Fill gaps in legal framework to enable development of economic and social policies

Strategic Priority 4: Leaving No One Behind: social development and protection

Goal 1: End poverty in all its forms everywhere Goal 10: Reduce inequality within and among countries

3. Country priorities and Country Programme Outcomes (CPOs)

The ILO and its tripartite constituents developed a coherent strategic framework that built on earlier efforts to promote decent work, while contributing to the national efforts to sustain social cohesion, justice and equality. Accordingly, the First Palestinian DWP was agreed upon with a set of clearly articulated outcomes covering the period 2013-2016. It embodied the common commitment of the Palestinian National Authority (government), workers’ and employers’ organizations, in cooperation with the ILO, to promote the DW Agenda with a special focus on employment promotion, rights at work, labour market administration, social protection and social dialogue, using a results-based approach.

An internal strategic planning meeting held on 17 November 2016 followed by a priority setting workshop organized with tripartite constituents on 28 February-1 March 2017 resulted in an agreement to keep the three priority areas, namely employment and livelihoods, labour governance and labour rights, and social security, while defining more specific and measurable results under each of the three areas. In particular, under the second priority, it was agreed put more emphasis on strengthening social dialogue and freedom of association. Women’s empowerment and labour standards remain at the heart of the DWP, mainstreamed through the priorities as cross- cutting issues.

The three key priorities identified are as follows:

Priority 1: Enhance employment and livelihood opportunities for Palestinian women and men Priority 2: Strengthen labour governance and the realization of fundamental principles and

rights at work through freedom of association, strengthened collective bargaining and improved social dialogue mechanisms

Priority 3: Support the implementation and development of the Palestinian social security system and the extension of social protection to all

a) Programme Outcomes, Strategies, Indicators and Targets

Priority I: Enhance employment and livelihood opportunities for Palestinian women and men. Under his priority, the ILO will continue to support its tripartite constituents in promoting decent work opportunities for all.

Given the persistent unemployment challenges in the OPT, creating decent jobs and producing an enabling environment for improved integration of women and youth in the labour market have featured prominently in most of the national policy documents, including the National Development Plan and the new Labour Sector Strategy 2017-2022. Specifically, the former includes specific priorities related to promoting sustainable development and improving Palestine’s business environment. The latter places special emphasis on strengthening the role of the Palestinian Fund for Employment and Social Protection (PFESP) as an umbrella institution for delivering employment programs that generate real jobs, and developing a vocational and technical training system to provide skills to workers responding to labour market needs. It also underlines the importance of strengthening small and medium enterprises and the cooperative sector.

In line with the national priorities, the ILO has been actively engaged in addressing the employment challenge in the OPT through a package of interventions at both the policy and grassroots levels. At the policy level, it has extended technical and financial support to the PFESP that was initially established with the aim to provide support for the implementation of active labour market policies and measures in the OPT. In 2016, the ILO also launched the second School-to-Work Transition Survey with the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS).

At the grassroots level, the ILO has continued to improve the employability of young people and facilitate their transition to the labour market through skills and entrepreneurship development. The ILO launched two initiatives to support entrepreneurship development in both West Bank and Gaza namely the nationalization of the KAB and the introduction of the SYB programmes with the Palestine for Development Foundation (PsDF). The ILO has also continued to support work in the area of gender audit and cooperatives development. Specifically, it has provided technical assistance to the development of a national cooperative strategy, which

was recently launched and supported capacity building and business plan development for two cooperatives: the Gaza Saving and Credit Cooperative, which is made up of 1,470 female members and aims to empower women through the provision of financial capital; and the Cooperative Association for Beekeepers, consisting of 25 beekeepers from the Gaza Strip. The ILO is also supporting the Islamic University of Gaza (IUG) in providing career guidance services, upgrading modules of the engineering curricula and equipping student – including students with disabilities - with skills needed in the economic recovery process.

Building on all these efforts, the programme will implement a mix of interventions at the policy and downstream levels. At the policy level, the ILO will: 1- provide technical support to the PFESP as a vehicle for strategic employment policy intervention and to support its positioning on the strategic level, 2- provide technical support to develop a national action plan on employment, 3- provide technical support to generate evidence of the impact of currently running employment support interventions, 4- review and develop a mapping for a strategic vision on employment based on the employment policy diagnostics; and 5- work on the approval of the Law on Cooperatives. At the downstream level, it will: 1) provide support to enterprise development through the provision of non-financial business development services such as the Start and Improve Your Business (SIYB), Work Improvement in Small Enterprises (WISE) and Expand Your Business (EYB), and facilitate small and medium enterprises’ access to finance, 2) contribute to reduction of unemployment through supporting cooperatives, 3) support the upgrading of informal apprenticeships, and 4) develop skills for e-jobs in Gaza.

It will mainly focus on:

Outcome 1.1 Enhanced capacity of government and social partners to strategize on employment and labour market policies and programmes

Indicator 1.1.1: National action plan collectively produced and endorsed by national stakeholders Indicator 1.1.2: Indicator 1.1.3:

In order to create jobs for 400,000 unemployed people in the OPT, a stronger control of foreign funding is needed to improve the quality of the interventions and link them strongly to creating job opportunities. The tripartite constituents agreed this could be done through the PFESP, with the support of the ILO.

The PFESP was officially activated in 2011 and was designated it as the reference point and umbrella body for all job creation activities in 2014 through a decree by the Council of Ministers. Since its activation, the PFESP has supported a series of microfinance activities, targeting marginalized and vulnerable members of society. Though the PFESP has been successful in generating job opportunities, building technical capacity and stimulating entrepreneurship, the body is still fragile, owing to its still embryonic nature.17

This outcome will therefore strengthen the capacity of the government and social partners to implement the mandate of the Fund in terms of coordination, evidence based financing, skills development entrepreneurship and enterprise development support. The ILO will provide technical support to the PFESP as a vehicle for strategic employment policy intervention and to support its positioning on the strategic level.

Employment diagnostics

To support this, the ILO has already commissioned an employment diagnostics in the OPT to map all existing employment programmes and services (both private and public), while assessing their impact and identifying their strengths and main shortfalls. This study will provide a full diagnostic on labour market trends, institutions and governance, while aiming to understand the nature of the deficiency of productive employment, and the

17 ILO, 2017, “Analysis of the situation and challenges facing the world of work in Fragile and Conflict Affected settings – OPT”

context-specific constraints, challenges and opportunities for increasing productive employment through sustainable and inclusive job-rich growth as a basis for a sharper and more effective focus of employment policy in the OPT.

Development of an Employment Action Plan through establishment of a tripartite national task force

Given that the OPT does not have a clear comprehensive vision for employment and the fact that different policies, strategies and programmes are implemented with an ad-hoc nature and with little monitoring and evaluation, developing a full-fledge policy or action plan is imperative for the achievement of better employment outcomes in the country.

Therefore and with the aim to formulate and implement a carefully designed and concerted set of interventions to achieve a clear employment goal that benefits both Palestinian men and women, the ILO will support the development of a national action plan on employment and will bring on board different ministries and social partners involved directly or indirectly in employment policy.

This will also be based on the employment diagnostic study that will provide the initial analysis and stocktaking of available programmes and employment initiatives in the country. A tripartite technical task force will then be established to build on this study and draft the needed action plan with the continuous technical support of the ILO in terms of training and capacity building.

Outcome 1.2 Government and social partners will have agreed and implemented concrete measures to improve the business environment through business development services, cooperatives and entrepreneurship education targeting men and women.

Indicator 1.2.1: Indicator 1.2.2: Indicator 1.2.3:

In 2008 the ILO launched its flagship entrepreneurship programme Know About Business (KAB) to create awareness on self-employment as a career option for young Palestinians, enhance knowledge on starting and operating a successful enterprise, and facilitate the school to work transition of Palestinian youth as a result of a better understanding of business operations. In 2011 the programme was nationalized and today forms the core of the ILO’s enterprise development interventions in the OPT. The KAB implementation has recently focused on the nationalization of the programme in vocational training centers under the Ministry of Labour, and in secondary vocational schools and technical colleges under the Ministry of Education and Higher Education with the inclusion of Gaza. The programme succeeded in doing so, and to this end, the entrepreneurship education has been integrated into the curricula of vocational training centers, and integrated into the curricula of secondary vocational schools. The programme complemented other technical and vocational training programmes in OPT, making the school-to-work transition easier for youth and decreasing the pressure on the Palestinian Authority to provide employment opportunities in the public sector. A process of Training of Facilitators’ (TOF) and certification is being used to achieve the interventions’ sustainability by creating a network of teachers who are able to deliver the KAB in a cost effective manner beyond the life of a given project. The added advantage of this approach is that it creates a multiplier effect for skills transfer and ensures the development of local teaching capacities in the field of entrepreneurship education.

The ILO is additionally using two other tools to foster entrepreneurship, namely GYB and SYB. The Generate Your Business Idea programme enables potential entrepreneurs to select and develop a concrete business idea. The Start Your Business Programme enables potential entrepreneurs with a business idea to develop a bankable

business plan. A process of Training of Trainers’ (TOT) and certification will be implemented to achieve the interventions’ sustainability by creating a network of trainers in national partner organizations (training service providers) who are able to deliver the GYB and SYB programmes in a cost effective manner beyond the life of a given project. The added advantage of this approach is that it creates a multiplier effect for skills transfer and ensures the development of local business management training capacities. Furthermore, the ILO will explore partnerships with national enterprise support organizations to work on enhancing the performance of existing enterprises which may include improvements of working conditions and productivity at the enterprise level. ILO tools such as the Improve Your Business Programme and Work Improvement in Small Enterprises (WISE) may be adapted and used.

With the support of the ILO, the Palestinian Prime Minister launched in early 2017 the Cooperative Sector Strategy for the OPT. The strategy builds on three pillars: i) promotion of the institutional environment to enable the cooperative movement to grow and develop; ii) the improvement of the financial and organizational performance of cooperatives; and iii) the expansion of cooperatives into new sectors such as the environment, recycling, renewable energy to mention a few. The strategy highlights the need to invest in cooperative education for the youth and to explore the potentials of technology for both the youth and women.

Building on this strategy and aiming at reducing unemployment, this outcome will support the Government and the social partners to develop a model of intervention to support cooperatives and to work on the approval of the Law on Cooperatives. In the area of gender equality, the ILO and UN Women will soon launch a joint programme to promote women equal access to economic opportunities and decent work in the OPT, and protection of their labour rights through reinforcement of equitable laws, legislations, policies and active labour market programmes.

Outcome 1.3: The TVET skills development center will have piloted and replicated innovative applications on skills and employability

Indicator 1.3.1: Number of organizations providing e-jobs using CB training model Indicator 1.3.2: Number of jobs seekers who access e-jobs Indicator 1.3.3: Number of youth job seekers who are working after upgraded informal apprenticeship Indicator 1.3.4: At least 1 program implemented by the Palestinian Government using the methodology of upgrading informal apprenticeship

Output 1: Model for Occupational licencing in the OPT is deigned and agreed with constituents Output 2: Upgraded apprenticeship model is piloted and consolidated Output 3: Core work skills for e-jobs identified for Gaza and a CB training program is designed Output 4: TOT module on CB is piloted

The ILO is planning on partnering with a number of stakeholders to contribute to upgrade informal apprenticeship. Based on research undertaken with the Belgium Technical Cooperation and on a model of intervention piloted in the region, the intervention will aim at (a) improving the learning contents of the on the job training, (b) linking it with a training provider for learning sessions on the theoretical parts of the training; (c) improving the occupational safety and health situation of the apprentice; (d) ensuring access to testing and certification.

E-jobs are on the rise in Gaza, but there is a need to improve the business environment and standardize the skills development around these activities. Proposed interventions will aim at gathering stakeholders to define a common plan for the sector development in Gaza.

Based on a tripartite request, ILO conducted a study related to global good practices on occupational licensing which was presented and validated in a tripartite meeting. The auto-repair sector was selected for piloting. Provided the initial commitment to this endeavor is confirmed, it is proposed to (a) link with the relevant training providers / centers of excellence; (b) conduct a one day workshop on the subject; (c) define the enforcement methods for these licenses; (d) review the impact by the end of the DWP.

Priority II: Strengthen labour governance and the realization of fundamental principles and rights at work through improved social dialogue mechanisms – Under this priority, the ILO will continue to support its tripartite constituents in advancing bipartite and tripartite dialogue through mechanisms that are systematic, property regulated and well represented. Additionally, the ILO will support its tripartite constituents for improved governance of the labour market through enhancement of the legal framework, strengthening of labour administration, development of an effective and prevention oriented labour inspection and OSH system and strengthened industrial relations.

It will mainly focus on three sets of interventions with gender equality and non-discrimination embedded throughout the process. First, the ILO will continue to support the tripartite constituents in their efforts to reform the Labour Law and other labour-related legislation, while ensuring their alignment with international labour standards and relevant human rights treaties. Second, it will work on supporting mechanisms to improve freedom of association and promote a participatory and representative decision making process at all levels, in line with international standards. Third, the ILO will support enhancing labour inspection effectiveness and the implementation of the national Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Policy and Programme in the West Bank and Gaza by providing capacity building for the tripartite constituents, addressing OSH deficits in key economic sectors, establishing labour inspection database and guidelines for improved reporting on work injuries. It will also build the labour inspection capacity of the Ministry of Labour and work on improving labour inspection management and planning as well supporting awareness raising initiatives targeting employers’ and workers’ organizations to secure their effective participation in promoting improved working conditions and compliance with labour legislation.

The following Country Programme Outcomes (CPOs), Indicators and targets fall under Priority II:

Outcome 2.1 Institutions for negotiating working conditions, protecting labour rights for all workers, and reforming labour related legislation and mechanisms are improved to be in line with international standards and Human Rights treaties.

Indicator 2.1.1 Concrete proposals are elaborated on the harmonization of the Labour Law with the needs of the labour market and international labour standards (target: 2) Indicator 2.1.2 Improved capacity and effectiveness of tripartite Committees (target could be 5 out the 11)

Governance and tripartism are achieved through improvement in the legal and policy frameworks as well as institutional capacity-building and partnerships at the all levels. Improved Governance also contributes to protecting workers from unacceptable forms of work and on formalization of the informal economy. The strategy under this outcome is to support the establishment and strengthening of tripartite social dialogue machinery or processes and to build the capacity of tripartite constituents to ensure effective social dialogue and tripartism at country level. The process will involve providing technical support to the Labour Law reform process, including through providing guidance to the National Tripartite Committee for the Labour Law Reform and strengthening the capacity of the 11 technical committees established under it. It will also include support to a review of minimum wage legislation and facilitating tripartite consensus in the constituents’ efforts to agree on a trade union law.

Furthermore, and given the large predominance of women workers in lower paying and informal jobs with little or no protection, inclusive strategies for ensuring non-discrimination and gender mainstreaming will be emphasized to achieve gender balance as well as full representation of women’s workers’ interests and needs. This process will require further strengthening the capacity of the National Committee for Women’s Employment (NCWE) in advocating for women workers’ rights and providing policy advisory support to tripartite national committees for policy setting and legislative reform. It will also entail supporting workers’ and employers’ orgnaizations to better represent and integrate women workers’ issues.

Outcome 2.2 Capacity of workers' and employers' organizations is strengthened, for improved labour market governance with a view to ensuring responsive, inclusive, participatory and representative decision-making at all levels, consistent with national and international standards.

Indicator 2.2.1. Strategy mechanism and legal framework for social dialogue and collective bargaining at all levels (national, sectoral and institutional) established. Indicator 2.2.2 % of employers / workers with improved knowledge on freedom of association, social dialogue, representation Indicator 2.2.3 Collective bargaining practices increased and improved.

The Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organize Convention, 1948 (No. 87) recognizes the right of workers and employers to freely establish and join organizations of their own choosing. This Convention is complemented by the Right to Organize and Collective Bargaining Convention, 1949 (No. 98), which provides for the establishment of measures to ensure respect for the right to organize and encourage the development of collective bargaining. Such rights are amongst the eight Fundamental Conventions the ILO’s Governing Body identified during the adoption of the Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work and form an integral part of a democratic society. ILO is regularly engaged in promoting freedom of association with the Palestinian Authority and calls for refraining from any interference which would restrict this right or impede its lawful exercise. The rights to organize and to bargain collectively are enabling rights that make it possible to promote democracy, sound labour market governance and decent conditions at work.

The strategy under this outcome is to create the legal framework in order to promote and develop dialogue mechanisms and relations between employers and workers at the workplace level in particular as a means for building management and unions cooperation to prevent disputes and, the development of the conciliation and arbitration mechanisms into a more credible, trusted and transparent system. The aim is to promote collective bargaining (ILO Convention No. 154) as a tool through which employers and their organizations and trade unions can establish fair wages, better working conditions and regulate relations between employers and workers. Collective bargaining is at the heart of social dialogue which was also reaffirmed in the 1998 ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work .It will also provide the basis for sound labour relations. Many topics are of major concern including wages, working time, training, occupational health and safety and equal treatment. Collective bargaining is a process of negotiation where negotiation involves any form of discussion, formal or informal, with an objective to arrive at a collective agreement that regulates terms and conditions of employment. Collective bargaining involves a process of joint decision making that helps to build trust and mutual respect between the parties and enhance the quality of labour relations. Collective agreements may also address the rights and responsibilities of the parties; thus ensuring harmonious and productive industries and workplaces. Enhancing the inclusiveness of collective bargaining and collective agreements is a key means for reducing inequality, extending labour protection and regulating relations between employers and workers.

This will be done through intensive technical support and capacity building to workers and employers institutions to engage in social dialogue and collective bargaining at the workplace and sector level and to make effective use of the dispute prevention and resolution mechanisms more efficiently and effectively. Research and knowledge development will also be amongst the tools to help deepen the understanding of social partners on labour market trends, good practices and possible ways to improve the effectiveness of collective bargaining. This may include the development of policy papers on the effects of collective bargaining on different social and economic outcomes. Training will be provided to governments, employers’ and workers’ organizations to implement measures to promote collective bargaining (e.g. dispute resolution services, negotiation skills, etc.) and will be delivered in partnership with the ILO International Training Centre in Turin, the ILO’s Bureau of Employers’ Activities and the Bureau of Workers’ Activities.

Outcome 2.3 Workplace compliance is improved to better protect labour rights and promote safe and secure working environments for all workers in line with national laws and regulations and international standards, through strengthened labour inspection and increased preventative OSH culture.

Indicator 2.3.1: Annual labour inspection reports developed in line with the relevant ILS and reflect improved coverage and quality of labour inspection. Indicator 2.3.2: Improved notification, recording and reporting of work related accidents, injuries and diseases. Indicator 2.3.3: Strategic measures taken by the government and social partners to improve workplace compliance

Effective labour administration is vital for good governance and economic progress especially in a context of continued protracted crisis. It contributes to making decent work a reality, through improving working conditions and enhancing employment and productivity. The strategy under this outcome is to promote and entrench a culture of prevention, compliance and decent employment practices for improved labour relations and working conditions all of which would lead to improved productivity and income. This outcome will focus on highlighting the importance and mutually reinforcing impact of having a strong labour legislation that is aligned with ILS. In particular, the ILO will continue and further expand its work on improving labour inspection and promoting occupational safety and health in formal and non-formal enterprises and sectors. By focusing its interventions under this priority on the following technical areas which will also include Gaza:

• Developing and implementing a national labour inspection policy in consultation and collaboration with the social partners and other stakeholders.

• Reforming legal provisions on labour inspection and OSH in line with the relevant ILS.

• Develop new labour inspection tools, or update existing ones, including checklists, templates and manuals.

• Developing the capacities of labour inspectors and their supervisors on modern labour inspection procedures and relevant ILS, including policies, planning, conducting inspection visits and reporting.

• Promote the use of modern technology in labour inspection, including full automation of inspection activities and establishment of comprehensive electronic LI and OSH data bases that include all workplaces liable to inspection.

• Developing a national system for the notification, recording, analysis and reporting of occupational accidents, injuries and diseases.

• Strengthening the capacities of social partners on labour inspection and OSH.

• Enhancing the capacity of the MOL on promoting OSH services at the enterprise level, including establishment of OSH committees and appointment of qualified OSH supervisors.

• Developing an effective system for the management of labour disputes, both individual and collective, including establishment of a hotline service

Over the years, the ILO has been working closely with the Palestinian Ministry of Labour and the employers and workers organisations through the tripartite OSH committee, to help strengthen its ability to develop and promote a national OSH policy and programme. In 2014, and with support from ILO, a National OSH Policy and Programme was adopted by Cabinet that was based on a national OSH profile developed in 2013.

The National OSH Policy and Programme has the following objectives:

1. To reinforce and develop the policies and legislations pertaining to occupational safety and health;

2. To enhance, develop and institutionalize the institutional frameworks in a manner that guarantees the accomplishment and implementation of the policies pertaining to occupational safety and health;

3. To develop support programmes, such as training and promotion of the culture of occupational safety and health, especially in the small and micro enterprises;

4. To develop and enhance the capacities and capabilities, especially in relation to occupational health services (preventive and therapeutic) at the national and enterprises levels.

Through this DWP, the ILO will support the monitoring of the implementation of the OSH programme and the introduction of any needed adjustment to ensure that it adequately responds to the needs of new sectors and industries, and to new processes and machinery in existing industries. Furthermore, it will expand this area of work to Gaza, which was not covered in the OSH profile developed through the previous DWP.

As such, the ILO will support the Ministry of Labour and social partners in developing an OSH profile for Gaza and ensuring that its needs of the latter are integrated in the national OSH policy and programme.

To further support the implementation of the OSH policy and programme and the recently developed labour sector strategy and plan, the ILO will carry out a needs assessment of the Labour Inspection System (LIS) and Directorate at the Ministry of Labour. The assessment will inform the development of a labour inspection strategy. The strategy will mainly aim to broaden the scope of labour inspection so as to cover the application of the current and newly proposed provisions of the labour law, including in the areas of labour disputes resolution and effective governance and tripartism The ILO will also carry out a quick scan to identify the sectors and sub- sectors in Palestine that are more prone to OSH related injuries. The scan will be undertaken with the direct support of the Palestinian Employers Organizations and Trade Unions; namely FPCCIA, PFI and the Palestinian General Federation of Trade Unions in cooperation with the Palestine Polytechnic University.

One key set of interventions under this outcome both in the area of OSH and LI will continue to be capacity building to the labour inspection and administration directorates and exposure of its staff to good practices in other countries through participating in study tours and regional workshops. Trainings will be organized jointly with ITC Turin and LAB/ADMIN branch and will include several topics, such as: principles, policies and strategies for labour inspection, LI planning and campaigning, detection and reporting of work accidents, LI academy, tools and methods for LI. Furthermore, the ILO will support in the development of a unified labour inspection guidelines and checklists, an automated labour inspection database, the production of detailed work accident reports and comprehensive quarterly and annual labour inspection reports against work injuries, workplace violations, sanctions and corrective actions taken.

Priority III:Support the implementation and development of the Palestinian social security system and the extension of social protection to all The ILO will continue to support its tripartite constituents in promoting policies and providing assistance to help extend adequate levels of social protection to all members of society guided by world-wide best practices and international social security standards, in particular the Social Security (Minimum Standards) Convention, 1952 (No. 102) and the Social Protection Floors Recommendation, 2012 (No. 202). The strategy for this priority will be to adopt the ILO’s two- dimensional approach with the aim of rolling out a national social protection floor that ensures universal access to at least nationally-defined sets of basic social security guarantees (horizontal dimension), in line with the Recommendation 202 and the progressive achievement of higher levels of protection (vertical dimension) within a comprehensive social security system guided by Convention102.

ILO’s assistance will mainly focus on:

1- Supporting tripartite constituents and key stakeholders in the establishment, management and administration of the new social security institution, 2- Supporting the financial governance of the Palestinian Pension Authority, and

3- Supporting the adoption of a national social protection strategy.

The ILO will make full use of the existing tripartite social dialogue mechanisms to ensure that social security is given highest priority in national development plans and policy frameworks (including the UN development plan) as well as promote it as key strategy for fighting poverty and maintaining minimum level of income security and health care to be provided to all Palestinians. The ILO will focus its interventions under this priority in six key technical areas:

• Policy development and applied research ;

• Public Finance, Actuarial and Statistics services and assessments;

• Legal advice;

• Administration assessments;

• Capacity building and knowledge dissemination;

• Statistical knowledge base development

Outcome 3.1 New Social Security Institution (PSSC) established and operational

Indicator 3.1.1: Number of small, medium and large-scale enterprises covered by Social Security Law No. 19 for the Year 2016 Indicator 3.1.2: Features of the new social security institution, including its finance and investment plan, developed and adopted

In the OPT, only public sector workers benefit from social protection benefits, while most private sector workers are effectively not covered in case of old-age, disability and death, employment injury and maternity. According to official figures, private sector workers make up 66 per cent of the workforce, relative to 22 per cent in the public sector and 12 per cent in Israel and West Bank settlements. With the support of the ILO, the Ministerial Cabinet has adopted the Social Security Law for private sector workers and their family members on 26 September 2016, and it was signed into law by the Palestinian President on 29 September 2016 (Social Security Law No. 19 for the Year 2016). The Social Security law was developed through extensive tripartite consultations and is fully in line with international labour standards and global best practices. In December 2016, the tripartite Board of Directors of the new social security system was appointed, with the Minister of Labour as its Chair. The Board of Directors is in charge of administering the new social security system. Accordingly, it has responsibility for the establishment of the future social security institution and its administration in line with the provisions of the new Social Security Law. Under this outcome, the ILO will mainly focus on supporting the setting-up of a

well-functioning tripartite social security institution and administration to implement the new social security law and administer and deliver social insurance benefits to insured workers and their family members. The ILO will provide technical assistance based on the internationally agreed principles of equality of rights, transparency and disclosure, sustainability, adequacy and good governance.

The ILO and in partnership with the Board of Directors of the new social security system will foresee:

• Introducing and promoting the new social security scheme in the OPT: Awareness raising of Palestinians regarding the new social security system, capacity building of the Board of Directors, appointment and training of the core team for setting-up the new social security administration; training of the core staff of the social security administration, provision of the necessary office space, furniture and equipment of the headquarters, and establishment of international, regional and bilateral cooperation agreements with other social security organizations and institutions.

• Designing and building the features of the new social security administration: Development of the features of the new social security administration, in particular the design of the organizational structure of the new social security institution, the determination of the main business processes (e.g. the different services, contribution collection, payment of benefits and HR/IT processes). Networking, linkages and bilateral exchanges of information and experience will be established with relevant national, regional and international institutions so as to be able to provide client-centred administration and benefit from best practice experiences in social security administration.

• Establishing the pilot phase for the administration of the new social security system: Establishment of the new social security institution through implementing the business process, organizational structure and management procedures, standards of quality, security and services guidelines. In addition, it will include rolling out of the operations of the institution in particular HR/recruitment processes, training courses, logistics process, IT and NITC development, procurement of equipment and other supplies.

• Launching the new social security institution in Palestine: this will entail development of a communication strategy and outreach plan; formal inauguration ceremony of the institution with key stakeholders; and a massive awareness raising campaign targeting beneficiaries and enterprises to inform them about the services provided by the institution.

Outcome 3.2 Improved knowledge base, analytical capacity, and statistics for the delivery of social protection

Indicator 3.2.1: Number of policy recommendations adopted by the board of directors Indicator 3.2.2: Up-to-date and comprehensive statistical data is available for decision making

Output: 2nd Actuarial Valuation of the social security schemes administered by the Palestinian Pension Authority and adopted by its Board of Directors

The Palestinian Pension Authority (PPA) manages the Palestinian pension schemes through five retirement systems, namely: the Insurance and Pension System set forth in Law 8/1964; the Palestinian Security Forces Retirement System elucidated in Law 16/ 2004; the Civil Service Retirement System set forth in Law 34/1959 applicable in the West Bank; the Defined Benefits System and the Defined Contribution System instituted in Law 7/2005; and the retirement system for the President, the Ministers, the Members of Parliament and the Governors.

With the exception of the Public Pension System, the role of the PPA is restricted to the administrative aspects. Allocations for beneficiaries are disbursed by the Ministry of Finance. The ILO carried out already in 2014 the 1st Actuarial Valuation of the social security schemes administered by the Palestinian Pension Authority PPA. Under this outcome, the ILO will carry out the 2nd Actuarial Valuation of the PPA administered schemes and will provide the related policy recommendations so as to support the PPA in strengthening the schemes’ financial sustainability in the long-term.

Outcome 3.3 National Social Protection Floor progressively implemented

Indicator 3.3.1: Number of persons receiving pilot cash Indicator 3.3.2: National Social Protection Floor Strategy established through wide national consultations and adopted by tripartite stakeholders

In line with the ILO Social Protection Floors Recommendation, 2012 (No. 202) and Goal 1 of the 2030 Agenda, social protection floors (SPFs) have emerged as a powerful tool to promote balanced social and economic development and inclusive growth, combat poverty and play an important role as automatic stabilizers in the events of major shocks. They also support structural changes of economies and societies. Under this outcome, ILO plans to support the Palestinian Authority in building up its national social protection floor which will contribute to the development of a comprehensive social security system in the OPT that promotes the social and economic development, as well as realizing the human right to social security and other human rights. The ILO will support its tripartite constituents in:

• Assessing the gaps of the current social protection system.

• Assessing the impact of the existing social protection schemes and a future national SPF on poverty, vulnerability, labour market and women empowerment.

• Assessing the affordability of closing the social protection gaps and its opportunity costs while also finding the fiscal space through reform and policy adjustments for the rollout of a national SPF in Palestine that is based on the Social Protection Floors Recommendation, 2012 (No. 202), and

• Establishing different reform scenarios and options for the progressive rollout of a national SPF in the OPT.

Based on the above indicated assessment, the ILO, through wide national consultations, will support the development of a National Social Protection Floor Strategy in the OPT and the roll out of pilot cash benefits that are key to ensuring basic income security, and address poverty, social exclusion and inequality, particularly amongst the most vulnerable groups (children, disabled and elderly). Finally, the ILO will support the development of the pilot cash benefits towards rollout of a national SPF.

This outcome will also involve extensive coordination with the UN and key donors that are active players in the social protection sector in OPT as part of the Social Protection Floor Initiative, launched in 2009 by the UN System’s Chief Executives Board for Co-ordination (CEB), and endorsed through the adoption of the 2030 Agenda in 2016.

4. Management, Implementation planning, monitoring, reporting and evaluation arrangements

a. Implementation, performance monitoring and evaluation arrangements, including roles of ILO constituents

The DWP presents a time-bound results-based partnership framework between the ILO and its constituents to advance the national state building efforts and socio-economic development, and promote decent work in the

OPT. The DWP will be implemented by the ILO in close partnership with Palestinian constituents and under the guidance of the Tripartite DWP Committee. Based on the review recommendations, consultative monitoring of this DWP will be regular and periodic. Three main tools will be used for the monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of this DWP, namely the: (i) implementation plan; (ii) results framework and (iii) M&E Plan. These tools will be revisited throughout the programme in light of developments, adequacy of resources for implementation, and to confirm and revise theories of change underpinning the DWP.

At the national level, a Tripartite DWP Committee, including representatives from the ILO office in Jerusalem and each of the tripartite partners, was established to provide oversight for the implementation of the First DWP and ensure continued relevance to national priorities. In line with the DWP review, this committee needs to be revived and its role clearly defined as well as further strengthened, institutionalized and streamlined. The DWP Committee, which is mandated to monitor the DWP results and implementation, will meet quarterly to review progress against planned outputs and outcome indicators, provide guidance and support where required, and make adjustments where needed. The Committee will be represented by the tripartite constituents and the ILO. The latter will be represented through the Jerusalem Office, with inputs and support to be provided from the Regional Office for Arab States (ROAS) in Beirut will as and when needed.

Monitoring and evaluation of individual project activities will be undertaken as relevant and in line with the ILO Evaluation policy, and the DWP will be subject to one review/evaluation during its lifetime, in line with ILO EVAL guidelines. Depending on the timing of the review, it will be used to adjust implementation where needed, and to inform planning and programming of future activities/future DWP.

b. Role of ILO Constituents

ILO Constituents, represented by the Ministry of Labour, the PGFTU and the PFCCIA are the key designated partners in the implementation of the DWP.

National ownership and accountability in achieving results will be essential, as also emphasized in the DWP review. Constituents will be closely involved in all stages of the DWP from the inception and design of the programme, to resource mobilization, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.

To ensure tripartite high-level engagement, there is an obvious need to continue to strengthen the capacity of ILO constituents on results-based management (RBM), in order for them to play a more proactive role in monitoring the programme through the Tripartite DWP Committee. Moreover, to enable them to continue promoting the DW Agenda and mainstreaming it into national and UN development frameworks, tailor-made capacity building activities on SDGs would be implemented. As mentioned under the various outcomes, capacity building on different themes will be mainstreamed throughout all interventions as a means to support the achievement of the DWP outcomes.

In implementing the DWP, the Government and the social partners shall make available their respective expert staff to coordinate the work to be carried out through ILO projects and programmes. They will also provide the premises and required logistical support, as necessary.

Tripartite partners further commit to undertake the necessary follow up activities to achieve the expected DWP results, reporting on progress achieved, while flagging bottlenecks and challenges during DWP Tripartite Committee meetings.

c. Synergies and collaboration with other development partners

The ILO and UN Women will launch a joint programme to promote women equal access to economic opportunities and decent work in the OPT, and protection of their labour rights through reinforcement of equitable laws, legislations, policies and active labour market programmes. As per the DWP review, the ILO will also explore partnerships with UNDP, FAO, UNSCO and USAID.

d. Risks

Considering the specific nature and uncertain context in the OPT that is mainly related to the Israeli occupation, it must be noted that the DWP framework has been developed with a great deal of flexibility; hence accommodating for the continuously changing needs of the Palestinian people.

With this in mind, the DWP still presents tripartite commitment to the achievement of time-bound results to advance decent work in the OPT. One implicit assumption therefore for the achievement of the DWP objectives is the continued engagement and strong collaboration between tripartite constituents and the ILO. This necessitates strong and representative employers and workers organizations, as active partners in the implementation process. It also necessitates political will and continuity of representation and collaboration of ILO constituents, irrespective of political turnover.

5. Funding Plan

As of April 2017, the total funds available for this programme amount to 2.42 million US Dollars, benefiting from funding from Kuwait, the Palestine for Development Foundation and ILO’s internal resources. The ILO is committed to pursue additional resource mobilization efforts to support the implementation of its activities under this DWP. In line with the Regional Resource Mobilization strategy, an initial mapping of development partners for the OPT has been conducted. The mapping will be updated and will form the basis for the development of a RM Action Plan, which will include traditional and non-traditional donors, including Arab donors, south-south cooperation and public-private partnerships. In doing so, it will coordinate wherever possible with the UN Resident Coordinator’ Office and other UN agencies and join their efforts to mobilize resources for the UNDAF; which in turn will also support the implementation of its DWP. Such a coordinated and coherent approach to resource mobilization will stand a better chance to avoid duplication of efforts and yield better results.

6. Advocacy & communication plan

The ILO intends to carry out a decent work advocacy strategy that aims to communicate for: greater recognition of the relevance of decent work to the OPT’s National Policy Agenda and sectoral strategies, as well as the forthcoming UNDAF; stronger partnerships and joint efforts among ministries, UN agencies and development partners at large; and more results on decent work. Following on recommendations made in the OPT DWP review (DWP 2013-2016), advocacy and communication plans will begin with a knowledge management strategy by making this DWP document, ILO’s key publications, and key results of ILO work in the OPT available to the public both in Arabic and English. This will give the Palestinian tripartite constituents, other stakeholders, and the public-at-large broader access to decent work-related materials. Projects to be implemented in this DWP will be incorporating good practices from relevant ILO projects in other countries. ILO ROAS will regularly publish DWP activities and results on its websites and social media account and in joint communications with the constituents and the UN Country Team for Palestine.

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