Hospital Management System-Computer Sciences-Project Report, Guides for Applications of Computer Sciences
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Hospital Management System-Computer Sciences-Project Report, Guides for Applications of Computer Sciences

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This project report is part of degree completion in computer science at Ambedkar University, Delhi. Its main points are: Hospital, Management, System, Software, Requirement, Specification, Plan, Design, Architecture, Beh...
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Relational Model

1

1 Hospital Management System

HMS is an integrated health information system, which addresses the critical

requirements of hospitals. It provides the benefits of streamlining of operations, enhanced

administration and control, improved response, cost control and improved profitability. It

provides easy access to critical information there by enabling the management to take

better decisions on time.

The idea behind this project is to provide the hospital, under the supervision of Sultana

Foundation, with a system with the help of which it can get rid of the manual procedures.

A system is needed that can maintain hospital’s daily routine of patient’s registration,

checkup, medicine prescription, laboratory tests, medical stock’s acquiring and can

generate reports required by the hospital.

The software composes of four modules i.e. patients, doctors, laboratory and medical

store. This HMS is a high performance database system designed specifically for keeping

records for patients, doctors, laboratory test results for each patient, medicine stock in

medical store and medicine prescribed to each patient.

1.1 Summary of Work Done

The summary of the work done until now is as follows:

1.1.1 6th Semester Work:

 Software Requirement Specification

 Software Project Management Plan

1.1.2 Summer Break Work:

 Software lifecycle

 Literature survey (books, www, papers)

1.1.3 7th Semester Work:

Mid Term Progress:

 Data flow diagrams

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 Entity relationship model

 Data model

 Design architecture

7th semester final work done:

 Revision of ERD

 Relational model

 Scenario based model (use case diagrams, activity diagrams)

 Class model

 Behavioral model (state, sequence diagrams)

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2 Entity Relationship Modeling

An entity-relationship (ER) diagram is a type of conceptual data model or semantic data

model. An ERD is a specialized graphical representation that illustrates the

interrelationships between entities in a database. There are two basic components

comprising an entity relationship diagram, entities and relationships. The ERD for HMS

consists of the following entities.

 Doctor (Doctor_id, FName, LName, gender, address, nationality, qualification,

date_of_joining, specialization, NIC_no)

 Patient (Patient_id, FName, LName, gender, DOB, height, weight, test_report)

 Medical store (Medicine_name, Total_quantity, Consumed_medicines,

Available_quantity, Date_of_acquiring, Billing_info)

 Laboratory (test_name, test_desc)

 System administrator (Admin_id, FName, LName)

 User (User_id, Password, FName, LName)

 Receptionist (Rec_id, FName, LName, NIC_no, address, nationality,

qualification)

 Appointment schedule (appointment_time, appointment_date, available_time)

Following are the relationships in the ERD of the system.

 Examine

 View

 Upgrade

 View

 Register

 Provide info

 Is a

 Tests done at

 Get medicine from

 Issue account

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Doctor

Medical store

User

System

Administrator

Receptionist

Laboratory

Patientexamine

Appointment

Schedule

register

provide

info

issues

account

is a

get

medicine

from

tests

done at

view

view

upgrade

1

N

M

1

1 1

N N

1

N

1

1

1

1

1

N

N

1

N

1

1

1 1

Figure 1: Entity-Relationship Diagram

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3 Relational Model

3.1 Mapping Regular Entities

3.1.1 Doctor:

Doctor_id FName LName gender address nationality

qualification date_of_joining specialization NIC_no

3.1.2 Patient:

Patient_id FName LName gender DOB height

weight Test_report

3.1.3 Laboratory:

Test_name Test_desc

3.1.4 Medical Store:

Medicine_name Total_quantity Consumed_medicines

Available_quantity Date_of_acquiring Billing_info

3.1.5 Administrator:

FName LName Admin_id

3.1.6 Receptionist:

Rec_id FName LName gender

NIC_no address Nationality Qualification

3.1.7 User:

User_id Password FName

LName

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3.2 Mapping of Weak Entities

3.2.1 Appointment Schedule:

Doctor_id Patient_id Appointment_time Available_time Appointment_date

3.3 Mapping of Binary Relation Types

3.3.1 One-Many Relations:

There are four 1: N relationships in the ERD

1. Doctor -> Patient (examine)

2. Receptionist -> Patient (register)

3. System administrator -> User (issues account)

Examine:

prescription Doctor_id

Doctor:

Doctor_id FName LName gender address nationality

qualification date_of_joining specialization NIC_no

Register:

Rec_id

Receptionist:

Rec_id FName LName gender

NIC_no address Nationality Qualification

Issue account:

Admin_id

Administrator:

FName LName Admin_id

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3.3.2 Many-One Relations:

There are five N: 1 relationships in the ERD as follows

1. Receptionist -> Appointment schedule (view)

2. Receptionist -> Appointment schedule (upgrade)

3. Doctor -> Appointment schedule (view)

4. Patient -> Laboratory (get tests done at)

5. Patient -> Medical store (get medicine from)

View:

Doctor_id Patient_id

Appointment schedule:

Doctor_id Patient_id Appointment_time Available_time Appointment_date

Upgrade:

Doctor_id Patient_id

Appointment schedule:

Doctor_id Patient_id Appointment_time Available_time Appointment_date

View:

Appointment_date Appointment_time Doctor_id Patient_id

Appointment schedule:

Doctor_id Patient_id Appointment_time Available_time Appointment_date

Get tests done at:

Test_name Start_date Finish_date

Laboratory:

Test_name Test_desc

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Get medicine from:

Medicine_name

Medical store:

Medicine_name Total_quantity Consumed_medicines

Available_quantity Date_of_acquiring Billing_info

3.4 Mapping of Multi-valued Attributes

Following are the two multi-valued attributes in the ERD.

3.4.1 User_job/title:

User_id Job/title

User:

User_id Password FName LName

3.4.2 Patient_type:

Patient_id Patient_type

Patient:

Patient_id FName LName gender DOB height

weight Test_report

3.5 Mapping of N-ary Relationship

Is a:

Rec_id Medicine_name Test_name

Lab assistant Store_keeper

Provides info:

Rec_id Medicine_name Test_name Number_of_patients

Number_of_tests_done Test_charges Medicines_acquired

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4 Scenario Based Model

A scenario based model contains use case and activity diagrams.

4.1 Use case Diagrams

A use case can be described as a specific way of using the system from a user’s (actor’s)

perspective. Use cases are best discovered by examining the actors and defining what the

actor will be able to do with the system.

Following are the actors of the system

1. Doctors

2. Patients

3. Receptionist

4. System administrator

5. Laboratory assistant

6. Medical store keeper

4.1.1 Doctor:

examine patient

(from <Use Case Name>)

prescribe medicine

(from <Use Case Name>)

Doctor

(f rom Actors)

analyze lab test reports

(from <Use Case Name>)

Figure 2: Use case Diagram for Doctor

The doctor will examine patient, prescribe medicines or recommend test if needed. He

will also analyze the laboratory test report and history of the patient.

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4.1.2 Patient:

pay for medicines

(from <Use Case Name>)

Patient

(f rom Actors)

provide registration details

(from <Use Case Name>)

Figure 3: Use case Diagram for Patient

The patient is the indirect actor of the system. He will provide registration details to the

receptionist when first comes to the hospital. Also, either he will pay for the medicines if

he is capable of paying or he will get the medicines free of cost.

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4.1.3 Receptionist:

keep appointment schedule

(from <Use Case Name>)

doctor visit schedule

(from <Use Case Name>)

Receptionist

(f rom Actors)

extract patient history

(from <Use Case Name>)

register patient

(from <Use Case Name>)

Figure 4: Use case Diagram for Receptionist

The receptionist can be any junior doctor or sisters. He/She handles various enquiries

about the patient's registration as well as Doctor Consultation and Scheduling, Time

Allocation.

 Doctor visit schedule

 Doctor appointment scheduling

 Patient registration

 Find history of patient

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4.1.4 System Administrator:

check performance of the system

(from <Use Case Name>)

System

Administrator (f rom Actors)

grant permissions

(from <Use Case Name>)

Figure 5: Use case Diagram for System Administrator

The system administrator will issue user accounts for each user of the system. He will

also check the overall performance of the system and generate a monthly progress report

by getting required information from each module of the system. The report generated is

sent to the chairman Sultana Foundation.

4.1.5 Lab Assistant:

Keeps test record

(from <Use Case Name>)

Lab Assistant

(f rom Actors)

generate test report

(from <Use Case Name>)

Figure 6: Use case Diagram for Lab Assistant

The lab assistant will take the test samples, perform test and finally create a report

containing the results.

4.1.6 Medical Store Keeper:

keeps record of medicine

(from <Use Case Name>)

Medical Store

Keeper (f rom Actors)

keeps billing record

(from <Use Case Name>)

Figure 7: Use case Diagram for Medical Store Keeper

The store keeper will provide medicine to the customer, update medicines available and

consumed record. Also he will keep a trace of bills of the medicines.

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4.2 Activity Diagrams

Activity diagram is a variation of a state chart diagram that focuses on a flow of activity

driven by internal processing within an object rather than by events that are external to it.

In an activity diagram most or all states are action states each of which represents the

execution of an operation. Following are the elements of activity diagrams.

 Activity: some behavior that may persist for the duration of the state Transition:

caused by the completion of previous activity

 Synchronization bar: provides a way to express things like waiting for all subtasks

to finish before proceeding and starting several subtasks in parallel

 Decision diamond: used to show decisions

 Start and stop markers: to show the start and stop of the process

4.2.1 Register Patient:

request to

register patient

already

registered?

update patient

table yes

no

Figure 8: Activity Diagram for Register Patient

When a patient arrives, if he has not been registered, he will have to register himself. The

receptionist will register the patient using information provided by the patient. The

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registration information will be updated in the patient’s record. If he is already registered,

the registration process ends.

4.2.2 Patient History Provided to the Doctor:

check if patient

is registered

extract patient

history

provide doctor with

compiled history

register patient

no

yes

Figure 9: Activity Diagram for Patient History

When the patient arrive the hospital, if he is not register, he will have to register himself.

Otherwise he can go to consult doctor. The receptionist will extract patient’s history and

provide the doctor with the compiled history of the patient.

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4.2.3 Patient Examination:

examine patient

prescribe

medicines/test

give test

samples to lab visit medical

store

test

prescribed?

noyes

Figure 10: Activity Diagram for Patient Examination

The doctor will examine the patient and prescribe the medicine or recommend some test.

If the test is been recommended, patient will have to give test sample to the laboratory or

else, he would have to visit medical store to get the medicine.

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4.2.4 Laboratory:

take test

samples

perform

prescribes test

update patient table

about test result generate report

deliver report to

patient

Figure 11: Activity Diagram for Laboratory

At the laboratory, the lab assistant will get the sample for the test, perform the prescribed

test and update the result in the patient’s table as well as generate the test report. Then the

patient will get the report.

4.2.5 Appointment Schedule:

check the consultant's

available time

appoint patient

Figure 12: Activity Diagram for Appointment Schedule

Receptionist will check the consultant’s appointment schedule, and assign the

appointment time with the patient.

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4.2.6 System Administrator:

check modules'

performance

grant

permissions

generate monthly

progress report assign login account to

each user

select

job

Figure 13: Activity Diagram for System Administrator

The system administrator will select the job. If he is going to create user accounts, he will

grant permissions to different kind of users. And assign login accounts to them. If he

wants to get information from the modules he will select the other job. He will generate

the report using gathered information like, no. of patients per month (paying or free of

cost), no. of tests done and their charges, medicines acquired and consumed in a month.

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4.2.7 Doctor’s Status:

check doctor's

status

update visiting

schedule

visiting doctor

permanent doctor

Figure 14: Activity Diagram for Doctor Status

The receptionist will also update the doctor’s visiting schedule based on the doctor’s

status. The doctor can be visiting or permanent, regarding his job.

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4.2.8 Medical Store:

ask for

medicine

enter billing

record

available

type of customer

get medicine

no

yes

paying

free of cost

Figure 15: Activity Diagram for Medical Store

When the customer arrive the medical store, he will ask for the medicine. If the named

medicine is available, the store keeper will check if the customer is paying or free of cost.

This information will be provided by the patient’s registration information. If he is paying

customer, he will get the medicine and his billing record will be updated. Both customers

will get the medicine.

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4.2.9 Overall Processing in the System:

The patient will be registered first. Then he can consult the doctor. After patient’s

examination by the doctor, he will get the prescribed medicines or get the tests done at

the hospital’s laboratory. Following activity diagram shows this. Each activity has its

sub-activities embedded inside.

get medicine from

medical store

get prescribes tests

done

patient examination by

doctor

register patient

Figure 16: Activity Diagram for Overall Processing of the System

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5 Conceptual Class Model

Following is the conceptual class model of the system. The doctor provides treatment to

the patient. He also gets his appointment schedule. The appointment schedule is updated

by the receptionist. The receptionist also registers the patient. The patient gets the

medicine from the medical store. He gets recommended tests done in the laboratory. The

information required to the system administrator for monthly progress report, is provided

by the three independent modules, laboratory, medical store and receptionist provides

information internal to the hospital like no. of patients, either free or paying. The three

direct users of the system are receptionist, laboratory assistant and medical store keeper

each having their own access permissions.

Doctor

Appointment_Schedule

Patient

System_Admin

Laboratory

Receptionist

User

Medical_Store

Figure 17: Conceptual Class Model

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6 Behavioral Model

The behavioral model of the system describes the way an object acts and reacts, in terms

of its state changes and message passing. It can be structured using following diagrams.

 State diagrams

 Sequence diagrams

6.1 State Diagrams

The state of the object is all the data in which it currently encapsulates. State model

describes the state of the object when a message is received, and how to respond that

message. These depend on the classes of the system.

HMS has eight classes

1. Receptionist

2. Patient

3. Doctor

4. Medical store

5. System user

6. System administrator

7. Appointment

8. Laboratory

6.1.1 Receptionist:

not

registered

registeredrequest_register()

reg_complete()

invalid_details()

Figure 18: State Diagram for Receptionist

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If the patient is not registered, he will be registered after registration request provided the

registration information is correct and complete. On getting invalid details, the process

ends.

6.1.2 Patient:

initiate_examination get_history

get

prescription

isregistered()

examined() not_registered()

Figure 19: State Diagram for Patient

Patient will get examined only if he is registered.

6.1.3 Doctor:

analyze history/examine

patient prescribenot_ok()

ok()

Figure 20: State Diagram for Doctor

The doctor will check history and examine the patient. On the current examination, he

will decide, if the patient is ok, the process ends. If he is not ok, he will suggest some

medicine or test.

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6.1.4 Medical Store:

name

medicine

get

medicine

available()

not_available()

Figure 21: State Diagram for Medical Store

Patient will name the medicine, if it is available, he will get the medicine, otherwise stop

the process.

6.1.5 System User:

login

request

logged invalid()

invalid()

Figure 22: State Diagram for System User

Any user of the system (receptionist, lab assistant or medical store) first gives their login

ids and passwords to the system. If it is found valid, he will be logged in.

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6.1.6 System Administrator:

get info about

each module progress

report

analyze_data()

incomplete()

Figure 23: State Diagram for System Administrator

The admin will get the information about each module regarding requirements for the

progress report. He will analyze the gathered information. If the data is incomplete, he

will be back in the state of gathering information. Otherwise the progress report will be

generated.

6.1.7 Appointment:

available

time

already

appointed

get_appointment()

not_available()

Figure 24: State Diagram for Appointment

If the time is available, system will go into the occupied time state, on get appointment

transition and the process stops.

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