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EBP2 EXAM 2024/2025 WITH 100% ACCURATE SOLUTIONS

Typology: Exams

2024/2025

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Download EBP2 EXAM 2024/2025 WITH 100% ACCURATE SOLUTIONS and more Exams Nursing in PDF only on Docsity! EBP2 EXAM 2024/2025 WITH 100% ACCURATE SOLUTIONS You want to determine the risk of a patient who had had a myocardial infarction experiencing a second event if they do not attend cardiac rehab. Which type of study design is most used to determine risk? - Precise Answer ✔✔Observational You are reading a study comparing manual therapy plus exercise to no treatment. An absolute risk reduction of 0.75 means? - Precise Answer ✔✔Adverse events decreased by 75% with manual therapy and exercise In order to calculate the numbers needed to treat for an intervention the outcome of interest would have to be? - Precise Answer ✔✔Dichotomous Which specific study design is used for determining risk and works well for very rare conditions? - Precise Answer ✔✔Case-control You are reading an article on a clinical trial where the researchers dichotomized the results into successful outcome or not a successful outcome. You first examine the percentage of people in a group that experiences the outcomes of interest. This is known as? - Precise Answer ✔✔Event rate The incidence of disease among those individuals exposed divided by the incidence of disease in those not exposed is the - Precise Answer ✔✔Relative risk You have recently been trained in a new treatment approach within the scope of physical therapist practice. You want to determine how many patients would have to be treated to cause one bad outcome. This is known as? - Precise Answer ✔✔Number needed to harm In simple linear regression the independent variable must be? - Precise Answer ✔✔continuous In simple linear regression the dependent variable must be? - Precise Answer ✔✔continuous You are reading a study that used linear regression as the method of data analysis. The purpose of linear regression is to - Precise Answer ✔✔determine if one variable can predict another In linear regression the residual is known as? - Precise Answer ✔✔Data points that do not fall on the regression line You are treating a patient with a disorder you have never worked with before. After you finish your paperwork for the evening you go to Medline and search for an ideal intervention for this individual. Which of the following interventions would you select? - Numbers needed to treat of 4 an numbers needed to harm of 19 - Number needed to treat of 4 and numbers needed to harm of 4 - Numbers needed to treat of 18 and numbers needed to harm of 18 - Numbers needed to treat of 18 and numbers needed to harm of 4 - Precise Answer ✔✔Numbers needed to treat of 4 an numbers needed to harm of 19 You are reading an article that says the odds ratio of 2.0. This means? - Precise Answer ✔✔There is a positive association between an exposure and a disease You are determining inter-rater reliability and the result is a Kappa coefficient of 0.7. This is indicative of? - Precise Answer ✔✔Substantial reliability You are determining inter-rater reliability and the result is an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.65. This is indicative of? - Precise Answer ✔✔No reliability Which specific study design is used for determining risk and is typically prospective in nature? - Precise Answer ✔✔Cohort A researcher is looking to determine if age can predict running speed and they use a linear regression for the analysis. In linear regression analysis, the coefficient of determination (R squared) tells us? - Precise Answer ✔✔The amount age explains of running speed You are designing a study and want to increase precision (narrow) the 95% confidence interval. Which of the following could assist with doing this? Select a larger confidence interval Select a non-normally distributed sample Select a larger sample size Select samples with more variance - Precise Answer ✔✔Select a larger sample size A researcher wants to determine if the difference in the Timed up and Go test between individuals who have had a myocardial infarction and individuals who have congestive heart failure is different. Their hypothesis is that individuals who have experienced a myocardial infarction will have better times. This is known as? - Precise Answer ✔✔Alternative hypothesis A researcher performs a randomized clinical trial and finds that a group of patients with multiple sclerosis experienced improved function if they performed daily yoga compared to a group that received stretching exercises. The researcher rejected the null hypothesis but in the target population the null is true. This is a? - Precise Answer ✔✔Type I error You are reading a study and want to determine if there is a significant difference between group means. A research finding is considered significant if? - Precise Answer ✔✔P value is smaller than alpha The probability of finding a statistically significant difference if the difference exists in the real world is known as? - Precise Answer ✔✔Power Quantifying the mean difference in effectiveness of one intervention compared to another is known as? - Precise Answer ✔✔Effect size A researcher wants to increase the power of their study. Which of the following would increase power? Decrease sample size Decrease alpha Decrease effect size Decrease variance - Precise Answer ✔✔Decrease variance A researcher selects to analyze their data with a t-Test. A t-test is used for? - Precise Answer ✔✔Determining a difference between 2 means You are reading a study that compared the difference between 2 methods of exercise prescription on improving function after an individual has had a stroke. The researchers used parametric statistics to analyze the data. Which of the following is an assumption for parametric stats? Population is not normally distributed Variance between samples is roughly equal Data are on an ordinal or interval scale Samples are selected by convenience - Precise Answer ✔✔Variance between samples is roughly equal A researcher performs a study with a hypothesis that exercise is better than massage for increasing the 6-minute walk test in individuals in the acute setting that have experienced a stroke. This is an example of? - Precise Answer ✔✔Directional alternative hypothesis You are doing a study examining the effects of manual therapy on pain in individuals with shoulder impingement. You collect baseline measurements then everyone receives 6 sessions of manual therapy with a physical therapist. Following the 6 sessions you again take measurements. The best statistical test to analyze the data would be? - Precise Answer ✔✔Dependent t-Test You are reading a clinical trial that compared the effects of eccentric versus concentric exercises on running speed in individuals with Achilles' tendinopathy. The researchers take baseline measurements then follow-up measurements after 6-weeks of treatment. They then calculate the change between groups and want to see if there is a difference in change scores. The best statistical test to analyze the data would be? - Precise Answer ✔✔Independent t-Test A researcher decides to make 4 comparisons using a t-test. The use of multiple t-Tests increases the chances of? - Precise Answer ✔✔Type I error You want to perform a randomized clinical trial examining the effects of treatment (concentric exercise, eccentric exercise, manual therapy, dry needling) on improving function in individuals with hamstring injuries. You take baseline measurements and then again at follow-up and calculate the change scores. Which statistical approach should you choose for the analysis to determine if there is a difference between groups? One-way ANOVA Independent t-Test Repeated measures ANOVA Dependent t-Test - Precise Answer ✔✔One-way ANOVA You perform a factorial design experiment with 2 independent variables. Variable one is medication usage (yes or no) and the other is type of splint (in extension, neutral, in flexion) on grip strength in individuals with thumb OA. The best statistical test to use is. One-way ANOVA 2 X 2 ANOVA Repeated measures ANOVA 2 X 3 ANOVA - Precise Answer ✔✔2 X 3 ANOVA A researcher randomly assigns individuals to high intensity exercises or low intensity exercise and examines the effects on gait speed in individuals with Parkinson's disease. They measure gait speed at baseline and 6-months. The researcher is interested in the interaction between group and time. The best statistical test to use is? 2 X 3 Mixed design ANOVA One-way ANOVA Repeated measures ANOVA 2 X 2 Mixed design ANOVA - Precise Answer ✔✔2 X 2 Mixed design ANOVA You randomly assign 80 people with COPD to either an exercise group or no exercise. You want to determine if exercise has an impact on VO2 max. You measure VO2 max at baseline then after 4-weeks and calculate change scores. You want to see if there is a difference in change scores. During data analysis you find the samples do not have equal variances. What is the most appropriate test to analyze data? Kruskal-Wallis test Mann-Whitney U test Dependent t-Test Independent t-Test - Precise Answer ✔✔Mann-Whitney U test A study comparing 2 interventions for improving UE dexterity individuals post stroke reports a p-value of 0.02. This means - Precise Answer ✔✔The probability that the difference was due to chance (type 1 error) is 2% You want to determine if walking with a standard cane results in a faster gait speed then using a quad cane in individuals post BKA with a prosthetic. You test all individuals using both canes. The best test to analyze data is? - Precise Answer ✔✔Dependent t-test You want to know if the cervical compression test (graded as positive or negative) has adequate reliability between raters. The best statistical test to determine this would be? - Precise Answer ✔✔Kappa You want to determine if land exercise is better than massage for decreasing pain in individuals with shoulder pain. You collect data on pain at baseline, 4 weeks, and 6 months. The best test for data analysis would be? - Precise Answer ✔✔2X3 ANOVA You want to determine if there is a difference in change scores for endurance (walking distance) between a group of individuals with CHF that received exercise walking versus a group that received exercise on a stationary bike. The best test would be? - Precise Answer ✔✔Mann-Whitney U A study compares manual therapy plus exercise to no treatment for individuals with ankle pain. The authors report an NNT of 2 in favor of manual therapy and exercise. This means? - Precise Answer ✔✔You would need to treat 2 people for 1 person to improve You are using an outcome tool that has an MCID of 9 points (0-100 scale). A study shows breathing exercises result in an improvement of 12 points (95% CI: 7, 17). This indicates? - Precise Answer ✔✔There is a significant difference and definitely a clinically important difference A researcher is examining the effects of manual therapy versus US on ROM for individuals with shoulder impingement. ROM is what level of measurement? - Precise Answer ✔✔Ratio You read a study comparing functional e-stim versus constraint induced therapy for improving UE function for individuals post stroke. The study report there is an effect size of 0.5. This would indicate? - Precise Answer ✔✔A medium effect size You want to determine if there is a relationship between age and body weight. You collect data on 100 individuals. The best test to analyze the data would be? - Precise Answer ✔✔Pearson r/ Pearson's Product You want to know if a difference exists between using exercise versus US for increasing shoulder ROM in individuals status post TSA. You want to use parametric stats. Which of the following as an assumption for parametric stats? -Variances between sample is roughly equal -Sample of convenience is used -Population is not normally distributed -Data are nominal or ordinal - Precise Answer ✔✔Variances between sample is roughly equal A researcher performed a study comparing concentric versus eccentric exercise for lateral epicondylalgia. There was no difference between groups as the study was underpowered. Which of the following would increase the power of a study? - Increased alpha, effect size, and variance. Decrease sample size - Increased sample size. Decreased alpha, effect size and variance - Increased alpha, effect size, and sample size. Decreased variance - Increased variance and sample size. Decreased alpha and effect size - Precise Answer ✔✔Increased alpha, effect size, and sample size. Decreased variance A study reports there is a correlation between age over 55 and running speed. As age increases running speed decreases. This indicates a? - Precise Answer ✔✔Negative relationship between age and speed You are examining the change in disability for individuals with low back pain who receive exercise, US, or soft tissue mobilization. Which of the following would be best to determine if there was a difference between change scores? - Independent t-test - Dependent t-test - ANOVA - Chi square - Precise Answer ✔✔ANOVA A researcher performs a study that shown a significant difference between exercise and hot packs for treating GT bursitis but in reality there is no difference. This is an example of? - Precise Answer ✔✔Type 1 error Patients with rotator cuff tear return to work at an average of 8 weeks +/- 1.5 (+/- refers to 1 SD). If the data is normally distributed what can you say about the results? - Precise Answer ✔✔68% of subjects will return to work between 6.5 and 9.5 weeks You want to know if there is a difference in average post op in a group that had a hamstring graft ACL reconstruction versus a patella tendon graft. Which t-test would be more appropriate to use? - Precise Answer ✔✔two-tailed independent