Music and Technology Algorithmic and Generative Music-Lecture 13 Notes-Literature, Study notes for Music and Technology: Algorithmic and Generative Music. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) (MA)
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tomseller26 January 2012

Music and Technology Algorithmic and Generative Music-Lecture 13 Notes-Literature, Study notes for Music and Technology: Algorithmic and Generative Music. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) (MA)

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This course examines the history, techniques, and aesthetics of mechanical and computer-aided approaches to algorithmic music composition and generative music systems. Through creative hands-on projects, readings, listen...
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Session #13, Approaches: Non-standard synthesis

Chapter 13. Meeting 13, Approaches: Non-Standard Synthesis

13.1. Announcements

• Musical Design Report 3 due 6 April

• Start thinking about sonic system projects

13.2. The Xenakis Sieve

• A system (notation) for generating complex periodic integer sequences

• Described by Xenakis in at least six articles between 1965 and 1990

• Xenakis demonstrated application to pitch scales and rhythms, and suggested application to many other parameters

• “the basic problem for the originator of computer music is how to distribute points on a line” (Xenakis 1996, p. 150)

• “the image of a line with points on it, which is close to the musician and to the tradition of music, is very useful” (Xenakis 1996, p. 147)

13.3. The Xenakis Sieve: Basic Components

• Residual Classes: integer sequences based on a modulus (period) and a shift

• Residual class [email protected]: {..., 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, ...}

• Residual class [email protected]: {..., 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, ...}

• Residual class [email protected]: {..., 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, ...}

• Sieves combine residual classes with logical operators

• Sieve [email protected] | [email protected] : {..., 0, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 12, ...}

• Sieve [email protected] & [email protected] : {..., 0, 12, 24, ...}

• Sieve {[email protected]&4} | {[email protected]&[email protected]} | {[email protected]&[email protected]} | {[email protected]&[email protected]}: {..., 0, 2, 4, 5, 7, 9, 11, 12, ...}

• Notation

• Notations used by Xenakis:

136

• A new notation (Ariza 2005c)

Modulus number “at” shift value: [email protected]

Logical operators and (&), or (|), and not (-)

Nested groups with braces: {[email protected]&4}|{[email protected]&[email protected]}|{[email protected]&[email protected]}|{[email protected]&[email protected]}

13.4. An Object Oriented Implementation of the Sieve in Python

• sieve.py: a modular, object oriented sieve implementation in Python (Ariza 2005c)

• A low level, portable interface

>>> from athenaCL.libATH import sieve, pitchTools >>> a = sieve.Sieve('{[email protected]&4}|{[email protected]&[email protected]}|{[email protected]&[email protected]}|{[email protected]&[email protected]}') >>> print a {[email protected]&[email protected]}|{[email protected]&[email protected]}|{[email protected]&[email protected]}|{[email protected]&[email protected]} >>> a.period() 12 >>> a(0, range(0,13)) # one octave segment as pitch class [0, 2, 4, 5, 7, 9, 11, 12] >>> a.compress() >>> print a [email protected]|[email protected]|[email protected]|[email protected]|[email protected]|[email protected] >>> a.expand() >>> print a {[email protected]&[email protected]}|{[email protected]&[email protected]}|{[email protected]&[email protected]}|{[email protected]&[email protected]}

137

3 4 3 4 3 4 3

4

3,2 4,7 15,5

6,11 8,6

8,7 4,2

6,9 6,9

15,18 15,19

3,2 4,7 6,9 15,18

>>> a(0, range(0,12), 'wid') [2, 2, 1, 2, 2, 2] >>> a(0, range(0,12), 'bin') [1, 0, 1, 0, 1, 1, 0, 1, 0, 1, 0, 1] >>> a(0, range(0,12), 'unit') [0.0, 0.18181818181818182, 0.36363636363636365, 0.45454545454545453, 0.63636363636363635, 0.81818181818181823, 1.0]

>>> [pitchTools.psToNoteName(x) for x in a(0, range(49))] ['C4', 'D4', 'E4', 'F4', 'G4', 'A4', 'B4', 'C5', 'D5', 'E5', 'F5', 'G5', 'A5', 'B5', 'C6', 'D6', 'E6', 'F6', 'G6', 'A6', 'B6', 'C7', 'D7', 'E7', 'F7', 'G7', 'A7', 'B7', 'C8']

• sieve.py: SievePitch objects specialized for pitch space usage

>>> from athenaCL.libATH import sieve >>> a = sieve.SievePitch('[email protected]|[email protected]|[email protected]|[email protected]|[email protected]|[email protected],c2,c4') >>> a() [-24, -22, -20, -19, -17, -15, -13, -12, -10, -8, -7, -5, -3, -1, 0] >>> [x + 60 for x in a()] [36, 38, 40, 41, 43, 45, 47, 48, 50, 52, 53, 55, 57, 59, 60]

• athenaObj.py: can create an athenaCL Interpreter object to automate athenaCL commands

>>> from athenaCL.libATH import athenaObj >>> ath = athenaObj.Interpreter() >>> ath.cmd('tmo da') >>> ath.cmd('pin a [email protected]|[email protected],c3,c8 [email protected]|[email protected],c2,c4') >>> ath.cmd('pih')

13.5. The Sieve in athenaCL: Interactive Command Line

• Using the interactive command-line, pitch sieves can be created, viewed, and deployed

• Comma-separated arguments for complete specification: sieveString, lowerBoundaryPitch, upperBoundaryPitch, originPitch, unitSpacing

• Example:

PIn a [email protected]|[email protected],c2,c4,c2,1

• Multiple sieve-based multisets can be defined

• Example:

PIn b [email protected]|[email protected],c2,c4,c2,.5 [email protected]|[email protected],c3,c6,c2,.5

13.6. Avoiding Octave Redundancy

• Pitch sieves with large periods (or not a divisor or multiple of 12) are desirable

• Can be achieved simply through the union of two or more moduli with a high LCMs

>>> a = sieve.Sieve('[email protected]|[email protected]')Æ

138

12 >>> a.period()

>>> a = sieve.Sieve('[email protected]|[email protected]|[email protected]') >>> a.period() 105

139

143

• Can be achieved through the use of moduli deviating from octave multiples (11, 13, 23, 25, 35, 37)

>>> a = sieve.Sieve('[email protected]|[email protected]') >>> a.period()

>>> a = sieve.Sieve('[email protected]|[email protected]|[email protected]|[email protected]') >>> a.period() 82225

13.7. Deploying Pitch Sieves with HarmonicAssembly

• Provide complete sieve over seven octaves

• TM HarmonicAssembly used to create chords

• Chord size randomly selected between 2 and 3

• Rhythms and rests created with zero-order Markov chains

• Command sequence:

• emo m

140

• pin a [email protected]|[email protected]|[email protected]|[email protected],c1,c7

• tmo ha

• tin a 0

• tie t 0,30

• tie a rb,.2,.2,.6,1

• tie b c,120

zero-order Markov chains building pulse triples

tie r pt,(c,4),(mv,a{1}b{3}:{a=12|b=1}),(mv,a{1}b{0}:{a=9|b=1}),(c,.8)

index position of multiset: there is only one at zero

tie d0 c,0

selecting pitches from the multiset (indices 0-15) with a tendency mask

tie d1 ru,(bpl,t,l,[(0,0),(30,12)]),(bpl,t,l,[(0,3),(30,15)])

repetitions of each chord

tie d2 c,1

chord size

tie d3 bg,rc,(2,3)

• eln; elh

13.8. Reading: Berg. Composing Sound Structures with Rules

• Berg, P. 2009. “Composing Sound Structures with Rules.” Contemporary Music Review 28(1): 75-87.

• How did the PDP-15 affect what techniques were explored at the Institute of Sonology

• Given the music, find the rules: how is this different than analytical approaches?

• What is non standard about non-standard synthesis?

• What is the relationship of Berg’s ASP to PILE

141

13.9. Non-Standard Synthesis: Xenakis and Koenig

• Both began with techniques for creating score tables

• Both explored apply this techniques to sound construction

• Both rejected acoustic models of sound creation

• Both employed techniques of dynamic, algorithmic waveform generation

13.10. Tutorial: a Dynamic Stochastic Wavetable

• Looping through an array at the audio rate creates a wave table

[tabread4~] interpolates between points for any [phasor~] rate

• Randomly place points within the table at a variable rate controlled by a [metro]

[tabwrite] lets us specify index position, value to write to

Can only be done at the event rate (1 ms updates)

142

• Randomly draw line segments instead of points

[until] will send out as many bangs as provided as an argument

[counter] can receive a new minimum to designate start index for each segment generation

143

• Randomly draw line segments instead of points

Use [wrap] to ensure points stay within table

Set max of [counter] table

Record output to a new file with [writesf~]

144

13.11. Non-Standard Synthesis: Xenakis and Koenig

• Both began with techniques for creating score tables

• Both explored apply this techniques to sound construction

• Both rejected acoustic models of sound creation

• Both employed techniques of dynamic, algorithmic waveform generation

13.12. Koenig: SSP

• Application of Koenig’s selection principles to waveforms

• Proposed in 1972, implemented in 1977

• Given a collection of discrete time and amplitude values, select from these to create waveform break points

• Program was conversational, interactive

145

• Use of tendency masks to control segment generation produced directly audible results (Berg 2009, p. 84)

13.13. Xenakis: GENDYN

• Dynamic Stochastic Synthesis

• Explored by Xenakis over many years, starting in the 1970s

• Not based on natural or acoustical models of sound

• Algorithmically create waveforms by generating time and amplitude coordinates with second order random walks, then interpolating to create wave forms

13.14. Reading: Hoffman. A New GENDYN Porgram

• Hoffman, P. 2000. “A New GENDYN Program.” Computer Music Journal 24(2): 31-38.

• Hoffman describes GENDYN as a “rigrous algorithmic composition procedure”; what does he mean? Is he correct?

• How did Xenakis compose, at the largest scale, with GENDYN?

• What does Hoffman say about Xenakis’s programming style?

13.15. Second-Order Random Walks as ParameterObjects

• Accumulator: permit consecutively summing values based on an initial value and the output of a ParameterObject

:: tpmap 100 a,0,(ru,-1,1) accumulator, 0, (randomUniform, (constant, -1), (constant, 1)) TPmap display complete.

• Mask:Êconstrain the output of a ParameterObject within boundaries created by two ParameterObjects; boundaries can be limit, wrap, or reflect

146

:: tpmap 100 mask,reflect,(c,-1),(c,1),(a,0,(ru,-.5,.5)) mask, reflect, (constant, -1), (constant, 1), (accumulator, 0, (randomUniform, (constant, -0.5), (constant, 0.5))) TPmap display complete.

• Second order random walk: use (discrete) random walks to control the step size of another random walk

:: tpmap 100 m,r,(c,-1),(c,1),(a,0,(ru,(bg,rw,(-.1,-.2,-.3,-.4, - .5)),(bg,rw,(.1,.2,.3,.4,.5)))) mask, reflect, (constant, -1), (constant, 1), (accumulator, 0, (randomUniform, (basketGen, randomWalk, (-0.1,-0.2,-0.3,-0.4,-0.5)), (basketGen, randomWalk, (0.1,0.2,0.3,0.4,0.5)))) TPmap display complete.

• Second order random walk: use (continuous) random walk to control the step size of another random walk

:: tpmap 200 m,r,(c,-1),(c,1),(a,0,(ru,(m,r,(c,-.5),(c,0),(a,0,(ru,- .5,0))),(m,r,(c,0),(c,.5),(a,0,(ru,0,.5))))) mask, reflect, (constant, -1), (constant, 1), (accumulator, 0, (randomUniform, (mask, reflect, (constant, -0.5), (constant, 0), (accumulator, 0, (randomUniform, (constant, -0.5), (constant, 0)))), (mask, reflect, (constant, 0), (constant, 0.5), (accumulator, 0, (randomUniform, (constant, 0), (constant, 0.5)))))) TPmap display complete.

147

13.16. Listening: Xenakis

• Audio: S.709

• BBC interview with Xenakis on S.709

• “Music is not a language. Every musical piece is like a highly complex rock with ridges and designs engraved wtihin and without, that can be interpreted in a thousand ways without a single one being the best or the most true.” (Xenakis 1987, p. 32)

13.17. iGendyn: Gendyn as iPhone / iPod touch App

• Created by Nick Collins

148

Courtesy of Nick Collins. Used with permission.

149

Courtesy of Nick Collins. Used with permission.

150

Courtesy of Nick Collins. Used with permission.

151

MIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.edu

21M.380 Music and Technology: Algorithmic and Generative Music Spring 2010

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