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Human Development (1) What are the 9 chronological stages of development? (2) What is a critical (or sensitive) period? (3) Describe and contrast longitudinal and cross-sectional research strategies. (4) What is a cohort and how does each research strategy suffer from cohort effects? (5) What are the 4 chronological prenatal stages of development? (6) What is a teratogen? Describe in some detail the relationship between a mother's consumption of alcohol and the development of the fetus. (7) What is the rooting reflex? (8) What is synaptic pruning? (9) What is attachment? (10) Describe secure attachment and the two forms of insecure attachment: ambivalent (anxious- resistant) and avoidant. (11) What percentage of infants are securely attached? (12) Describe the strange situation test. (13) What are some reasons that infants differ in attachment style? (14) What is an internal working model and how does this idea explain the relationship between attachment style in a child and an adult's ability to form intimate relationships? (15) What is the preferential looking technique? (16) What have we been able to learn about the development of vision using this technique? (See also neonate vision.) (17) What is a habituation paradigm and how could it be used to show that an infant can discriminate between a story read by it's mother and a story read by a stranger? (18) How did Rovee-Collier investigate the development of memory in infants? (19) What are the memory problems associated with childhood? (20) Define the following Piagetian terms and the relationship between them: schemas, characteristic errors, assimilation, accommodation, and stages. (21) What are the four stages in Piaget's theory of cognitive development? (22) What do object permanence, representational thought, and separation anxiety have in common? (23) Describe egocentrism and lack of conservation. In what way do both of these characteristic errors show the early child's inability to fully use mental operations? (24) When given a number of examples, like 2+1, 4+1, 6+1, etc., can a concrete operational child state the principle "Any even number plus 1 is an odd number."? (25) Describe how the formal operational child thinks differently than the concrete operational child. (26) What is a violation-of-expectation paradigm and how can it be used to demonstrate that young (4.5 mo. olds) infants have object permanence and that young (5 mo. olds) are sensitive to number? (27) How was it shown that young children (3 year olds) have conservation?
(28) What is “theory of mind” and how is it tested with the false belief test? (29) In Kohlberg’s theory, what is the important feature of a moral decision that will determine one's stage of moral reasoning? (30) What are the “moral emotions”? How do tests of moral emotions differ from those that were used to support Kohlberg’s theory? (31) Describe these three elements of human language: phoneme, morpheme, and syntax. (32) Describe these three characteristics of human language: semanticity, generativity, and displacement. (33) What is the developmental progression for language development from ages 0-6? (34) What is Vigotsky’s main point about the relationship between culture, language, and thought? (35) Contrast the phonics and whole language approaches to learning to read. (36) Do nonhuman animals have language? (37) What is the developmental sequence for peer play and peer relations in children and adolescents? (38) Describe a rejected child, some potential consequences of being rejected, and how a rejected child can gain acceptance. (39) What are three aspects of our stereotypes of adolescence and which of the three is not supported by psychological research? (40) What is group socialization theory and what does it say about the forces that shape a person’s personality? (41) What is the difference between the terms "life span" and "life expectancy"? (42) Currently, to what age does the average man and woman live? (43) According to Erikson, what are the critical dilemmas that must be resolved during adolescence and early adulthood? How are they connected? (44) What are the “three pillars” of adulthood? (45) What is the social clock? (46) Is a midlife crisis an inevitable occurrence for a person in their 40's and 50's? (47) Do more people become less satisfied with life and more depressed between the ages of 20 and 65? (48) What is dementia? (49) Describe the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. What percentage of the elderly does it afflict? What are the most well-documented events in the brain that underlie the onset of Alzheimer's disease symptoms? (50) How early does the loss of mental speed begin? (51) Describe three major changes in memory abilities for the aged. (52) What is the difference between fluid and crystallized intelligence and how does aging differentially influence these two forms of intelligence?