Economics of Biodiversity - Environmental Economics - Handouts, Lecture notes for Environmental Economics. Manav Bharti University
dipen
dipen

Economics of Biodiversity - Environmental Economics - Handouts, Lecture notes for Environmental Economics. Manav Bharti University

4 pages
3Number of download
1000+Number of visits
100%on 1 votesNumber of votes
Description
Economics of Biodiversity, Extinction and Conservation, Biodiversity, Extinction, Causes of Anthropogenic Biodiversity Loss, Fundamental Causes, Main Human Behaviors, Market Failure, Biodiversity Loss, Wilderness Act are...
20 points
Download points needed to download
this document
Download the document
Preview3 pages / 4
This is only a preview
3 shown on 4 pages
Download the document
This is only a preview
3 shown on 4 pages
Download the document
This is only a preview
3 shown on 4 pages
Download the document
This is only a preview
3 shown on 4 pages
Download the document
Econ 325 In-Class Work The Economics of Biodiversity: Extinction and Conservation

The Economics of Biodiversity: Extinction and Conservation Biodiversity – a shortened term for Biological Diversity – is a general concept used to characterize the number, variety, and variability of living organisms in a given grouping or area. The term biodiversity can be used to describe various levels of biological organization, including genetic diversity, species diversity, and ecosystem diversity. Extinction is the dying out of a given species or group of species, and directly leads to the loss of biodiversity in all levels. Extinction may be naturally occurring or human-induced (anthropogenic). Projections of species loss over the next century range from 20 to 50 percent of the world’s total species availability (note: their is much uncertainty regarding how many species actually exist currently or have ever existed). This rate of loss is between 1,000 and 10,000 times the historical rate of extinction. Causes of anthropogenic biodiversity loss → What are the fundamental causes of biodiversity loss? Proximate causes of biodiversity loss are the explicit behaviors that result from the market failure. → What are the three main human behaviors (resulting from market failure) that result in biodiversity loss? Provide economic justification for the preservation of biodiversity. That is, what are the benefits of slowing the rate of biodiversity loss? Address species diversity first, then ecosystem diversity.

Docsity.com

Law/Policy → The Wilderness Act of 1964: → The Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972: → The Endangered Species Act (ESA), passed in 1973: The major piece of legislation in the US designed to persevere species. The act authorizes the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) and the Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) to identify and list all endangered and threatened species. → What factors are considered when listing a species as threatened or endangered? As of January 31, 1997, 623 species of plants, and 444 species of animals are listed. The ESA provides that once a species is listed as endangered, it cannot be “taken”; that is, it cannot be “harassed, harmed, pursued, hunted, shot, wounded, killed, trapped, captured, or collected”. The term “harmed” was qualified in 1995 to include habitat modification or degradation such that the behavioral patterns of the species were impaired. ESA further stipulates that once a species is listed as endangered or threatened, FWS or NMFS is supposed to prepare a plan to help the species recover. In other words, the primary goal put forth by the listing of a species is the eventual delisting of that species. The ESA has a few special provisions to allow for more flexible species protection in order to accommodate economic concerns. → Incidental take permits: The Endangered Species Committee: How would you classify the ESA in terms of the type of policy that it represents? What are the main arguments against the ESA?

Docsity.com

Also in 1973, an international agreement, known as “The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species” (CITES), was adopted by 122 countries. Under CITES, majority vote by the member countries determines whether a species will be considered endangered. If a species is listed under CITES, then none of the member countries is permitted to import or export that species or any products derived from that species. Do you see a shortcoming with CITES in terms of correcting the relevant market failure? How did the treaty signed at the 1992 Rio Earth Summit address this shortcoming? How are the economic problems associated with preserving biodiversity similar to another environmental issue we’ve studied? Other International “Solutions” for Preservation of Biodiversity → Debt-for-nature swaps: Eco-tourism:

Docsity.com

Endangered Species Case Studies with Important Economic Implications → The Snail Darter and Tellico Dam (1975): The Northern Spotted Owl and the Timber Industry in the NW United States: The Red-Cockaded Woodpecker and Georgia Pacific

Docsity.com

no comments were posted
This is only a preview
3 shown on 4 pages
Download the document