Example Computer Families - Principles of Computer Architecture - Lecture Slides, Slides for Advanced Computer Architecture. Amity Business School
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sarasvatir23 April 2013

Example Computer Families - Principles of Computer Architecture - Lecture Slides, Slides for Advanced Computer Architecture. Amity Business School

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In this short course we study the basic concept of the principle of computer architecture. In these lecture slides the key points are:Example Computer Families, Sun Microsystems, Pentium, Intel Corporation, Electronic Ca...
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Example CPU Chips

Example Computer Families

• Pentium 4 by Intel • UltraSPARC III by Sun Microsystems • The 8051 chip by Intel, used for embedded

systems

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Pentium 4

• The Intel Corporation was formed in 1968. • In 1970, Intel manufactured the first single-

chip CPU, the 4-bit 4004 for a Japanese company to use in an electronic calculator.

• The 8088, a 16-bit CPU was chosen as the CPU for the original IBM PC.

• A series of backward compatible chips (80286, 386, 486, Pentium, Pentium Pro and Pentium II, III and 4) followed.

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Intel Computer Family (1)

The Intel CPU family. Clock speeds are measured in MHz (megahertz) where 1 MHZ is

1 million cycles/sec.

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Intel Computer Family (2)

The Pentium 4 chip. The photograph is copyrighted by the Intel Corporation, 2003 and is used by permission.

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Intel Computer Family (3)

Moore’s law for (Intel) CPU chips.

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Pentium 4

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UltraSPARC III

– In the 1970s, UNIX was popular at universities, but it ran only on timeshared minicomputers such as the VAX and PDP-11

– In 1981, a Stanford graduate student built a personal UNIX workstation using off-the-shelf parts. It was called the SUN-1.

– Early Sun workstations used Motorola CPUs. – In 1987, Sun decided to design its own CPU based

on a Cal Berkeley design called the RISC II.

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UltraSPARC III • The new CPU was called the SPARC (Scalable Processor

ARChitecture) and was used in the Sun-4. • The SPARC was licensed to several semiconductor

manufacturers who developed binary compatible versions.

• The first SPARC was a 32-bit machine with only 55 instructions (an FPU added 14 additional instructions).

• A 64-bit version, the UltraSPARC I was developed in 1995. This machine was aimed at high-end applications (e.g. web and database servers).

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MCS-51 Family

• The Intel 8051 is used in embedded systems • Features

– 8-bit CPU – Read only memory for the program – RAM for variables – 32 I/O lines – 2 timers – Serial port – Low cost (10-15 cents per chip)

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MCS-51 Family

Members of the MCS-51 family.

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The Pentium 4

– It is fully backward compatible with the 8088 and can run unmodified 8088 binary programs.

– From a software point of view, the Pentium 4 is a full 32-bit machine.

• It has the same user-level ISA as the 80386, 80486, Pentium, Pentium Pro, Pentium II and III including the same registers, same instructions, and a full on-chip implementation of the IEEE 754 floating-point standard.

– From a hardware perspective, Pentium 4 is partially a 64-bit machine.

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The Pentium 4

– At the microarchitecture level, the Pentium II, III and Pentium Pro all used the P6 microarchitecture while Pentium 4 uses the NetBurst microarchitecture.

• Supports hyperthreading – ISA level instructions are fetched from memory in

advance and are broken up into RISC-like micro- operations stored in the L1 cache.

• All models have L2 cache, some have L3 as well.

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The Pentium 4

– The micro-operations are stored in a buffer, and as soon as one of them has the necessary resources to execute, it can be started.

• Multiple micro-operations can be started in the same cycle, making the Pentium 4 a superscalar machine.

– Snooping on the memory bus is supported so that multi-CPU systems can be built

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The Pentium 4

Two primary external buses are used in Pentium 4 systems, both of them synchronous.

• The memory bus is used to address the main DRAM. • The PCI bus is used for talking to I/O devices. • Sometimes a legacy bus is attached to the PCI bus to

allow the old peripheral devices to be plugged in.

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The Pentium 4

The Pentium 4 physical pinout.

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Pentium 4

• 478 Pins – 85 power – 180 ground

• Power consumption 63-82 watts – Chip contains a mounting bracket for a heat sink

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The Pentium 4’s Logical Pinout

Logical pinout of the Pentium 4. Names in upper case are the office are the official Intel names for individual signals. Names in mixed case are groups of related signals or signal descriptions.

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The Pentium 4

– The Pentium 4 memory bus is pipelined with six stages:

• The bus arbitration phase • The request phase • The error reporting phase • The snoop phase • The response phase • The data phase

– Not all phases are needed on all transactions. – Each phase uses different bus signals.

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The Pentium 4

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The UltraSPARC III

– The UltraSPARC family is Sun’s line of 64-bit SPARC CPUs. It conforms to the Version 9 SPARC architecture.

– The UltraSPARC III is a traditional RISC machine and is fully binary compatible with the 32-bit SPARC V8 architecture.

– The UltraSPARC III was designed to build shared- memory multiprocessors without the need for external circuitry, and larger multiprocessors with minimal external circuitry.

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The UltraSPARC III

– Unlike the Pentium II, the UltraSPARC III is a standalone chip (with 29 million transistors).

– It has 1369 pins on the bottom. The large number of pins is partly accounted for by the use of 64 bits for address and 128 bits for data, but also by the way caching works.

– The UltraSPARC III has two internal caches: • 32 KB for data • 64 KB for instructions • It also has an off-chip level 2 cache

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