Essay Writing-Journalistic Writing-Lecture Handout
shreya
shreya

Essay Writing-Journalistic Writing-Lecture Handout

PDF (4 MB)
6 pages
1000+Number of visits
Description
This lecture handout was provided by Prof. Sameer Reddy at Acharya Nagarjuna University. This lecture is part of lecture series on Journalistic Writing course. It includes: Essay, Writing, Anglicizing, Analyze, Major, Ef...
20 points
Download points needed to download
this document
Download the document
Preview3 pages / 6
This is only a preview
3 shown on 6 pages
Download the document
This is only a preview
3 shown on 6 pages
Download the document
This is only a preview
3 shown on 6 pages
Download the document
This is only a preview
3 shown on 6 pages
Download the document
Journalistic Writing – MCM310

Journalistic Writing – MCM310

Anglicizing essay topic: ESSAY WRITING:

VU LECTURE 22

1. Analyze Jesus‘Sermon on the Mount. o Analyze (strategy) o Jesus‘Sermon on the Mount. (content) o Jesus‘ Sermon; on the Mount (prompts)

Describe the major effects of reconstruction. o Describe (strategy) o The major effects of reconstruction. (content) o Major; effects; reconstruction (prompts)

Compare ‘The End of History’ with the ‘Clash of Civilization’. o Compare (strategy) o ‘End of History’ with the ‘Clash of Civilization’. (content) o Compare; The End of History; ‘The Clash of Civilization’ (prompts)

What is a well written answer to an essay question?

It is... Well Focused Be sure to answer the question completely, that is, answer all parts of the question. Avoid "padding." A lot of rambling and ranting is a sure sign that the writer doesn't really know what the right answer is and hopes that somehow, something in that overgrown jungle of words was the correct answer.

Well Organized Don't write in a haphazard "think-as-you-go" manner. Do some planning and be sure that what you write has a clearly marked introduction which both states the point(s) you are going to make and also, if possible, how you are going to proceed. In addition, the essay should have a clearly indicated conclusion which summarizes the material covered and emphasizes your thesis or main point.

Well Supported Do not just assert something is true, prove it. What facts, figures, examples, tests, etc. prove your point? In many cases, the difference between an A and a B as a grade is due to the effective use of supporting evidence.

Well Packaged People who do not use conventions of language are thought of by their readers as less competent and less educated. If you need help with these or other writing skills, come to the Writing Lab!

VARIOUS STRATEGIES FOR ESSAYS:

ANALYZE: • Break the subject (an object, event, or concept) down into part, and explain the various parts.

COMPARE: • Show how two things are similar as well as different; include details or examples.

© Copyrights Virtual University of Pakistan 71

docsity.com

Journalistic Writing – MCM310 CONTRAST: • Show how two things are different; include details or examples.

CRITIQUE: • Point out both the good and bad points of something.

DEFINE: • Give an accurate meaning of a term with enough detail to show that you really understand it.

DESCRIBE:

VU

• Write about the subject so the reader can easily visualize it; tell how it looks or happened, including how, who, where, why.

DIAGRAM: • Make a drawing of something, and label its parts.

DISCUSS: • Give a complete and detailed answer, including important characteristics and main points.

ENUMERATE: • Write in list or outline form, giving points one by one.

EVALUATE: • Give your opinion of the value of the subject; discuss its good and bad points, strengths and weaknesses.

EXPLAIN: • Give the meaning of something; give facts and details that make the idea easy to understand

ILLUSTRATE: • Make the point or idea clear by giving examples.

INTERPRET: • Tell about the importance of the subject. Explain the results of the effects of something.

JUSTIFY: • Give good reasons that support a decision, action or event.

OUTLINE: • Make an organized listing of the important points of a subject.

PRETEND • Make believe/Imagine you are in a particular situation or that you are a particular person, etc., and describe what this is like.

PROVE • Show that something is true by giving facts of logical reasons.

RELATE • Show how things are alike or connected.

STATE • Give the main points in brief, clear form.

© Copyrights Virtual University of Pakistan 72

docsity.com

Journalistic Writing – MCM310 SUMMARIZE • Briefly cover the main points; use a paragraph form.

TRACE • Tell about an event or process in chronological order.

PROMPTS:

VU

Prompts are the key words of the essay statement or call them terms of a question. The body of the whole essay revolves around these terms. They are the points you are to cover while writing any essay. An essay with any of the prompts missed will be considered an incomplete one. Therefore make sure that you have analyzed the topic statement before you start writing.

HIGH IMPACT LANGUAGE:

1. High Impact Words 2. High Impact Sentence

3. High Impact Appearance

HIGH IMPACT LANGUAGE: WORDS

Use Anglo-Saxon

Latinate pursuant ascertain cognizant objective advise

Anglo-Saxon after find out know goal tell

Avoid Wordiness: Seven Ways of Avoiding Wordiness

Rule 1 Avoid ready-made phrases Like Frankenstein's monster, "ready-made" writing is stitched together out of cadaver parts.

Rule 2 Avoid repetition Many combinations of verbs and prepositions or adverbs are emphatic but redundant; many adjectives and prepositional phrases are equally unnecessary.

Rule 3 Avoid passive and expletive structures Passive and expletive structures soften action, hide the actors, and add colourless bulk.

Rule 4 Avoid circumlocution and pomposity There is an atmosphere of well-sounding oratory that likes to attach itself to dress clothes. Away with it

Rule 5 Avoid euphemisms Euphemisms often protect items from the unfair associations of an unpleasant name; however, they can also hide the nature of unpleasant things under a fair name.

Rule 6 Use verbs rather than nouns (avoid the Noun Disease) Writers often avoid strong, simple verbs by joining weak verbs to nominalizations, verbs transformed into nouns.

Rule 7 Shorten modifiers Simple modifiers can usually replace relative clauses.

© Copyrights Virtual University of Pakistan 73

docsity.com

Journalistic Writing – MCM310

HIGH IMPACT LANGUAGE: STRUCTURE

1. Simple, Compound and Complex 2. Put subject first

3. Use active voice

SIMPLE, COMPOUND AND COMPLEX STRUCTURES

I ran the meeting. (Simple sentence or maximum impact)

I ran the meeting, and I wrote the minutes. (Compound sentence to lower a message’s impact)

After I read the contract, I sent it to headquarters. (Use a combination of complex and simple sentences for variety and high impact.)

PUT SUBJECT FIRST

Assistance in designing a system tailored to a customer’s needs provides … The attached checklist provides assistance in designing a system tailored to a customer’s needs.

VU

As I consider the discussion topics, the subject matter I am to address, and the divergent interests of the group … I am concerned that my remarks may not be on target as I consider the discussion topics, the subject matter I am to address, and the divergent interests in the group.

USE ACTIVE VOICE

The secretary will cancel the meeting. The meeting was cancelled by the secretary. The meeting was cancelled. (Note: PASSIVES CAN HIDE THE TRUE SUBJECT)

HIGH IMPACT LANGUAGE: APPEARANCE

1. PARAGRAPH SIZE (3 to 4 sentence) 2. MULTIPLE IDEAS (indent and itemize)

3. WHITE SPACES (a paper with white spaces makes better impression.)

4. HEADINGS (headings create pictures in mind.)

Example: Compare these two versions and see which one follows the above principles.

Version 1: During the changeovers from contract guards to security officers, the quality of the existing contract

security service must be upgraded through the careful selecting of vendors and implementation of acceptable contractual performance requirements. In those instances where guard services are provided by the landlord as part of the lease, appropriate negotiations must be conducted by Purchase to terminate this service within the specified changeover time period.

Version 2: During the changeovers from contract guards to security officers, the quality of the existing contract

security service must be upgraded through

© Copyrights Virtual University of Pakistan 74

docsity.com

Journalistic Writing – MCM310 1. The careful selecting of vendors. 2. Implementation of acceptable contractual performance requirements.

VU

In those instances where guard services are provided by the landlord as part of the lease, appropriate negotiations must be conducted by Purchase to terminate this service within the specified changeover time period.

EXAMPLE: Let’s put all these impact language principles together to change the following paragraphs into a high impact one.

ORIGINAL While interoffice systems have been extant for approximately half a decade, still being generated are the definitions, concepts, and approach to be employed in moving these systems into external markets. Conceptions of how management might alter or alleviate matters on subsequent occasions are held by sources who have been involved with the projects, and availability of interchange of experience from interoffice to external systems has to be improved. Fundamental to our product’s success are contemplated to be instability, effortless utilization, and personal comfort of the user. For insurance of fruition, adaptation to the aforementioned thoughts could be considered.

Topic sentence added:

A few thoughts could be interchanged on the subject of selling interoffice systems, for while the systems have been extant for approximately half a decade, still being generated are the definitions, concepts, and approach to be employed in moving these systems into external markets. Conceptions of how management might alter or alleviate matters on subsequent occasions are held by sources who have been involved with the projects, and availability of interchange of experience from interoffice to external systems has to be improved. Fundamental to our product’s success are contemplated to be instability, effortless utilization, and personal comfort of the user. For insurance of fruition, adaptation to the aforementioned thoughts could be considered.

Divided into Paragraphs:

A few thoughts could be interchanged on the subject of selling interoffice systems, for while the systems have been extant for approximately half a decade, still being generated are the definitions, concepts, and approach to be employed in moving these systems into external markets.

Conceptions of how management might alter or alleviate matters on subsequent occasions are held by sources who have been involved with the projects, and availability of interchange of experience from interoffice to external systems has to be improved.

Fundamental to our product’s success are contemplated to be instability, effortless utilization, and personal comfort of the user.

For insurance of fruition, adaptation to the aforementioned thoughts could be considered.

Word Choice Simplified A few thoughts could be exchanged (interchanged) on the subject of selling interoffice systems, for

while the systems have been (extant for) around (approximately) for about five years (half a decade), still being generated are the definitions, concepts, and approach to be employed in selling these systems to customers (external markets).

Ideas (conceptions) on how management might proceed (alter or alleviate) differently in the future (subsequent occasions) are held by people who have been working (involved) on the projects, and

© Copyrights Virtual University of Pakistan 75

docsity.com

Journalistic Writing – MCM310 VU the experience of those people who have used interoffice systems (external systems) has to be made available (interchange) to those planning to sell these systems.

Keys (fundamentals) to our product’s success are thought (contemplated) to be ease of installation (instability), simplicity of use (effortless utilization), and careful attention to the personal comfort of the user.

For continued success (insurance of fruition) to be ensured, these (aforementioned) thoughts need to be kept constantly (considered) in mind.

Sentence Shortened A few thoughts could be exchanged on the subject of selling interoffice systems. The definitions,

concepts, and approach to be employed in selling these systems to customers are still being developed, even though the systems have been around for about five years.

Ideas on how management might proceed differently (or better) in the future are held by people who have been working on the projects. The experience of those people who have used interoffice systems has to be made available to those planning to sell these systems.

Keys to our product’s success are thought to be ease of installation, simplicity of use, and careful attention to the personal comfort of the user.

For continued success to be ensured, these thoughts need to be kept constantly in mind.

Sentence Made Active I would like to exchange a few thoughts with you on the subject of selling interoffice systems. We still

have not developed a well thought-out approach to selling these systems to customers, even though the systems have been around for about five years.

People who have been working on the project have ideas on how management might proceed differently (or better) in the future. Those people who have used interoffice systems must be able to share their experience with those planning to sell these systems.

The Keys to our product’s success are ease of installation, simplicity of use, and careful attention to the personal comfort of the user.

Keep these thoughts in mind, and we will ensure continued success.

Multiple ideas Itemized I would like to exchange a few thoughts with you on the subject of selling interoffice systems.

1. We still have not developed a well thought-out approach to selling these systems to customers, even though the systems have been around for about five years.

People who have been working on the project have ideas on how management might proceed differently (or better) in the future.

2. Those people who have used interoffice systems must be able to share their experience with those planning to sell these systems.

3. The Keys to our product’s success are ease of installation, simplicity of use, and careful attention to the personal comfort of the user.

Keep these thoughts in mind, we will ensure continued success.

Source: Principles of Business Communication (Apologies: author not known)

© Copyrights Virtual University of Pakistan 76

docsity.com

no comments were posted
This is only a preview
3 shown on 6 pages
Download the document