Hierarchical - Sociological Imagination - Lecture Slides, Slides for Sociology. Ambedkar University, Delhi
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sangem29 December 2012

Hierarchical - Sociological Imagination - Lecture Slides, Slides for Sociology. Ambedkar University, Delhi

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Hierarchical, Social Stratification, Property, Closed Stratification Systems, Slavery and Castes, Social Position, Slavery, Chattel Slavery, Domestic Slavery, Discussion are some points from this lecture.
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CHAPTER 4:

CHAPTER 8:

SOCIAL STRATIFICATION

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WHAT IS SOCIAL STRATIFICATION?

• A hierarchical ranking of people who have different access to valued resources

• Property, prestige, power, and status

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Closed Stratification Systems

• Movement from one social position to another is limited due to ascribed statuses.

• Slavery and castes are closed systems.

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• In slavery, some people own others and have control over their lives – In chattel slavery people are bought and

sold as commodities. – In domestic slavery employers force

people to work for long hours and little if any pay.

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Slavery

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Discussion How is it possible for employers to enslave

workers, even in the United States?

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• In caste systems, social categories are based on heredity.

• India is the classic example. • Indian castes

Brahmins—priests and scholars – Kshatriyas—kings and warriors – Vaishyas—merchants and farmers – Shudras—peasants and laborers

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Caste Systems

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Dalits—untouchables – Outside the caste system – Poor – Performed the most menial tasks – Were considered "polluting"

• Caste system was outlawed in 1949. • Social distinctions persist.

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Caste Systems

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Open Stratification Systems

• Social classes are relatively fluid. • Based on achieved statuses. • A social class is a category of people

who have a similar rank based on wealth, education, power, or prestige.

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Discussion To what extent is mobility possible in the

United States?

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DIMENSIONS OF STRATIFICATION

Wealth—money and economic assets – Includes property and income

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– Wealth is cumulative, passed on to the next generation, and produces income. – Income inequality is increasing in the

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Prestige—respect, recognition, or regard – Based on wealth, family background, fame,

occupation, and leadership – Prestigious occupations require education,

pay more, involve mental activity, and offer autonomy

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Prestige

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Power—the ability of individuals to achieve goals, control events, and maintain influence over others despite opposition – Power elite—a small group of white men

who make the important decisions in U.S. society

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Power

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Application • What happens when statuses are

inconsistent? • What are some examples of status

inconsistency? • What problems are associated with status

inconsistency?

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SOCIAL CLASS IN AMERICA

Socioeconomic status (SES)—an overall rank of people's positions based on their income, education, and occupation

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Upper Classes

Upper-upper class—enormous wealth, inherited fortunes, considerable economic and political power

Lower-upper classnouveau riche, engage in conspicuous consumption

Upper-middle class—live on earned income, professional and managerial occupations

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Middle Classes

Lower-middle class—non- manual, semiprofessional occupations, rely on two incomes, maintain comfortable lifestyle

Working class—skilled and semiskilled laborers, possess high school education

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Lower Classes

Working poor—work at least 27 weeks a year but live in poverty

Underclass—persistently poor, segregated residentially, relatively isolated, chronically unemployed, lack skills and education

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Application Identify the class of each example:

– Maria is a dental technician working in a large clinic.

– Kevin dropped out of high school, works in agriculture only in the summer, has trouble making ends meet.

– William inherited family wealth, attended private schools, and became a politician.

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POVERTY IN AMERICA

• Poverty is increasing. • 37 million people live in poverty in the U.S.

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Absolute poverty—not having enough money to afford the most basic necessities

Relative poverty—not having enough money to maintain an average standard of living

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Types of Poverty

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Poverty line—the minimal level of income that the federal government considers necessary for basic subsistence

• In 2006, the poverty line was $20,444 for a family of four.

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Poverty Line

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Who are the poor?

• Children • Women • African Americans, American Indians, and

Latinos

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Why are people poor?

Culture of poverty view—The poor share values, beliefs, and attitudes that are different from the non-poor.

Functional view—Society creates and sustains poverty.

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