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Sociological Concepts and
To clarify the theoretical frame of references in
To discus about various Sociological theories and
Definitions of Theory
What is Theory?
• In general contexts the theory is Value or Speculation.
• In Social Sciences the term refers to a conceptual framework used to interpret or explain some aspect our every day existence ( Joe Feagin, 2003:18)
• Theory is a set of logically interrelated propositions and implications that follow from them. Which are used to explain some phenomenon, implication in any theory are a set of underlying assumptions and methods that rarely questioned a theoretical perspective. ( Johnson, 1995: 295)
Importance of Social Theory in
Social theories provide ideological and theoretical
support to research topics. Social theories provide an
ideological base to Social problems and phenomena.
It is accepted that without any proper sociological
theory it is difficult to conduct a social research
properly. It works like Blood in the body that
provides life and sustains it.
Perspectives in Sociology
1) What is Perspective?
A working set of assumptions is
called “ Perspective” an “approach” some
times a “Paradigm”.
Evolutionary Perspective in Brief
Symbolic interactionists such as G.H.Mead and C.H.Cooley
concentrate upon this interaction between individuals and
groups. They note that peoples interact mainly through
symbols, which include signs, gestures, and most importantly
through written and spoken words. A word has no inherent
meanings. It is simply a noise, but it becomes a word when
peoples reach agreement that this noise carries a special
meaning. Thus “YES”, “NO”, “GO”, “COME”, and
thousands of other sounds became symbols is attached to
each. Although some meanings can be exchanged without
words, as all lovers know, most meanings are exchanged
through spoken or written words.
In this perspective a society is seen as an
organized network of cooperating groups operating in
a fairly orderly manner according to a set of rules and
values shared by most members. Society is a seen as a
stable system, with a tendency toward equilibrium,
that is a tendency to maintain a balanced,
harmoniously operating system. In the functionalist
perspective, with Talcott Parsons, Kingsley Davis,
Robert Merton as the most prominent spokesmen.
Karl Marx, C.Wright Mills, lewis Coser, Aron, Dahrendorf,
Chambliss, Collins are the main contributors of the Conflict
Conflict theorists see a society as held together through the
power of dominant groups or classes. They claim that the
“Shared Values” which functionalists see as the glue holding
society together do not really form a true consensus in which
the dominant groups or classes impose their values and rules
upon the rest of the peoples.
Pioneers Contributors in Sociology
1) IBN KHALDUN (1332-1406 Egypt)
b) Effects of environment on Human Society
c) Nomadic and Urban Life
d) Ups and Downs of Nations
e) Cultural Science
Auguste Comte (1798-1857 France)
1. Static Sociology
2. Dynamic Sociology
B) Status of Women
EMILE D`URKHIUM (1858-1917 France)
B. Social Solidarity
C.1) Egoistic Suicide
C.2) Anomique Suicide
C.3) Altristric Suicide
WILLILAM GARAHAM SUMNER (AMERICA)
B. Folk ways
D. Theory of Laizezfare
E. Iner and Outer Groups
HERBART SPENCER (1820-1902 UK)
Till Next Class