Fitting Study Notes for ITI Students In India ( Collection Materials), Exercises for Design

Fitting Study Notes for ITI Students In India ( Collection Materials), Exercises for Design

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DESCRIPTION This Notes is help full ITI students for preparing for ITI Fitter Trade , Electreician & Others. This Notes is about workshop of Mechanical Engineering course. Its main points are: Fitting Gear . Drilling...
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Power transmission is the movement of energy from its place of generation to a location where it

is applied to performing useful work. Power transmission is normally accomplished by

belts, ropes, chains, gears, couplings and friction clutches.


A toothed wheel that engages another toothed mechanism in order to change the speed or

direction of transmitted motion.

A gear is a component within a transmission device that transmits rotational force to another gear or device. A gear is different from a pulley in that a gear is a round wheel which has linkages ("teeth" or "cogs") that mesh with other gear teeth, allowing force to be fully transferred without slippage. Depending on their construction and arrangement, geared

devices can transmit forces at different speeds, torques, or in a different direction, from the power source. The most common situation is for a gear to mesh with another gear

Gear’s most important feature is that gears of unequal sizes (diameters) can be combined

to produce a mechanical advantage, so that the rotational speed and torque of the second

gear are different from that of the first.

To overcome the problem of slippage as in belt drives, gears are used which produce

positive drive with uniform angular velocity.


Gears or toothed wheels may be classified as follows:

1. According to the position of axes of the shafts. The axes of the two shafts between which the motion is to be transmitted, may be

a. Parallel

b. Intersecting

c. Non-intersecting and Non-parallel

Gears for connecting parallel shafts

1. Spur Gear

Teeth is parallel to axis of rotation can transmit power from one shaft to another parallel shaft. Spur gears are the simplest and most common type of gear. Their general form

is a cylinder or disk. The teeth project radially, and with these "straight-cut gears".

Spur gears are gears in the same plane that move opposite of each other because they are

meshed together. Gear ‘A’ is called the ‘driver’ because this is turned by a motor. As gear ‘A’ turns it meshes with gear ‘B’ and it begins to turn as well. Gear ‘B’ is called

the ‘driven’ gear.


External gear makes external contact, and the internal gear (right side pair) makes

internal contact.


Electric screwdriver, dancing monster, oscillating sprinkler, windup alarm clock, washing machine and clothes dryer

2. Parallel Helical Gear

The teeth on helical gears are cut at an angle to the face of the gear. When

two teeth on a helical gear system engage, the contact starts at one end of the tooth

and gradually spreads as the gears rotate, until the two teeth are in full


This gradual engagement makes helical gears operate much more smoothly and quietly

than spur gears. For this reason, helical gears are used in almost all car

transmissions. Because of the angle of the teeth on helical gears, they create a

thrust load on the gear when they mesh. Devices that use helical gears have

bearings that can support this thrust load.

One interesting thing about helical gears is that if the angles of the gear teeth are correct,

they can be mounted on perpendicular shafts, adjusting the rotation angle by 90



Herringbone gears: To avoid axial thrust, two helical gears of opposite hand can be mounted

side by side, to cancel resulting thrust forces. These are called double helical or

herringbone gears

Herringbone gears (or double-helical gears)

Applications of Herringbone Gears

The most common application is in power transmission. They utilize

curved teeth for efficient, high capacity power transmission. This offers reduced

pulsation due to which they are highly used for extrusion and polymerization.

Herringbone gears are mostly used on heavy machinery.

3. Rack and pinion Rack and pinion gears are used to convert rotation (From the pinion) into

linear motion (of the rack). A perfect example of this is the steering system on

many cars. The steering wheel rotates a gear which engages the rack. As the gear

turns, it slides the rack either to the right or left, depending on which way you turn

the wheel. Rack and pinion gears are also used in some scales to turn the dial that

displays your weight.


1. Straight Bevel Gear

Bevel gears are useful when the direction of a shaft's rotation needs to be

changed. They are usually mounted on shafts that are 90 degrees apart, but can be

designed to work at other angles as well. The teeth on bevel gears can be straight,

spiral or hypoid. Straight bevel gear teeth actually have the same problem as

straight spur gear teeth as each tooth engages, it impacts the corresponding tooth

all at once.

BEVEL GEAR Just like with spur gears, the solution to this problem is to curve the gear teeth. These

spiral teeth engage just like helical teeth: the contact starts at one end of the gear

and progressively spreads across the whole tooth.


On straight and spiral bevel gears, the shafts must be perpendicular to each other, but

they must also be in the same plane. If you were to extend the two shafts past the

gears, they would intersect

The bevel gear has many diverse applications such as locomotives, marine applications,

automobiles, printing presses, cooling towers, power plants, steel plants, railway

track inspection machines, etc.



Worm gears are used when large gear reductions are needed. It is common

for worm gears to have reductions of 20:1, and even up to 300:1 or greater.

Many worm gears have an interesting property that no other gear set has: the worm can

easily turn the gear, but the gear cannot turn the worm. This is because the angle

on the worm is so shallow that when the gear tries to spin it, the friction between

the gear and the worm holds the worm in place.


This feature is useful for machines such as conveyor systems, in which the locking

feature can act as a brake for the conveyor when the motor is not turning. One

other very interesting usage of worm gears is in the Torsen differential, which is

used on some high-performance cars and trucks. They are used in right-angle or

skew shaft drives. The presence of sliding action in the system even though results

in quieter operation, it gives rise to considerable frictional heat, hence they need

good lubrication for heat dissipation and for improving the efficiency. High

reductions are possible which results in compact drive.


Worm gears are used widely in material handling and transportation machinery,

machine tools, automobiles etc.



In the following section, we define many of the terms used in the analysis of spur gears.

Pitch surface: The surface of the imaginary rolling cylinder (cone, etc.) that the toothed gear may be considered to replace.

Pitch circle: A right section of the pitch surface.

Addendum circle: A circle bounding the ends of the teeth, in a right section of the gear.

Root (or dedendum) circle: The circle bounding the spaces between the teeth, in a right section of the gear.

Addendum: The radial distance between the pitch circle and the addendum circle.

Dedendum: The radial distance between the pitch circle and the root circle.

Clearance: The difference between the dedendum of one gear and the addendum of the mating gear.

Face of a tooth: That part of the tooth surface lying outside the pitch surface.

Flank of a tooth: The part of the tooth surface lying inside the pitch surface.

Circular thickness (also called the tooth thickness): The thickness of the tooth measured on the pitch circle. It is the length of an arc and not the length of a straight line.

Tooth space: pitch diameter The distance between adjacent teeth measured on the pitch circle.

Backlash: The difference between the circle thickness of one gear and the tooth space of the mating gear.

Circular pitch (Pc) : The width of a tooth and a space, measured on the pitch circle.

Diametral pitch (Pd): The number of teeth of a gear unit pitch diameter. A toothed gear must have an integral number of teeth. The circular pitch, therefore, equals the pitch

circumference divided by the number of teeth. The diametral pitch is, by definition, the

number of teeth divided by the pitch diameter. That is,


Pc = circular pitch

Pd = diametral pitch

N = number of teeth

D = pitch diameter

Module (m): Pitch diameter divided by number of teeth. The pitch diameter is usually specified in inches or millimeters; in the former case the module is the inverse of

diametral pitch.

m = D/N

Fillet: The small radius that connects the profile of a tooth to the root circle.

Pinion: The smaller of any pair of mating gears. The larger of the pair is called simply the gear.

Velocity ratio: The ratio of the number of revolutions of the driving (or input) gear to the number of revolutions of the driven (or output) gear, in a unit of time.

Pitch point: The point of tangency of the pitch circles of a pair of mating gears.

Common tangent: The line tangent to the pitch circle at the pitch point.

Line of action: A line normal to a pair of mating tooth profiles at their point of contact.

Path of contact: The path traced by the contact point of a pair of tooth profiles.

Pressure angle (): The angle between the common normal at the point of tooth contact and the common tangent to the pitch circles. It is also the angle between the line of action

and the common tangent.

Base circle: An imaginary circle used in involute gearing to generate the involutes that form the tooth profiles.


Velocity ratio is defined as the ratio of the speed of the driven shaft to the speed of the

driver shaft.

One gear is a driver, which has d1, N1, 1 as diameter, speed and angular speed respectively.

Another gear is driven connected to the driven shaft has d2, N2 ,2 as diameter, speed

angular speed respectively.

Angular speeds of the two gears will be

The peripheral velocity of the driver and driven shafts for the meshing pair of gear is

equal and is given by = = =

Hence velocity ratio (n) = T1 and T 2 are the number of teeth on driver gear and driven gear, since the pair of gear

as the same module (m),then




A gear train is two or more gear working together by meshing their teeth and

turning each other in a system to generate power and speed. It reduces speed and

increases torque. To create large gear ratio, gears are connected together to form

gear trains. They often consist of multiple gears in the train. The smaller gears are one-fifth of the size of the larger gear. Electric motors are used with the gear

systems to reduce the speed and increase the torque. Electric motor is connected to

the driving end of each train and is mounted on the test platform. The output end

of the gear train is connected to a large magnetic particle brake that is used to

measure the output torque.

Types of gear trains

1. Simple gear train

2. Compound gear train

3. Planetary gear train

Simple Gear Train

The most common of the gear train is the gear pair connecting parallel shafts.

The teeth of this type can be spur, helical or herringbone. only one gear for each

axis. The angular velocity is simply the reverse of the tooth ratio. The main

limitation of a simple gear train is that the maximum speed change ratio is 10:1.

For larger ratio, large sizes of gear trains are required. The sprockets and chain in

the bicycle is an example of simple gear train. When the paddle is pushed, the

front gear is turned and that meshes with the links in the chain. The chain moves

and meshes with the links in the rear gear that is attached to the rear wheel. This

enables the bicycle to move.

Simple and compound gear trains

Compound Gear Train

For large velocities, compound arrangement is preferred. Two keys are

keyed to a single shaft. A double reduction train can be arranged to have its input

and output shafts in a line, by choosing equal center distance for gears and pinions.

Two or more gears may rotate about a single axis

Planetary Gear Train (Epicyclic Gear Train)

Planetary gears solve the following problem. Let's say you want a gear

ratio of 6:1 with the input turning in the same direction as the output. One way to

create that ratio is with the following three-gear train:

Planetary Gear Train

In this train, the blue gear has six times the diameter of the yellow gear

(giving a 6:1 ratio). The size of the red gear is not important because it is just there

to reverse the direction of rotation so that the blue and yellow gears turn the same

way. However, imagine that you want the axis of the output gear to be the same as

that of the input gear. A common place where this same-axis capability is needed

is in an electric screwdriver. In that case, you can use a planetary gear system, as

shown here:

Planetary Gear Train

In this gear system, the yellow gear (the sun) engages all three red gears

(the planets) simultaneously. All three are attached to a plate (the planet carrier),

and they engage the inside of the blue gear (the ring) instead of the outside.

Because there are three red gears instead of one, this gear train is extremely

rugged. The output shaft is attached to the blue ring gear, and the planet carrier is

held stationary -- this gives the same 6:1 gear ratio. Another interesting thing about

planetary gear sets is that they can produce different gear ratios depending on

which gear you use as the input, which gear you use as the output, and which one

you hold still. For instance, if the input is the sun gear, and we hold the ring gear

stationary and attach the output shaft to the planet carrier, we get a different gear

ratio. In this case, the planet carrier and planets orbit the sun gear, so instead of the sun gear having to spin six times for the planet carrier to make it around once, it

has to spin seven times. This is because the planet carrier circled the sun gear once

in the same direction as it was spinning, subtracting one revolution from the sun

gear. So in this case, we get a 7:1 reduction.

You could rearrange things again, and this time hold the sun gear stationary, take the

output from the planet carrier and hook the input up to the ring gear. This would

give you a 1.17:1 gear reduction. An automatic transmission uses planetary gear

sets to create the different gear ratios, using clutches and brake bands to hold different parts of the gear set stationary and change the inputs and outputs.

Planetary gear trains have several advantages. They have higher gear ratios. They are

popular for automatic transmissions in automobiles. They are also used in bicycles

for controlling power of pedaling automatically or manually. They are also used

for power train between internal combustion engine and an electric motor.


Gear trains are used in representing the phases of moon on a watch or clock dial. It

is also used for driving a conventional two-disk lunar phase display off the day-of-

the-week shaft of the calendar.

Velocity ratio of Gear trains

We know that the velocity ratio of a pair of gears is the inverse proportion of the

diameters of their pitch circle, and the diameter of the pitch circle equals to the

number of teeth divided by the diametral pitch. Also, we know that it is necessary

for the mating gears to have the same diametral pitch so that to satisfy the

condition of correct meshing. Thus, we infer that the velocity ratio of a pair of

gears is the inverse ratio of their number of teeth.

For the ordinary gear trains we have (Fig a)

These equations can be combined to give the velocity ratio of the first gear in the train to

the last gear:


• The tooth numbers in the numerator are those of the driven gears, and the tooth numbers in the denominator belong to the driver gears.

• Gear 2 and 3 both drive and are, in turn, driven. Thus, they are called idler gears. Since their tooth numbers cancel, idler gears do not affect the magnitude of the input-output

ratio, but they do change the directions of rotation. Note the directional arrows in the figure. Idler gears can also constitute a saving of space and money (If gear 1 and 4

meshes directly across a long center distance, their pitch circle will be much larger.)


1. The pitch circle diameter of the spur gear is 200 mm and the number of teeth is 10.

Calculate the module of the gear

Given data

D= 200 mm



m =D/N

200/10= 20

Module of the gear is 20

2. Pitch circle diameter of the spur gear is 180 mm and the number of teeth on the gear is

14. Calculate the Circular pitch of the gear

Given Data

D= 180 mm



PC = 40 mm


.1 What is power transmission

.2 Why gear drives are called positively driven?

.3 What is backlash in gears?

.4 What are the types of gears available?

.5 What is gear train? Why gear trains are used?

.6 Why intermediate gear in simple gear train is called idler?

.7 What is the advantage of using helical gear over spur gear?

.8 List out the applications of gears

.9 Define the term ‘module’ in gear tooth

.10 What is herringbone gear?


1. With sketch explain various types of gears

2. With sketch explain three types of gear trains

3. Derive the velocity ratio for an simple gear train

4. With neat sketch explain the nomenclature of spur gear

5. Write the applications, advantages and disadvantages of gear drives


1. ‘Theory of machines’ R.S.Khurmi and J.K.Gupta, S.Chand Publications,2002


3. http://www.How


5. ‘Introduction to mechanisms’ yi zhang with susan finger and Stephannie Behrens





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