environmental science, Lecture notes for Environmental science
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hayati-hamzah

environmental science, Lecture notes for Environmental science

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this is about how the energy forms and changes
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Energy:

Energy: Forms and Changes

Nature of Energy

 Energy is all around you! You can hear energy as sound. You can see energy as light. And you can feel it as wind.

Nature of Energy

 You use energy when you:  hit a softball.  lift your book

bag.  compress a

spring.

Nature of Energy

Living organisms need energy for growth and

movement.

Nature of Energy

 Energy is involved when:  a bird flies.  a bomb explodes.  rain falls from the

sky.  electricity flows in

a wire.

Nature of Energy

 What is energy that it can be involved in so many different activities? Energy can be defined as the

ability to do work. If an object or organism does

work (exerts a force over a distance to move an object) the object or organism uses energy.

Nature of Energy Because of the direct connection

between energy and work, energy is measured in the same unit as work: joules (J).

 In addition to using energy to do work, objects gain energy because work is being done on them.

Forms of Energy

 The five main forms of energy are: Heat Chemical Electromagnetic Nuclear Mechanical

Heat Energy

 The internal motion of the atoms is called heat energy, because moving particles produce heat.

 Heat energy can be produced by friction.

 Heat energy causes changes in temperature and phase of any form of matter.

Chemical Energy

Chemical Energy is required to bond atoms together.

And when bonds are broken, energy is released.

Chemical Energy

 Fuel and food are forms of stored chemical energy.

Electromagnetic Energy

 Power lines carry electromagnetic energy into your home in the form of electricity.

Electromagnetic Energy

 Light is a form of electromagnetic energy.

 Each color of light (Roy G Bv) represents a different amount of electromagnetic energy.

 Electromagnetic Energy is also carried by X-rays, radio waves, and laser light.

Nuclear Energy

 The nucleus of an atom is the source of nuclear energy.

Nuclear Energy

 When the nucleus splits (fission), nuclear energy is released in the form of heat energy and light energy.

 Nuclear energy is also released when nuclei collide at high speeds and join (fuse).

Nuclear Energy

The sun’s energy is produced from a nuclear fusion reaction in which hydrogen nuclei fuse to form helium nuclei.

Nuclear Energy

Nuclear energy is the most concentrated form of energy.

Most of us live within 10 miles of the Surry Nuclear Power Plant which converts nuclear energy into electromagnetic energy.

Mechanical Energy

When work is done to an object, it acquires energy. The energy it acquires is known as mechanical energy.

Mechanical Energy

When you kick a football, you give mechancal energy to the football to make it move.

Mechanical Energy

When you throw a balling ball, you give it energy. When that bowling ball hits the pins, some of the energy is transferred to the pins (transfer of momentum).

Energy Conversion

 Energy can be changed from one form to another. Changes in the form of energy are called energy conversions.

Energy conversions

 All forms of energy can be converted into other forms.  The sun’s energy through solar cells

can be converted directly into electricity.

Green plants convert the sun’s energy (electromagnetic) into starches and sugars (chemical energy).

Other energy conversions

 In an electric motor, electromagnetic energy is converted to mechanical energy.

 In a battery, chemical energy is converted into electromagnetic energy.

 The mechanical energy of a waterfall is converted to electrical energy in a generator.

Energy Conversions

 In an automobile engine, fuel is burned to convert chemical energy into heat energy. The heat energy is then changed into mechanical energy.

Chemical  Heat Mechanical

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