Nanotechnology: Approaches to Nanotechnology

The following are the current approaches to the Nanotechnology:-

Bottom–Up Approach:

Bottom-up, or self-assembly, approaches to nano-fabrication use chemical or physical forces operating at the nano-scale to assemble basic units into larger structures. As component size decreases in nano-fabrication, bottom-up approaches provide an increasingly important complement to top-down techniques. Inspiration for bottom-up approaches comes from biological systems, where nature has harnessed chemical forces to create essentially all the structures needed by life. Researchers hope to replicate nature’s ability to produce small clusters of specific atoms, which can then self-assemble into more-elaborate structures. nanotechnology

Top-Down Approach:

The most common top-down approach to fabrication involves lithographic patterning techniques using short-wavelength optical sources. A key advantage of the top-down approach—as developed in the fabrication of integrated circuits—is that the parts are both patterned and built in place, so that no assembly step is needed. The top–down approach combines both conventional and unconventional methods to generate and replicate nano-scale structures in a fashion similar to “carving” smaller objects from a large bulk material.

Biomimetic Approaches:

This fruitful collaboration between materials science, biology and biomedicine for the advancement of biomaterials collects the most promising solutions provided by nature for the field of biomedicine, showing how to achieve the desired functionality by using biomimetic. It consist of :- Bionics or biomimicry: having normal biological capability or performance enhanced by or as if by electronic or electromechanical devices Bionanotechnology: are terms that refer to the intersection of nanotechnology and biology.

Functional approaches:

These seek to develop components of a desired functionality without regard to how they might be assembled. Molecular scale electronics seeks to develop molecules with useful electronic properties. These could then be used as single-molecule components in a nano-electronic device. For an example see rotaxane. Synthetic chemical methods can also be used to create synthetic molecular motors, such as in a so-called nano-car. Nano Implants  

Speculative

These sub fields seek to anticipate what inventions nanotechnology might yield, or attempt to propose an agenda along which inquiry might progress. These often take a big-picture view of nanotechnology, with more emphasis on its societal implications than the details of how such inventions could actually be created.   Sources:
  1. Encyclopedia Britannica, (http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/962484/nanotechnology/236454/Bottom-up-approach)
  2. Nanotechnology: A Top–Down Approach (http://www.nanodq.com/nanotech-top-down.pdf)
  3. Encyclopedia Britannica, (http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/962484/nanotechnology/236453/Top-down-approach)
  4. http://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/nanotechnology-top-down-or-bottom-up.html
  5. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/bionic
  6. Ehud Gazit, Plenty of room for biology at the bottom: An introduction to bionanotechnology. Imperial College Press, 2007
  7. Biomimetic Approaches for Biomaterials Development, 1st Edition October, 2012
4853   23/05/2013

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