ipv 4,sub nest mask, subnetting, supersubnetting, Formulas and forms for Computer Systems Networking and Telecommunications. Malaysia University of Science and Technology (MUST)

ipv 4,sub nest mask, subnetting, supersubnetting, Formulas and forms for Computer Systems Networking and Telecommunications. Malaysia University of Science and Technology (MUST)

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understanding the network for the ipv4 usage. understanding of subnet mask, uderstanding of subnetting, understanding of supersubnetting
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0 = tiada disable 1 = ada enable

binary 0 1 decimal 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------

1 bit 1 byte = 8 bits

kiri <-----------------------------------------------------> kanan

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20

128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1

1 0 1 1 x x x x 8 4 2 1

8 + 0 + 2 + 1 = 11

1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 x x x x x x x x 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1

128+ 64 + 0 + 16 + 8 + 4 + 0 + 1 = 221

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

structure ipv4 address

ipv4 address = 32 bits xxxxxxxx.xxxxxxxx.xxxxxxxx.xxxxxxxx where x

= 0 or 1 ipv4 address = w.x.y.z 4 parts, each part = 8 bits, 1 byte, 1 octet ipv4 address = decimal format ipv4 address = 0-255 range ipv4 address = network id . host id

classes w octet network id host id network id host id

class a= 1 0(1-126)127 8 bits 24 bits w .x.y.z usable class b=2 128-191 16 bits 16 bits w.x .y.z usable

class c=3 192-223 24 bits 8 bits w.x.y .z usable --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- class d 224-239 na na na na

reserved - multicast class e 240-255 na na na na reserved - reserach

10.x.y.z class a ipv4 address 172.x.y.z class b ipv4 address 192.x.y.z class c ipv4 address

0.x.y.z invalid ipv4 address 127.x.y.z invalid ipv4 address

10.0.0.0 network id/address 10.0.0.1

10.0.0.2 unicast id/address until 10.255.255.254 10.255.255.255 broadcast id/address

172.16.0.0 network id/address 172.16.0.1

172.16.0.2 unicast id/address until 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.255 broadcast id/address

192.168.1.0 networkid/address 192.168.1.1

until unicast id/address 192.168.1.254 192.168.1.255 broadcast id/address

how many network ids/class how many host ids (ip addresses)/network

classes network id host id network size

class a= 1 28-1 - 2 = 126 224 - 2 = 16777214 large

class b=2 216-2 = 16384 216 - 2 = 65534 medium

class c=3 224-3 = 2097152 28 - 2 = 254 small

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

default subnet mask

classes dec bin cidr/prefix length

class a= 1 255.0.0.0 11111111.00000000.00000000.00000000 /8 class b=2 255.255.0.0 11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000 /16 class c=3 255.255.255.0 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000 /24

10.0.0.1/8 10.0.0.1 255.0.0.0 172.16.0.1/16 172.16.0.1 255.255.0.0 192.168.1.1/24 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

subnetting

subnetting is a process of dividing a network into a few small networks (subnets)

subnetting is a process of borrowing bits (network borrows host) - more/plus

s1. class c s2. network id 200.1.1.0 s3. default subnet mask 255.255.255.0 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000 /24

s4. subnets required 5 subnets (sales, marketing, finance, accounts, hr) s5. subnet formula old = 2s - 2

new = 2s ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- s6. a. borrow bits b. customed subnet mask

c. network increment

a.

2s - 2 > or = 5 subnets s = 3 bits

23 - 2 = 8 - 2 = 6 subnets

b.

default subnet

mask 255.255.255.0 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000 /24 customed subnet mask 255.255.255.224 11111111.11111111.11111111.11100000 /24 + 3 = /27

c.

11100000 ^ |

32 = network increment

s7 : subnet id, range, broadcast id

haram halal halal no subnet id range broadcast id department

0 200.1.1.0 200.1.1.1 - 200.1.1.30 200.1.1.31 1 200.1.1.32 200.1.1.33 - 200.1.1.62 200.1.1.63 sales 2 200.1.1.64 200.1.1.65 - 200.1.1.94 200.1.1.95 marketing 3 200.1.1.96 200.1.1.97 - 200.1.1.126 200.1.1.127 finance 4 200.1.1.128 200.1.1.129 - 200.1.1.158 200.1.1.159 accounts 5 200.1.1.160 200.1.1.161 - 200.1.1.190 200.1.1.191 hr

6 200.1.1.192 200.1.1.193 - 200.1.1.222 200.1.1.223 --- 7 200.1.1.224 200.1.1.225 - 200.1.1.254 200.1.1.255

s8 : how many ip addresses/subnet

/24 + 3 = /27 /32 - /27 = 5

2h - 2 = 25 - 2 = 32 - 2 = 30 ip addresses

marketing 64 = subnet id

65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 = broadcast id

------------------- senerio GEE

2h - 2 > or = 50 ip adddresses h = 6 bits

class c

255.255.255.0 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000 /24 255.255.255.192 11111111.11111111.11111111.11000000 /24 + 2 = /26

------------------- senerio naim

1. class a subnets = 10

ip addresses = 50

2. class a 255.0.0.0 -----> 255.255.255.0 11111111.00000000.00000000.00000000 -----> 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000

10.0.0.0/24

216 = 65536 subnets 28 - 2 = 254 ip addresses

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supernetting

supernetting is a process of summarizing a few small networks (subnets) into a network supernetting is a process of stealing bits (host steals network) - less/minus

eg1:

192.168.1.0/24 <----- lowest network id 192.168.2.0/24 192.168.3.0/24 192.168.4.0/24

summarize 4 networks into 1 supernet address

supernetting = 2s

2s > or = 4 networks s = 2 bits

22 = 4 networks

/24 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000 = 255.255.255.0 /24 - 2 = /22 11111111.11111111.11111100.00000000 = 255.255.252.0

192.168.1.0/22 = 192.168.1.0 - 192.168.4.255

192.168.1.0 255.255.252.0 = 192.168.1.0 - 192.168.4.255

eg2:

1 200.1.1.32/27 200.1.1.33 - 200.1.1.62 200.1.1.63 2 200.1.1.64/27 200.1.1.65 - 200.1.1.94 200.1.1.95

3 200.1.1.96/27 200.1.1.97 - 200.1.1.126 200.1.1.127 4 200.1.1.128/27 200.1.1.129 - 200.1.1.158 200.1.1.159 5 200.1.1.160/27 200.1.1.161 - 200.1.1.190 200.1.1.191

6 200.1.1.192/27 200.1.1.193 - 200.1.1.222 200.1.1.223

summarize 4 subnets into 1 supernet address

supernetting = 2s

2s > or = 4 subnets

s = 2 bits

22 = 4 subnets

/27 11111111.11111111.11111111.11100000 = 255.255.255.224 /27 - 2 = /25 11111111.11111111.11111111.10000000 = 255.255.255.128

200.1.1.32/25 = 200.1.1.32 - 200.1.1.159 200.1.1.32 255.255.255.128 = 200.1.1.32 - 200.1.1.159

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

pipa = private ip address

class a 10.0.0.0 - 10.255.255.255 class b 172.16.0.0 - 172.31.255.255

169.254.0.0 - 168.254.255.255 <----- apipa = automatic pipa class c 192.168.0.0 - 192.168.255.255

above ip addresses are non-routable to internet

they are used in the private network

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