# Dividend Framework - Corporate Finance - Solved Quiz, Exercises for Corporate Finance. Alliance University

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Dividend Framework, Dividend Payout Ratio, Estimation of FCFE, Cash Flows to Equity, Capital Expenditures, Estimate working capital investment, Dividends, Net Income are points of this solved quiz. These are for my frien...
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Dividend Framework: Solutions

Problem 1 a. Dividend Payout Ratio = (2 * 50)/480 = 20.83% b. Free Cash Flows to Equity this year

Net Income 480\$ - (Cap Ex - Depr ) (1-DR) 210\$ - (Chg in WC) (1-DR) 35\$ FCFE 235\$

Dividends as % of FCFE = 100/235 = 42.55% c. Note: I changed the riskfree rate to a long term bond rate of 8.5% in the problem.

Project Investment Beta IRR Cost of Equity A \$190 mil 0.6 12.00% 11.80% B \$200 mil 0.8 12.00% 12.90% C \$200 mil 1 14.50% 14.00% D \$200 mil 1.2 15.00% 15.10% E \$100 mil 1.5 20.00% 16.75%

Accept projects A, C and E. The total investment is \$ 490 million. d. Estimation of FCFE next year

Net Income 540\$ - (Cap Ex - Depr) (1-DR) 168\$ - (Chg in WC) (1-DR) 35\$ FCFE 337\$

e. I may not pay this amount as dividends because of my concerns that I would not be able to maintain these dividends. I would also hold back some cash for future projects, if I feel that investment needs could vary substantially over time. f. If \$ 125 million is paid out as dividends, the cash balance will increase by \$ 212 million [\$337-\$125]

Problem 2 a. Estimate the FCFE. Investable Funds 100.00\$

- (Cap Ex ) (1-DR) 52.50\$ - Chg in WC (1-DR) -\$ = FCFE 47.50\$

I am assuming, since there is no information to the contrary, that these projects have risk characertistics similar to the firm. Capital Expenditures

Cost of Equity = 15% After-tax Cost of Debt = 6% Debt Ratio = 500/(500+1500) = 25% Cost of Capital = (.18) (.75) + .06 (.25) = 13%

Accept projects A, B, C and D: They have returns on capital that exceed the cost of capital. Total Capital Expenditures = 70

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Dividend Framework: Solutions

Since the returns are on capital, the comparison has to be to cost of capital. b. The company should return \$ 47.5 million to its stockholders.

Problem 3 First, estimate the cost of capital,

Cost of Equity = 22% After-tax Cost of Debt = 6% Debt Ratio = (100/(100+500)) 16.67% Cost of Capital = 19.33%

Second, calculate the NPV of the three projects, In changed the EBIT on the second problem to \$ 15 million per year. NPV of A = - 10 + (1*0.6+0.5)(PVA,19.33%,5)+2.5/(1.1933^5) = (5.63)\$ NPV of B = - 40 + (5*0.6 +1)(PVA,19.33%,10) + 10/(1.1933^10) = 4.60\$ NPV of C = -50 + (5*0.6+1)(PVA,19.33%,10)+10/1.1933^10 = (31.13)\$ A. Take only project B FCFE = Net Income - (Cap Ex - Depr)(1-.Future DR) = 66 B. The company should pay out \$ 66 million in dividends.

Problem 4 Project IRR (to Equity) Beta Cost of Equity A 21% 2 20.00% B 20% 1.5 17.25% C 12% 1 14.50% Accept projects A and B. The total capital expenditures are \$ 1100. Estimated FCFE next year

Net Income next year = \$1,000 - (Cap Ex - Depr) (1-.2) = 480 - Chg in WC (1-.2) = 80 = FCFE \$440

The firm should pay out a dividend of \$ 440.

Problem 5 Current 1 2 3

Net Income 100.00\$ 110.00\$ 121.00\$ 133.10\$ + Deprec'n 50.00\$ 54.00\$ 58.32\$ 62.99\$ - Cap Ex 60.00\$ 60.00\$ 60.00\$ 60.00\$ - Chg in WC 10.00\$ 10.00\$ 10.00\$ 10.00\$ = FCFE 80.00\$ 94.00\$ 109.32\$ 126.09\$

Dividends Paid 66.00\$ 72.60\$ 79.86\$ Cash Balance 50.00\$ 78.00\$ 114.72\$ 160.95\$

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Dividend Framework: Solutions

Problem 6 I am using a short cut here by assuming that cash flow to equity divided by equity investment is ROE. Project Equity InvestmentCF to Equity Return to EquityBeta Cost of Equity A 100000 12500 12.50% 1 11.75% B 100000 14000 14.00% 1.5 14.50% C 50000 8000 16.00% 1.8 16.15% D 50000 12000 24.00% 2 17.25% Accept projects A and D. The capital expenditures will be \$ 150,000. Estimate working capital investment

Working Capital last year = (1000000-500000) = 500000 Revenues last year = 1000000 Working Capital as % of Revenues = 50% Expected Revenue increase next year = .10 * \$ 1,000,000= \$100,000 Working Capital Increase next year = 0.5 * \$ 100,000 = \$50,000

Estimated FCFE next year Revenues 1,100,000\$ Expenses 440,000\$ Depreciation 100,000\$ EBIT 560,000\$ - Interest Exp 100,000\$ Taxable Income 460,000\$ Taxes 184,000\$ Net Income 276,000\$

Net Income \$276,000 - (Cap Ex- Depr)(1-.4) = 30000 - (WC Increase) (1-.4) = 30000 FCFE \$216,000

b. If the company pays out \$ 100,000 in dividends, the cash balance will increase by \$ 116,000 to \$ 266,000.

Problem 7 a.No. Its FCFE is negative : FCFE = 10 - (25-5) = -10 million b. Current 1 2 3 4 Net Income 10.00\$ 14.00\$ 19.60\$ 27.44\$ 38.42\$ 53.78\$ 75.30\$ 105.413504 - (Cap Ex-Depr) 20.00\$ 22.00\$ 24.20\$ 26.62\$ 29.28\$ 32.21\$ The company will have positive FCFE by year 4. It can start paying dividends after that.

Problem 8 Year Net Income (Cap Ex - Depr) (1-DR)Ch WC (1-DR) FCFE Dividends

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Dividend Framework: Solutions

1991 240.00\$ 4.20\$ 15.00\$ 220.80\$ 70.00\$ 1992 282.00\$ 102.60\$ (87.00)\$ 266.40\$ 80.00\$ 1993 320.00\$ 169.20\$ 195.00\$ (44.20)\$ 95.00\$ 1994 375.00\$ 127.20\$ (24.00)\$ 271.80\$ 110.00\$ 1995 441.00\$ 120.60\$ 45.00\$ 275.40\$ 124.00\$

Average 198.04\$ 95.80\$ a. Conrail could have paid out \$ 198 million in dividends. It paid out only \$ 95.8 million a year. b.

Return on Equity = 13.50% Cost of Equity = 7%+1.25(5.5%) = 13.88%

Conrail's projects did not do as well as they should have. I would recommend that if Conrail's project choice is not expected to improve, they return more cash to their stockholders.

Problem 9 Year Net Income (Cap Ex - Depr) (1-DR)Ch WC (1-DR) FCFE

1996 485.10\$ 151.96\$ 8.75\$ 324.39\$ 1997 533.61\$ 164.11\$ 9.19\$ 360.31\$ 1998 586.97\$ 177.24\$ 9.65\$ 400.08\$ 1999 645.67\$ 191.42\$ 10.13\$ 444.12\$ 2000 710.23\$ 206.73\$ 10.64\$ 492.86\$

This is the amount that the company can afford to pay in dividends. b. The perceived uncertainty in these cash flows will make me more conservative in paying out the entire amount in FCFE in the year in which I make it.

Problem 10 Current 1 2 3 4 5

Net Income 66.00\$ 77.22\$ 90.35\$ 105.71\$ 123.68\$ 144.70\$ + Depreciation 50.00\$ 57.50\$ 66.13\$ 76.04\$ 87.45\$ 100.57\$ - Capital Exp 150.00\$ 165.00\$ 181.50\$ 199.65\$ 219.62\$ 241.58\$ - Chg in WC NA 4.30\$ 4.73\$ 5.20\$ 5.72\$ 6.30\$ FCFE (34.58)\$ (29.76)\$ (23.10)\$ (14.21)\$ (2.60)\$ a. Cracker Barrel cannot afford to pay a dividend. b. If the debt ratio is changed to 25%,

Current 1 2 3 4 5 Net Income 66.00\$ 77.22\$ 90.35\$ 105.71\$ 123.68\$ 144.70\$ - (Cex-Depr) (1-.25) 80.625 86.53125 92.7046875 99.1235156 105.75648 - Chg in WC (1-.25) 3.225 3.5475 3.90225 4.292475 4.7217225 FCFE (6.63)\$ 0.27\$ 9.10\$ 20.26\$ 34.22\$ The company can start paying out dividends in year 2.

Problem 11

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Dividend Framework: Solutions

Assuming that we are talking about the second scenario, where the firm does borrow money, I would defend my decision by noting that I have a track record of great projects and that I am retaining the cash for future projects. My track record will probably make me credible, at least as long as I can keep my return on equity above my cost of equity. The high ROE will make this more defensible.

Problem 12 Estimated Net Income next year = 140.80\$ - (Cap Ex - Depreciation) (1-.10) = 25.74\$ - Change in Working Capital (1-.1) = 45.00\$ FCFE 70.06\$ This is what the company can afford to pay in dividends. b. If the company pays of \$ 12 million in dividends, the cash balance will increase by \$ 58 million.

Problem 13 The company will have a negative FCFE, since it will have to generate enough cash flows to make the principal payment of \$ 100 million. Recalculating the FCFE, Estimated Net Income next year = 140.80\$ - (Cap Ex - Depreciation) 28.60\$ - Change in Working Capital = 50.00\$ - Principal Repayment = 100.00\$ FCFE (37.80)\$ If the company pays a dividend of \$ 12 million, the cash balance will decrease by approximately \$ 50 million. The total cash balance which is currently \$ 143 million will decline to \$ 93 million.

Problem 14 Company Div vs. FCFE ROE Cost of Equity Action Alexander < 8% 11.00% Pressure to pay more dividends. American Pres. < 14.50% 13.50% Allow to continue; RoE>COE OMI > 4% 13.25% Evaluate investments; FCFE < Dividends Overseas < 1.50% 11.50% Pressure to pay more dividends Sea Containers > 14% 12.25% Pressure to pay less dividends a. Alexander and Brown and Overseas Shipholding. b. Sea Containers c. If I thought that the returns on projects for this entire sector were going to improve, it would make me more cautious about raising dividends in the first place. If, on the other hand, I thought that returns for this entire sector were going to drop, I would push for more dividends more aggressively.

Problem 15. Company Payout Ratio Dividend Yield Growth Fedders 11% 1.20% 22% Maytag 37% 2.80% 23%

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Dividend Framework: Solutions

National Presto 67% 4.90% 13.50% Toro 15% 1.50% 16.50% Whirlpool 30% 2.50% 20.50% Average 32% 2.58% 19.10% Black & Decker 24% 1.30% 23% a. Black and Decker pays less in dividends than the average company in the sector. b. Black and Decker also has higher growth than the average company in the sector. One way of controlling for differences in growth rate is to regress dividend payout ratios and yields against the growth rates. Dividend Payout Ratio = 0.88 - 2.90 (Expected Growth) Dividend Yield = 0.07 - 0.23 (Expected Growth) Black & Decker's predicted payout ratio = 0.88 - 2.90 (.23) = 21.30% Black & Decker's predicted dividend yield = 0.07 -0.23*(.23) = 1.71%

Problem 16 a. Estimated Dividend Yield for Black and Decker:

= 0.0478 - 0.0157 (1.30) + 0.0000008 (5500) + 0.006797 (.35) + 0.0002 (0.145) - 0.09 (.04)

3.06% b. This regression factors in all firms in the market, rather than just the sector.

Problem 17 No. I would expect, given the higher growth rate, that Handy and Harman will pay less in dividends than the average firm in the sector. The higher growth creates a greater reinvestment need.

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