P R O P E R T Y TA B L E S A N D C H A R T S ( S I U N I T S ), Formulas and forms for Heat and Mass Transfer. Ryerson University
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P R O P E R T Y TA B L E S A N D C H A R T S ( S I U N I T S ), Formulas and forms for Heat and Mass Transfer. Ryerson University

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cen98128_App-A_p865-892.qxd

P R O P E R T Y TA B L E S A N D C H A R T S ( S I U N I T S )

TABLE A–1 Molar mass, gas constant, and ideal-gas specific heats of some substances 866

TABLE A–2 Boiling and freezing point properties 867 TABLE A–3 Properties of solid metals 868–870 TABLE A–4 Properties of solid nonmetals 871 TABLE A–5 Properties of building materials 872–873 TABLE A–6 Properties of insulating materials 874 TABLE A–7 Properties of common foods 875–876 TABLE A–8 Properties of miscellaneous materials 877 TABLE A–9 Properties of saturated water 878 TABLE A–10 Properties of saturated refrigerant–134a 879 TABLE A–11 Properties of saturated ammonia 880 TABLE A–12 Properties of saturated propane 881 TABLE A–13 Properties of liquids 882 TABLE A–14 Properties of liquid metals 883 TABLE A–15 Properties of air at 1 atm pressure 884 TABLE A–16 Properties of gases at 1 atm pressure 885–886 TABLE A–17 Properties of the atmosphere at high altitude 887 TABLE A–18 Emissivities of surfaces 888–889 TABLE A–19 Solar radiative properties of materials 890 FIGURE A–20 The Moody chart for friction factor for fully developed

flow in circular pipes 891

865

APPENDIX

1

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866 APPENDIX 1

TABLE A–1

Molar mass, gas constant, and ideal-gas specific heats of some substances

Specific Heat Data at 25C Molar Mass Gas Constant

Substance M, kg/kmol R, kJ/kg·K* cp, kJ/kg·K cv, kJ/kg·K k  cp/cv

Air 28.97 0.2870 1.005 0.7180 1.400 Ammonia, NH3 17.03 0.4882 2.093 1.605 1.304 Argon, Ar 39.95 0.2081 0.5203 0.3122 1.667 Bromine, Br2 159.81 0.05202 0.2253 0.1732 1.300 Isobutane, C4H10 58.12 0.1430 1.663 1.520 1.094 n-Butane, C4H10 58.12 0.1430 1.694 1.551 1.092 Carbon dioxide, CO2 44.01 0.1889 0.8439 0.6550 1.288 Carbon monoxide, CO 28.01 0.2968 1.039 0.7417 1.400 Chlorine, Cl2 70.905 0.1173 0.4781 0.3608 1.325 Chlorodifluoromethane (R-22), CHCIF2 86.47 0.09615 0.6496 0.5535 1.174 Ethane, C2H6 30.070 0.2765 1.744 1.468 1.188 Ethylene, C2H4 28.054 0.2964 1.527 1.231 1.241 Fluorine, F2 38.00 0.2187 0.8237 0.6050 1.362 Helium, He 4.003 2.077 5.193 3.116 1.667 n-Heptane, C7H16 100.20 0.08297 1.649 1.566 1.053 n-Hexane, C6H14 86.18 0.09647 1.654 1.558 1.062 Hydrogen, H2 2.016 4.124 14.30 10.18 1.405 Krypton, Kr 83.80 0.09921 0.2480 0.1488 1.667 Methane, CH4 16.04 0.5182 2.226 1.708 1.303 Neon, Ne 20.183 0.4119 1.030 0.6180 1.667 Nitrogen, N2 28.01 0.2968 1.040 0.7429 1.400 Nitric oxide, NO 30.006 0.2771 0.9992 0.7221 1.384 Nitrogen dioxide, NO2 46.006 0.1889 0.8060 0.6171 1.306 Oxygen, O2 32.00 0.2598 0.9180 0.6582 1.395 n-Pentane, C5H12 72.15 0.1152 1.664 1.549 1.074 Propane, C3H8 44.097 0.1885 1.669 1.480 1.127 Propylene, C3H6 42.08 0.1976 1.531 1.333 1.148 Steam, H2O 18.015 0.4615 1.865 1.403 1.329 Sulfur dioxide, SO2 64.06 0.1298 0.6228 0.4930 1.263 Tetrachloromethane, CCI4 153.82 0.05405 0.5415 0.4875 1.111 Tetrafluoroethane (R-134a), C2H2F4 102.03 0.08149 0.8334 0.7519 1.108 Trifluoroethane (R-143a), C2H3F3 84.04 0.09893 0.9291 0.8302 1.119 Xenon, Xe 131.30 0.06332 0.1583 0.09499 1.667

*The unit kJ/kg·K is equivalent to kPa·m3/kg·K. The gas constant is calculated from R  RU/M, where RU  8.31447 kJ/kmol·K is the universal gas constant and M is the molar mass.

Source: Specific heat values are obtained primarily from the property routines prepared by The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD.

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867 APPENDIX 1

TABLE A–2

Boiling and freezing point properties

Boiling Data at l atm Freezing Data Liquid Properties

Normal Latent Heat of Latent Heat Specific Boiling Vaporization Freezing of Fusion Temperature, Density Heat

Substance Point, C hfg, kJ/kg Point, C hif, kJ/kg C r, kg/m3 cp, kJ/kg·K

Ammonia 33.3 1357 77.7 322.4 33.3 682 4.43 20 665 4.52

0 639 4.60 25 602 4.80

Argon 185.9 161.6 189.3 28 185.6 1394 1.14 Benzene 80.2 394 5.5 126 20 879 1.72 Brine (20% sodium chloride by mass) 103.9 — 17.4 — 20 1150 3.11 n-Butane 0.5 385.2 138.5 80.3 0.5 601 2.31 Carbon dioxide 78.4* 230.5 (at 0C) 56.6 0 298 0.59 Ethanol 78.2 838.3 114.2 109 25 783 2.46 Ethyl alcohol 78.6 855 156 108 20 789 2.84 Ethylene glycol 198.1 800.1 10.8 181.1 20 1109 2.84 Glycerine 179.9 974 18.9 200.6 20 1261 2.32 Helium 268.9 22.8 — — 268.9 146.2 22.8 Hydrogen 252.8 445.7 259.2 59.5 252.8 70.7 10.0 Isobutane 11.7 367.1 160 105.7 11.7 593.8 2.28 Kerosene 204–293 251 24.9 — 20 820 2.00 Mercury 356.7 294.7 38.9 11.4 25 13,560 0.139 Methane 161.5 510.4 182.2 58.4 161.5 423 3.49

100 301 5.79 Methanol 64.5 1100 97.7 99.2 25 787 2.55 Nitrogen 195.8 198.6 210 25.3 195.8 809 2.06

160 596 2.97 Octane 124.8 306.3 57.5 180.7 20 703 2.10 Oil (light) 25 910 1.80 Oxygen 183 212.7 218.8 13.7 183 1141 1.71 Petroleum — 230–384 20 640 2.0 Propane 42.1 427.8 187.7 80.0 42.1 581 2.25

0 529 2.53 50 449 3.13

Refrigerant-134a 26.1 216.8 96.6 — 50 1443 1.23 26.1 1374 1.27

0 1295 1.34 25 1207 1.43

Water 100 2257 0.0 333.7 0 1000 4.22 25 997 4.18 50 988 4.18 75 975 4.19

100 958 4.22

* Sublimation temperature. (At pressures below the triple-point pressure of 518 kPa, carbon dioxide exists as a solid or gas. Also, the freezing-point temperature of carbon dioxide is the triple-point temperature of 56.5C.)

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868 APPENDIX 1

TABLE A–3

Properties of solid metals

Properties at Various Temperatures (K),

Melting Properties at 300 K k(W/m·K)/cp(J/kg·K)

Point, r cp k a  106

Composition K kg/m3 J/kg·K W/m·K m2/s 100 200 400 600 800 1000

Aluminum: Pure 933 2702 903 237 97.1 302 237 240 231 218

482 798 949 1033 1146 Alloy 2024-T6 775 2770 875 177 73.0 65 163 186 186 (4.5% Cu, 1.5% Mg, 0.6% Mn) 473 787 925 1042

Alloy 195, Cast (4.5% Cu) 2790 883 168 68.2 174 185

Beryllium 1550 1850 1825 200 59.2 990 301 161 126 106 90.8 203 1114 2191 2604 2823 3018

Bismuth 545 9780 122 7.86 6.59 16.5 9.69 7.04 112 120 127

Boron 2573 2500 1107 27.0 9.76 190 55.5 16.8 10.6 9.60 9.85 128 600 1463 1892 2160 2338

Cadmium 594 8650 231 96.8 48.4 203 99.3 94.7 198 222 242

Chromium 2118 7160 449 93.7 29.1 159 111 90.9 80.7 71.3 65.4 192 384 484 542 581 616

Cobalt 1769 8862 421 99.2 26.6 167 122 85.4 67.4 58.2 52.1 236 379 450 503 550 628

Copper: Pure 1358 8933 385 401 117 482 413 393 379 366 352

252 356 397 417 433 451 Commercial bronze 1293 8800 420 52 14 42 52 59 (90% Cu, 10% Al) 785 160 545

Phosphor gear bronze 1104 8780 355 54 17 41 65 74 (89% Cu, 11% Sn) — — —

Cartridge brass 1188 8530 380 110 33.9 75 95 137 149 (70% Cu, 30% Zn) 360 395 425

Constantan 1493 8920 384 23 6.71 17 19 (55% Cu, 45% Ni) 237 362

Germanium 1211 5360 322 59.9 34.7 232 96.8 43.2 27.3 19.8 17.4 190 290 337 348 357 375

Gold 1336 19,300 129 317 127 327 323 311 298 284 270 109 124 131 135 140 145

Iridium 2720 22,500 130 147 50.3 172 153 144 138 132 126 90 122 133 138 144 153

Iron: Pure 1810 7870 447 80.2 23.1 134 94.0 69.5 54.7 43.3 32.8

216 384 490 574 680 975 Armco (99.75% pure) 7870 447 72.7 20.7 95.6 80.6 65.7 53.1 42.2 32.3

215 384 490 574 680 975 Carbon steels:

Plain carbon (Mn  1% 7854 434 60.5 17.7 56.7 48.0 39.2 30.0 Si  0.1%) 487 559 685 1169

AISI 1010 7832 434 63.9 18.8 58.7 48.8 39.2 31.3 487 559 685 1168

Carbon–silicon (Mn  1% 7817 446 51.9 14.9 49.8 44.0 37.4 29.3 0.1%  Si  0.6%) 501 582 699 971

cen98128_App-A_p865-892.qxd 1/8/10 3:29 PM Page 868

869 APPENDIX 1

TABLE A–3

Properties of solid metals (Continued)

Properties at Various Temperatures (K),

Melting Properties at 300 K k(W/m·K)/cp(J/kg·K)

Point, r cp k a  106

Composition K kg/m3 J/kg·K W/m·K m2/s 100 200 400 600 800 1000

Carbon–manganese–silicon 8131 434 41.0 11.6 42.2 39.7 35.0 27.6 (1%  Mn  1.65% 487 559 685 1090 0.1%  Si  0.6%)

Chromium (low) steels: 1 2 Cr–

1 4 Mo–Si (0.18% C, 7822 444 37.7 10.9 38.2 36.7 33.3 26.9

0.65% Cr, 0.23% Mo, 0.6% Si) 492 575 688 969

1 Cr– 12 Mo 7858 442 42.3 12.2 42.0 39.1 34.5 27.4 (0.16% C, 1% Cr, 0.54% Mo, 0.39% Si) 492 575 688 969

1 Cr–V 7836 443 48.9 14.1 46.8 42.1 36.3 28.2 (0.2% C, 1.02% Cr, 0.15% V) 492 575 688 969

Stainless steels: AISI 302 8055 480 15.1 3.91 17.3 20.0 22.8 25.4

512 559 585 606 AISI 304 1670 7900 477 14.9 3.95 9.2 12.6 16.6 19.8 22.6 25.4

272 402 515 557 582 611 AISI 316 8238 468 13.4 3.48 15.2 18.3 21.3 24.2

504 550 576 602 AISI 347 7978 480 14.2 3.71 15.8 18.9 21.9 24.7

513 559 585 606 Lead 601 11,340 129 35.3 24.1 39.7 36.7 34.0 31.4

118 125 132 142 Magnesium 923 1740 1024 156 87.6 169 159 153 149 146

649 934 1074 1170 1267 Molybdenum 2894 10,240 251 138 53.7 179 143 134 126 118 112

141 224 261 275 285 295 Nickel:

Pure 1728 8900 444 90.7 23.0 164 107 80.2 65.6 67.6 71.8 232 383 485 592 530 562

Nichrome 1672 8400 420 12 3.4 14 16 21 (80% Ni, 20% Cr) 480 525 545

Inconel X-750 1665 8510 439 11.7 3.1 8.7 10.3 13.5 17.0 20.5 24.0 (73% Ni, 15% Cr, 6.7% Fe) — 372 473 510 546 626

Niobium 2741 8570 265 53.7 23.6 55.2 52.6 55.2 58.2 61.3 64.4 188 249 274 283 292 301

Palladium 1827 12,020 244 71.8 24.5 76.5 71.6 73.6 79.7 86.9 94.2 168 227 251 261 271 281

Platinum: Pure 2045 21,450 133 71.6 25.1 77.5 72.6 71.8 73.2 75.6 78.7

100 125 136 141 146 152 Alloy 60Pt–40Rh 1800 16,630 162 47 17.4 52 59 65 69

(60% Pt, 40% Rh) — — — — Rhenium 3453 21,100 136 47.9 16.7 58.9 51.0 46.1 44.2 44.1 44.6

97 127 139 145 151 156 Rhodium 2236 12,450 243 150 49.6 186 154 146 136 127 121

147 220 253 274 293 311

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870 APPENDIX 1

TABLE A–3

Properties of solid metals (Concluded)

Properties at Various Temperatures (K),

Melting Properties at 300 K k(W/m·K)/cp(J/kg·K)

Point, r cp k a  106

Composition K kg/m3 J/kg·K W/m·K m2/s 100 200 400 600 800 1000

Silicon 1685 2330 712 148 89.2 884 264 98.9 61.9 42.4 31.2 259 556 790 867 913 946

Silver 1235 10,500 235 429 174 444 430 425 412 396 379 187 225 239 250 262 277

Tantalum 3269 16,600 140 57.5 24.7 59.2 57.5 57.8 58.6 59.4 60.2 110 133 144 146 149 152

Thorium 2023 11,700 118 54.0 39.1 59.8 54.6 54.5 55.8 56.9 56.9 99 112 124 134 145 156

Tin 505 7310 227 66.6 40.1 85.2 73.3 62.2 188 215 243

Titanium 1953 4500 522 21.9 9.32 30.5 24.5 20.4 19.4 19.7 20.7 300 465 551 591 633 675

Tungsten 3660 19,300 132 174 68.3 208 186 159 137 125 118 87 122 137 142 146 148

Uranium 1406 19,070 116 27.6 12.5 21.7 25.1 29.6 34.0 38.8 43.9 94 108 125 146 176 180

Vanadium 2192 6100 489 30.7 10.3 35.8 31.3 31.3 33.3 35.7 38.2 258 430 515 540 563 597

Zinc 693 7140 389 116 41.8 117 118 111 103 297 367 402 436

Zirconium 2125 6570 278 22.7 12.4 33.2 25.2 21.6 20.7 21.6 23.7 205 264 300 332 342 362

From Frank P. Incropera and David P. DeWitt, Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer, 3rd ed., 1990. This material is used by permission of John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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871 APPENDIX 1

TABLE A–4

Properties of solid nonmetals

Properties at Various Temperatures (K),

Melting Properties at 300 K k (W/m·K)/cp(J/kg·K)

Point, r cp k a  106

Composition K kg/m3 J/kg·K W/m·K m2/s 100 200 400 600 800 1000

Aluminum oxide, 2323 3970 765 46 15.1 450 82 32.4 18.9 13.0 10.5 sapphire — — 940 1110 1180 1225

Aluminum oxide, 2323 3970 765 36.0 11.9 133 55 26.4 15.8 10.4 7.85 polycrystalline — — 940 1110 1180 1225

Beryllium oxide 2725 3000 1030 272 88.0 196 111 70 47 1350 1690 1865 1975

Boron 2573 2500 1105 27.6 9.99 190 52.5 18.7 11.3 8.1 6.3 — — 1490 1880 2135 2350

Boron fiber epoxy 590 2080 (30% vol.) composite k, || to fibers 2.29 2.10 2.23 2.28 k,  to fibers 0.59 0.37 0.49 0.60 cp 1122 364 757 1431

Carbon Amorphous 1500 1950 — 1.60 — 0.67 1.18 1.89 21.9 2.37 2.53

— — — — — — Diamond,

type lla — 3500 509 2300 10,000 4000 1540 insulator 21 194 853

Graphite, pyrolytic 2273 2210 k, || to layers 1950 4970 3230 1390 892 667 534 k,  to layers 5.70 16.8 9.23 4.09 2.68 2.01 1.60 cp 709 136 411 992 1406 1650 1793

Graphite fiber 450 1400 epoxy (25% vol.) composite

k, heat flow || to fibers 11.1 5.7 8.7 13.0 k, heat flow  to fibers 0.87 0.46 0.68 1.1 cp 935 337 642 1216

Pyroceram, 1623 2600 808 3.98 1.89 5.25 4.78 3.64 3.28 3.08 2.96 Corning 9606 — — 908 1038 1122 1197

Silicon carbide 3100 3160 675 490 230 — — — 87 880 1050 1135 1195

Silicon dioxide, 1883 2650 crystalline (quartz)

k, || to c-axis 10.4 39 16.4 7.6 5.0 4.2 k, to c-axis 6.21 20.8 9.5 4.70 3.4 3.1 cp 745 — — 885 1075 1250

Silicon dioxide, 1883 2220 745 1.38 0.834 0.69 1.14 1.51 1.75 2.17 2.87 polycrystalline (fused silica) — — 905 1040 1105 1155

Silicon nitride 2173 2400 691 16.0 9.65 — — 13.9 11.3 9.88 8.76 — 578 778 937 1063 1155

Sulfur 392 2070 708 0.206 0.141 0.165 0.185 403 606

Thorium dioxide 3573 9110 235 13 6.1 10.2 6.6 4.7 3.68 255 274 285 295

Titanium dioxide, 2133 4157 710 8.4 2.8 7.01 5.02 8.94 3.46 polycrystalline 805 880 910 930

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872 APPENDIX 1

TABLE A–5

Properties of building materials (at a mean temperature of 24C)

R-value Thermal Specific (for listed

Thickness, Density, r Conductivity, k Heat, cp thickness, L/k), Material L mm kg/m3 W/m·K kJ/kg·K K·m2/W

Building Boards Asbestos–cement board 6 mm 1922 — 1.00 0.011 Gypsum of plaster board 10 mm 800 — 1.09 0.057

13 mm 800 — — 0.078 Plywood (Douglas fir) — 545 0.12 1.21 —

6 mm 545 — 1.21 0.055 10 mm 545 — 1.21 0.083 13 mm 545 — 1.21 0.110 20 mm 545 — 1.21 0.165

Insulated board and sheating 13 mm 288 — 1.30 0.232 (regular density) 20 mm 288 — 1.30 0.359

Hardboard (high density, standard tempered) — 1010 0.14 1.34 —

Particle board: Medium density — 800 0.14 1.30 — Underlayment 16 mm 640 — 1.21 0.144

Wood subfloor 20 mm — — 1.38 0.166

Building Membrane Vapor-permeable felt — — — — 0.011 Vapor-seal (2 layers of mopped

0.73 kg/m2 felt) — — — — 0.021

Flooring Materials Carpet and fibrous pad — — — 1.42 0.367 Carpet and rubber pad — — — 1.38 0.217 Tile (asphalt, linoleum, vinyl) — — — 1.26 0.009

Masonry Materials Masonry units: Brick, common 1922 0.72 — — Brick, face 2082 1.30 — — Brick, fire clay 2400 1.34 — —

1920 0.90 0.79 — 1120 0.41 — —

Concrete blocks (3 oval cores, 100 mm — 0.77 — 0.13 sand and gravel aggregate) 200 mm — 1.0 — 0.20

300 mm — 1.30 — 0.23

Concretes: Lightweight aggregates, (including 1920 1.1 — —

expanded shale, clay, or slate; 1600 0.79 0.84 — expanded slags; cinders; 1280 0.54 0.84 — pumice; and scoria) 960 0.33 — —

940 0.18 — — Cement/lime, mortar, and stucco 1920 1.40 — —

1280 0.65 — — Stucco 1857 0.72 — —

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873 APPENDIX 1

TABLE A–5

Properties of building materials (Concluded) (at a mean temperature of 24C)

R-value Thermal Specific (for listed

Thickness, Density, r Conductivity, k Heat, cp thickness, L/k), Material L mm kg/m3 W/m·K kJ/kg·K K·m2/W

Roofing Asbestos-cement shingles 1900 — 1.00 0.037 Asphalt roll roofing 1100 — 1.51 0.026 Asphalt shingles 1100 — 1.26 0.077 Built-in roofing 10 mm 1100 — 1.46 0.058 Slate 13 mm — — 1.26 0.009 Wood shingles (plain and plastic/film faced) — — 1.30 0.166

Plastering Materials Cement plaster, sand aggregate 19 mm 1860 0.72 0.84 0.026 Gypsum plaster:

Lightweight aggregate 13 mm 720 — — 0.055 Sand aggregate 13 mm 1680 0.81 0.84 0.016 Perlite aggregate — 720 0.22 1.34 —

Siding Material (on flat surfaces) Asbestos-cement shingles — 1900 — — 0.037 Hardboard siding 11 mm — — 1.17 0.12 Wood (drop) siding 25 mm — — 1.30 0.139 Wood (plywood) siding lapped 10 mm — — 1.21 0.111 Aluminum or steel siding (over

sheeting): Hollow backed 10 mm — — 1.22 0.11 Insulating-board backed 10 mm — — 1.34 0.32

Architectural glass — 2530 1.0 0.84 0.018

Woods Hardwoods (maple, oak, etc.) — 721 0.159 1.26 — Softwoods (fir, pine, etc.) — 513 0.115 1.38 —

Metals Aluminum (1100) — 2739 222 0.896 — Steel, mild — 7833 45.3 0.502 — Steel, Stainless — 7913 15.6 0.456 —

Source: Table A–5 and A–6 are adapted from ASHRAE, Handbook of Fundamentals (Atlanta, GA: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air- Conditioning Engineers, 1993), Chap. 22, Table 4. Used with permission.

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874 APPENDIX 1

TABLE A–6

Properties of insulating materials (at a mean temperature of 24C)

R-value Thermal Specific (for listed

Thickness, Density, r Conductivity, k Heat, cp thickness, L/k), Material L mm kg/m3 W/m·K kJ/kg·K K·m2/W

Blanket and Batt Mineral fiber (fibrous form 50 to 70 mm 4.8–32 — 0.71–0.96 1.23

processed from rock, slag, 75 to 90 mm 4.8–32 — 0.71–0.96 1.94 or glass) 135 to 165 mm 4.8–32 — 0.71–0.96 3.32

Board and Slab Cellular glass 136 0.055 1.0 — Glass fiber (organic bonded) 64–144 0.036 0.96 — Expanded polystyrene (molded beads) 16 0.040 1.2 — Expanded polyurethane (R-11 expanded) 24 0.023 1.6 — Expanded perlite (organic bonded) 16 0.052 1.26 — Expanded rubber (rigid) 72 0.032 1.68 — Mineral fiber with resin binder 240 0.042 0.71 — Cork 120 0.039 1.80 —

Sprayed or Formed in Place Polyurethane foam 24–40 0.023–0.026 — — Glass fiber 56–72 0.038–0.039 — — Urethane, two-part mixture (rigid foam) 70 0.026 1.045 — Mineral wool granules with asbestos/

inorganic binders (sprayed) 190 0.046 — —

Loose Fill Mineral fiber (rock, slag, or glass) ~75 to 125 mm 9.6–32 — 0.71 1.94

~165 to 222 mm 9.6–32 — 0.71 3.35 ~191 to 254 mm — — 0.71 3.87

~185 mm — — 0.71 5.28 Silica aerogel 122 0.025 — — Vermiculite (expanded) 122 0.068 — — Perlite, expanded 32–66 0.039–0.045 1.09 — Sawdust or shavings 128–240 0.065 1.38 — Cellulosic insulation (milled paper or wood pulp) 37–51 0.039–0.046 — —

Roof Insulation Cellular glass — 144 0.058 1.0 — Preformed, for use above deck 13 mm — — 1.0 0.24

25 mm — — 2.1 0.49 50 mm — — 3.9 0.93

Reflective Insulation Silica powder (evacuated) 160 0.0017 — — Aluminum foil separating fluffy glass mats; 10–12 layers

(evacuated); for cryogenic applications (150 K) 40 0.00016 — — Aluminum foil and glass paper laminate; 75–150

layers (evacuated); for cryogenic applications (150 K) 120 0.000017 — —

cen98128_App-A_p865-892.qxd 1/8/10 3:29 PM Page 874

875 APPENDIX 1

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cen98128_App-A_p865-892.qxd 1/8/10 3:29 PM Page 875

876 APPENDIX 1

TABLE A–7

Properties of common foods (Concluded) (b) Other properties

Water Thermal Thermal Specific Content, Temperature, T Density, r Conductivity, k Diffusivity, a Heat, cp

Food % (mass) C kg/m3 W/m·K m2/s kJ/kg·K

Fruits/Vegetables Apple juice 87 20 1000 0.559 0.14  106 3.86 Apples 85 8 840 0.418 0.13  106 3.81 Apples, dried 41.6 23 856 0.219 0.096  106 2.72 Apricots, dried 43.6 23 1320 0.375 0.11  106 2.77 Bananas, fresh 76 27 980 0.481 0.14  106 3.59 Broccoli — 6 560 0.385 — — Cherries, fresh 92 0–30 1050 0.545 0.13  106 3.99 Figs 40.4 23 1241 0.310 0.096  106 2.69 Grape juice 89 20 1000 0.567 0.14  106 3.91 Peaches 89 2–32 960 0.526 0.14  106 3.91 Plums — 16 610 0.247 — — Potatoes 78 0–70 1055 0.498 0.13  106 3.64 Raisins 32 23 1380 0.376 0.11  106 2.48

Meats Beef, ground 67 6 950 0.406 0.13  106 3.36 Beef, lean 74 3 1090 0.471 0.13  106 3.54 Beef fat 0 35 810 0.190 — — Beef liver 72 35 — 0.448 — 3.49 Cat food 39.7 23 1140 0.326 0.11  106 2.68 Chicken breast 75 0 1050 0.476 0.13  106 3.56 Dog food 30.6 23 1240 0.319 0.11  106 2.45 Fish, cod 81 3 1180 0.534 0.12  106 3.71 Fish, salmon 67 3 — 0.531 — 3.36 Ham 71.8 20 1030 0.480 0.14  106 3.48 Lamb 72 20 1030 0.456 0.13  106 3.49 Pork, lean 72 4 1030 0.456 0.13  106 3.49 Turkey breast 74 3 1050 0.496 0.13  106 3.54 Veal 75 20 1060 0.470 0.13  106 3.56

Other Butter 16 4 — 0.197 — 2.08 Chocolate cake 31.9 23 340 0.106 0.12  106 2.48 Margarine 16 5 1000 0.233 0.11  106 2.08 Milk, skimmed 91 20 — 0.566 — 3.96 Milk, whole 88 28 — 0.580 — 3.89 Olive oil 0 32 910 0.168 — — Peanut oil 0 4 920 0.168 — — Water 100 0 1000 0.569 0.14  106 4.217

100 30 995 0.618 0.15  106 4.178 White cake 32.3 23 450 0.082 0.10  106 2.49

Source: Data obtained primarily from ASHRAE, Handbook of Fundamentals, SI version (Atlanta, GA: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air- Conditioning Engineers, Inc., 1993), Chap. 30, Tables 7 and 9. Used with permission.

Most specific heats are calculated from cp  1.68  2.51  (Water content), which is a good approximation in the temperature range of 3 to 32C. Most thermal diffusivities are calculated from a  k/rcp. Property values given here are valid for the specific water content.

cen98128_App-A_p865-892.qxd 1/8/10 3:29 PM Page 876

877 APPENDIX 1

Thermal Specific Density, r Conductivity, k Heat, cp

Material kg/m3 W/m·K J/kg·K

Asphalt 2115 0.062 920 Bakelite 1300 1.4 1465 Brick, refractory

Chrome brick 473 K 3010 2.3 835 823 K — 2.5 — 1173 K — 2.0 —

Fire clay, burnt 1600 K 773 K 2050 1.0 960 1073 K — 1.1 — 1373 K — 1.1 —

Fire clay, burnt 1725 K 773 K 2325 1.3 960 1073 K — 1.4 — 1373 K — 1.4 —

Fire clay brick 478 K 2645 1.0 960 922 K — 1.5 — 1478 K — 1.8 —

Magnesite 478 K — 3.8 1130 922 K — 2.8 — 1478 K — 1.9 —

Chicken meat, white (74.4% water content) 198 K — 1.60 — 233 K — 1.49 — 253 K — 1.35 — 273 K — 0.48 — 293 K — 0.49 —

Clay, dry 1550 0.930 — Clay, wet 1495 1.675 — Coal, anthracite 1350 0.26 1260 Concrete (stone

mix) 2300 1.4 880 Cork 86 0.048 2030 Cotton 80 0.06 1300 Fat — 0.17 — Glass

Window 2800 0.7 750 Pyrex 2225 1–1.4 835 Crown 2500 1.05 — Lead 3400 0.85 —

TABLE A–8

Properties of miscellaneous materials (Values are at 300 K unless indicated otherwise)

Thermal Specific Density, r Conductivity, k Heat, cp

Material kg/m3 W/m·K J/kg·K

Ice 273 K 920 1.88 2040 253 K 922 2.03 1945 173 K 928 3.49 1460

Leather, sole 998 0.159 — Linoleum 535 0.081 —

1180 0.186 — Mica 2900 0.523 — Paper 930 0.180 1340 Plastics

Plexiglass 1190 0.19 1465 Teflon 300 K 2200 0.35 1050 400 K — 0.45 —

Lexan 1200 0.19 1260 Nylon 1145 0.29 — Polypropylene 910 0.12 1925 Polyester 1395 0.15 1170 PVC, vinyl 1470 0.1 840

Porcelain 2300 1.5 — Rubber, natural 1150 0.28 — Rubber, vulcanized

Soft 1100 0.13 2010 Hard 1190 0.16 —

Sand 1515 0.2–1.0 800 Snow, fresh 100 0.60 — Snow, 273 K 500 2.2 — Soil, dry 1500 1.0 1900 Soil, wet 1900 2.0 2200 Sugar 1600 0.58 — Tissue, human

Skin — 0.37 — Fat layer — 0.2 — Muscle — 0.41 —

Vaseline — 0.17 — Wood, cross-grain

Balsa 140 0.055 — Fir 415 0.11 2720 Oak 545 0.17 2385 White pine 435 0.11 — Yellow pine 640 0.15 2805

Wood, radial Oak 545 0.19 2385 Fir 420 0.14 2720

Wool, ship 145 0.05 —

Source: Compiled from various sources.

cen98128_App-A_p865-892.qxd 1/8/10 3:29 PM Page 877

878 APPENDIX 1

TABLE A–9

Properties of saturated water

Volume Enthalpy Specific Thermal Prandtl Expansion

Saturation Density of Heat Conductivity Dynamic Viscosity Number Coefficient

Temp. Pressure r, kg/m 3 Vaporization cp, J/kg·K k, W/m·K m, kg/m·s Pr b, 1/K

T, C Psat, kPa Liquid Vapor hfg, kJ/kg Liquid Vapor Liquid Vapor Liquid Vapor Liquid Vapor Liquid

0.01 0.6113 999.8 0.0048 2501 4217 1854 0.561 0.0171 1.792  103 0.922  105 13.5 1.00 0.068  103

5 0.8721 999.9 0.0068 2490 4205 1857 0.571 0.0173 1.519  103 0.934  105 11.2 1.00 0.015  103

10 1.2276 999.7 0.0094 2478 4194 1862 0.580 0.0176 1.307  103 0.946  105 9.45 1.00 0.733  103

15 1.7051 999.1 0.0128 2466 4185 1863 0.589 0.0179 1.138  103 0.959  105 8.09 1.00 0.138  103

20 2.339 998.0 0.0173 2454 4182 1867 0.598 0.0182 1.002  103 0.973  105 7.01 1.00 0.195  103

25 3.169 997.0 0.0231 2442 4180 1870 0.607 0.0186 0.891  103 0.987  105 6.14 1.00 0.247  103

30 4.246 996.0 0.0304 2431 4178 1875 0.615 0.0189 0.798  103 1.001  105 5.42 1.00 0.294  103

35 5.628 994.0 0.0397 2419 4178 1880 0.623 0.0192 0.720  103 1.016  105 4.83 1.00 0.337  103

40 7.384 992.1 0.0512 2407 4179 1885 0.631 0.0196 0.653  103 1.031  105 4.32 1.00 0.377  103

45 9.593 990.1 0.0655 2395 4180 1892 0.637 0.0200 0.596  103 1.046  105 3.91 1.00 0.415  103

50 12.35 988.1 0.0831 2383 4181 1900 0.644 0.0204 0.547  103 1.062  105 3.55 1.00 0.451  103

55 15.76 985.2 0.1045 2371 4183 1908 0.649 0.0208 0.504  103 1.077  105 3.25 1.00 0.484  103

60 19.94 983.3 0.1304 2359 4185 1916 0.654 0.0212 0.467  103 1.093  105 2.99 1.00 0.517  103

65 25.03 980.4 0.1614 2346 4187 1926 0.659 0.0216 0.433  103 1.110  105 2.75 1.00 0.548  103

70 31.19 977.5 0.1983 2334 4190 1936 0.663 0.0221 0.404  103 1.126  105 2.55 1.00 0.578  103

75 38.58 974.7 0.2421 2321 4193 1948 0.667 0.0225 0.378  103 1.142  105 2.38 1.00 0.607  103

80 47.39 971.8 0.2935 2309 4197 1962 0.670 0.0230 0.355  103 1.159  105 2.22 1.00 0.653  103

85 57.83 968.1 0.3536 2296 4201 1977 0.673 0.0235 0.333  103 1.176  105 2.08 1.00 0.670  103

90 70.14 965.3 0.4235 2283 4206 1993 0.675 0.0240 0.315  103 1.193  105 1.96 1.00 0.702  103

95 84.55 961.5 0.5045 2270 4212 2010 0.677 0.0246 0.297  103 1.210  105 1.85 1.00 0.716  103

100 101.33 957.9 0.5978 2257 4217 2029 0.679 0.0251 0.282  103 1.227  105 1.75 1.00 0.750  103

110 143.27 950.6 0.8263 2230 4229 2071 0.682 0.0262 0.255  103 1.261  105 1.58 1.00 0.798  103

120 198.53 943.4 1.121 2203 4244 2120 0.683 0.0275 0.232  103 1.296  105 1.44 1.00 0.858  103

130 270.1 934.6 1.496 2174 4263 2177 0.684 0.0288 0.213  103 1.330  105 1.33 1.01 0.913  103

140 361.3 921.7 1.965 2145 4286 2244 0.683 0.0301 0.197  103 1.365  105 1.24 1.02 0.970  103

150 475.8 916.6 2.546 2114 4311 2314 0.682 0.0316 0.183  103 1.399  105 1.16 1.02 1.025  103

160 617.8 907.4 3.256 2083 4340 2420 0.680 0.0331 0.170  103 1.434  105 1.09 1.05 1.145  103

170 791.7 897.7 4.119 2050 4370 2490 0.677 0.0347 0.160  103 1.468  105 1.03 1.05 1.178  103

180 1,002.1 887.3 5.153 2015 4410 2590 0.673 0.0364 0.150  103 1.502  105 0.983 1.07 1.210  103

190 1,254.4 876.4 6.388 1979 4460 2710 0.669 0.0382 0.142  103 1.537  105 0.947 1.09 1.280  103

200 1,553.8 864.3 7.852 1941 4500 2840 0.663 0.0401 0.134  103 1.571  105 0.910 1.11 1.350  103

220 2,318 840.3 11.60 1859 4610 3110 0.650 0.0442 0.122  103 1.641  105 0.865 1.15 1.520  103

240 3,344 813.7 16.73 1767 4760 3520 0.632 0.0487 0.111  103 1.712  105 0.836 1.24 1.720  103

260 4,688 783.7 23.69 1663 4970 4070 0.609 0.0540 0.102  103 1.788  105 0.832 1.35 2.000  103

280 6,412 750.8 33.15 1544 5280 4835 0.581 0.0605 0.094  103 1.870  105 0.854 1.49 2.380  103

300 8,581 713.8 46.15 1405 5750 5980 0.548 0.0695 0.086  103 1.965  105 0.902 1.69 2.950  103

320 11,274 667.1 64.57 1239 6540 7900 0.509 0.0836 0.078  103 2.084  105 1.00 1.97 340 14,586 610.5 92.62 1028 8240 11,870 0.469 0.110 0.070  103 2.255  105 1.23 2.43 360 18,651 528.3 144.0 720 14,690 25,800 0.427 0.178 0.060  103 2.571  105 2.06 3.73 374.14 22,090 317.0 317.0 0 — — — — 0.043  103 4.313  105

Note 1: Kinematic viscosity n and thermal diffusivity a can be calculated from their definitions, n  m/r and a  k/rcp  n/Pr. The temperatures 0.01C, 100C, and 374.14C are the triple-, boiling-, and critical-point temperatures of water, respectively. The properties listed above (except the vapor density) can be used at any pressure with negligible error except at temperatures near the critical-point value.

Note 2: The unit kJ/kg·C for specific heat is equivalent to kJ/kg·K, and the unit W/m·C for thermal conductivity is equivalent to W/m·K.

Source: Viscosity and thermal conductivity data are from J. V. Sengers and J. T. R. Watson, Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data 15 (1986), pp. 1291–1322. Other data are obtained from various sources or calculated.

cen98128_App-A_p865-892.qxd 1/8/10 3:29 PM Page 878

879 APPENDIX 1

TABLE A–10

Properties of saturated refrigerant–134a

Volume Enthalpy Specific Thermal Prandtl Expansion

Saturation Density of Heat Conductivity Dynamic Viscosity Number Coefficient Surface

Temp. Pressure r, kg/m 3

Vaporization cp, J/kg·K k, W/m·K m, kg/m·s Pr b, l/K Tension, T, C P, kPa Liquid Vapor hfg, kJ/kg Liquid Vapor Liquid Vapor Liquid Vapor Liquid Vapor Liquid N/m

40 51.2 1418 2.773 225.9 1254 748.6 0.1101 0.00811 4.878  104 2.550  106 5.558 0.235 0.00205 0.01760 35 66.2 1403 3.524 222.7 1264 764.1 0.1084 0.00862 4.509  104 3.003  106 5.257 0.266 0.00209 0.01682 30 84.4 1389 4.429 219.5 1273 780.2 0.1066 0.00913 4.178  104 3.504  106 4.992 0.299 0.00215 0.01604 25 106.5 1374 5.509 216.3 1283 797.2 0.1047 0.00963 3.882  104 4.054  106 4.757 0.335 0.00220 0.01527 20 132.8 1359 6.787 213.0 1294 814.9 0.1028 0.01013 3.614  104 4.651  106 4.548 0.374 0.00227 0.01451 15 164.0 1343 8.288 209.5 1306 833.5 0.1009 0.01063 3.371  104 5.295  106 4.363 0.415 0.00233 0.01376 10 200.7 1327 10.04 206.0 1318 853.1 0.0989 0.01112 3.150  104 5.982  106 4.198 0.459 0.00241 0.01302 5 243.5 1311 12.07 202.4 1330 873.8 0.0968 0.01161 2.947  104 6.709  106 4.051 0.505 0.00249 0.01229

0 293.0 1295 14.42 198.7 1344 895.6 0.0947 0.01210 2.761  104 7.471  106 3.919 0.553 0.00258 0.01156 5 349.9 1278 17.12 194.8 1358 918.7 0.0925 0.01259 2.589  104 8.264  106 3.802 0.603 0.00269 0.01084

10 414.9 1261 20.22 190.8 1374 943.2 0.0903 0.01308 2.430  104 9.081  106 3.697 0.655 0.00280 0.01014 15 488.7 1244 23.75 186.6 1390 969.4 0.0880 0.01357 2.281  104 9.915  106 3.604 0.708 0.00293 0.00944 20 572.1 1226 27.77 182.3 1408 997.6 0.0856 0.01406 2.142  104 1.075  105 3.521 0.763 0.00307 0.00876 25 665.8 1207 32.34 177.8 1427 1028 0.0833 0.01456 2.012  104 1.160  105 3.448 0.819 0.00324 0.00808 30 770.6 1188 37.53 173.1 1448 1061 0.0808 0.01507 1.888  104 1.244  105 3.383 0.877 0.00342 0.00742 35 887.5 1168 43.41 168.2 1471 1098 0.0783 0.01558 1.772  104 1.327  105 3.328 0.935 0.00364 0.00677 40 1017.1 1147 50.08 163.0 1498 1138 0.0757 0.01610 1.660  104 1.408  105 3.285 0.995 0.00390 0.00613 45 1160.5 1125 57.66 157.6 1529 1184 0.0731 0.01664 1.554  104 1.486  105 3.253 1.058 0.00420 0.00550 50 1318.6 1102 66.27 151.8 1566 1237 0.0704 0.01720 1.453  104 1.562  105 3.231 1.123 0.00455 0.00489 55 1492.3 1078 76.11 145.7 1608 1298 0.0676 0.01777 1.355  104 1.634  105 3.223 1.193 0.00500 0.00429 60 1682.8 1053 87.38 139.1 1659 1372 0.0647 0.01838 1.260  104 1.704  105 3.229 1.272 0.00554 0.00372 65 1891.0 1026 100.4 132.1 1722 1462 0.0618 0.01902 1.167  104 1.771  105 3.255 1.362 0.00624 0.00315 70 2118.2 996.2 115.6 124.4 1801 1577 0.0587 0.01972 1.077  104 1.839  105 3.307 1.471 0.00716 0.00261 75 2365.8 964 133.6 115.9 1907 1731 0.0555 0.02048 9.891  105 1.908  105 3.400 1.612 0.00843 0.00209 80 2635.2 928.2 155.3 106.4 2056 1948 0.0521 0.02133 9.011  105 1.982  105 3.558 1.810 0.01031 0.00160 85 2928.2 887.1 182.3 95.4 2287 2281 0.0484 0.02233 8.124  105 2.071  105 3.837 2.116 0.01336 0.00114 90 3246.9 837.7 217.8 82.2 2701 2865 0.0444 0.02357 7.203  105 2.187  105 4.385 2.658 0.01911 0.00071 95 3594.1 772.5 269.3 64.9 3675 4144 0.0396 0.02544 6.190  105 2.370  105 5.746 3.862 0.03343 0.00033

100 3975.1 651.7 376.3 33.9 7959 8785 0.0322 0.02989 4.765  105 2.833  105 11.77 8.326 0.10047 0.00004

Note 1: Kinematic viscosity n and thermal diffusivity a can be calculated from their definitions, n  m/r and a  k/rcp  n/Pr. The properties listed here (except the vapor density) can be used at any pressures with negligible error except at temperatures near the critical-point value.

Note 2: The unit kJ/kg·C for specific heat is equivalent to kJ/kg·K, and the unit W/m·C for thermal conductivity is equivalent to W/m·K.

Source: Data generated from the EES software developed by S. A. Klein and F. L. Alvarado. Original sources: R. Tillner-Roth and H. D. Baehr, “An International Standard Formulation for the Thermodynamic Properties of 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a) for Temperatures from 170 K to 455 K and Pressures up to 70 MPa,” J. Phys. Chem, Ref. Data, Vol. 23, No. 5, 1994; M.J. Assael, N. K. Dalaouti, A. A. Griva, and J. H. Dymond, “Viscosity and Thermal Conductivity of Halogenated Methane and Ethane Refrigerants,” IJR, Vol. 22, pp. 525–535, 1999; NIST REFPROP 6 program (M. O. McLinden, S. A. Klein, E. W. Lemmon, and A. P. Peskin, Physical and Chemical Properties Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO 80303, 1995).

cen98128_App-A_p865-892.qxd 1/8/10 3:29 PM Page 879

880 APPENDIX 1

TABLE A–11

Properties of saturated ammonia

Volume Enthalpy Specific Thermal Prandtl Expansion

Saturation Density of Heat Conductivity Dynamic Viscosity Number Coefficient Surface

Temp. Pressure r, kg/m 3

Vaporization cp, J/kg·K k, W/m·K m, kg/m·s Pr b, l/K Tension, T, C P, kPa Liquid Vapor hfg, kJ/kg Liquid Vapor Liquid Vapor Liquid Vapor Liquid Vapor Liquid N/m

40 71.66 690.2 0.6435 1389 4414 2242 — 0.01792 2.926  104 7.957  106 — 0.9955 0.00176 0.03565 30 119.4 677.8 1.037 1360 4465 2322 — 0.01898 2.630  104 8.311  106 — 1.017 0.00185 0.03341 25 151.5 671.5 1.296 1345 4489 2369 0.5968 0.01957 2.492  104 8.490  106 1.875 1.028 0.00190 0.03229 20 190.1 665.1 1.603 1329 4514 2420 0.5853 0.02015 2.361  104 8.669  106 1.821 1.041 0.00194 0.03118 15 236.2 658.6 1.966 1313 4538 2476 0.5737 0.02075 2.236  104 8.851  106 1.769 1.056 0.00199 0.03007 10 290.8 652.1 2.391 1297 4564 2536 0.5621 0.02138 2.117  104 9.034  106 1.718 1.072 0.00205 0.02896 5 354.9 645.4 2.886 1280 4589 2601 0.5505 0.02203 2.003  104 9.218  106 1.670 1.089 0.00210 0.02786

0 429.6 638.6 3.458 1262 4617 2672 0.5390 0.02270 1.896  104 9.405  106 1.624 1.107 0.00216 0.02676 5 516 631.7 4.116 1244 4645 2749 0.5274 0.02341 1.794  104 9.593  106 1.580 1.126 0.00223 0.02566

10 615.3 624.6 4.870 1226 4676 2831 0.5158 0.02415 1.697  104 9.784  106 1.539 1.147 0.00230 0.02457 15 728.8 617.5 5.729 1206 4709 2920 0.5042 0.02492 1.606  104 9.978  106 1.500 1.169 0.00237 0.02348 20 857.8 610.2 6.705 1186 4745 3016 0.4927 0.02573 1.519  104 1.017  105 1.463 1.193 0.00245 0.02240 25 1003 602.8 7.809 1166 4784 3120 0.4811 0.02658 1.438  104 1.037  105 1.430 1.218 0.00254 0.02132 30 1167 595.2 9.055 1144 4828 3232 0.4695 0.02748 1.361  104 1.057  105 1.399 1.244 0.00264 0.02024 35 1351 587.4 10.46 1122 4877 3354 0.4579 0.02843 1.288  104 1.078  105 1.372 1.272 0.00275 0.01917 40 1555 579.4 12.03 1099 4932 3486 0.4464 0.02943 1.219  104 1.099  105 1.347 1.303 0.00287 0.01810 45 1782 571.3 13.8 1075 4993 3631 0.4348 0.03049 1.155  104 1.121  105 1.327 1.335 0.00301 0.01704 50 2033 562.9 15.78 1051 5063 3790 0.4232 0.03162 1.094  104 1.143  105 1.310 1.371 0.00316 0.01598 55 2310 554.2 18.00 1025 5143 3967 0.4116 0.03283 1.037  104 1.166  105 1.297 1.409 0.00334 0.01493 60 2614 545.2 20.48 997.4 5234 4163 0.4001 0.03412 9.846  105 1.189  105 1.288 1.452 0.00354 0.01389 65 2948 536.0 23.26 968.9 5340 4384 0.3885 0.03550 9.347  105 1.213  105 1.285 1.499 0.00377 0.01285 70 3312 526.3 26.39 939.0 5463 4634 0.3769 0.03700 8.879  105 1.238  105 1.287 1.551 0.00404 0.01181 75 3709 516.2 29.90 907.5 5608 4923 0.3653 0.03862 8.440  105 1.264  105 1.296 1.612 0.00436 0.01079 80 4141 505.7 33.87 874.1 5780 5260 0.3538 0.04038 8.030  105 1.292  105 1.312 1.683 0.00474 0.00977 85 4609 494.5 38.36 838.6 5988 5659 0.3422 0.04232 7.646  105 1.322  105 1.338 1.768 0.00521 0.00876 90 5116 482.8 43.48 800.6 6242 6142 0.3306 0.04447 7.284  105 1.354  105 1.375 1.871 0.00579 0.00776 95 5665 470.2 49.35 759.8 6561 6740 0.3190 0.04687 6.946  105 1.389  105 1.429 1.999 0.00652 0.00677

100 6257 456.6 56.15 715.5 6972 7503 0.3075 0.04958 6.628  105 1.429  105 1.503 2.163 0.00749 0.00579

Note 1: Kinematic viscosity n and thermal diffusivity a can be calculated from their definitions, n  m/r and a  k/rcp  n/Pr. The properties listed here (except the vapor density) can be used at any pressures with negligible error except at temperatures near the critical-point value.

Note 2: The unit kJ/kg·C for specific heat is equivalent to kJ/kg·K, and the unit W/m·C for thermal conductivity is equivalent to W/m·K.

Source: Data generated from the EES software developed by S. A. Klein and F. L. Alvarado. Original sources: Tillner-Roth, Harms-Watzenberg, and Baehr, “Eine neue Fundamentalgleichung fur Ammoniak,” DKV-Tagungsbericht 20:167–181, 1993; Liley and Desai, “Thermophysical Properties of Refrigerants,” ASHRAE, 1993, ISBN 1-1883413-10-9.

cen98128_App-A_p865-892.qxd 1/8/10 3:29 PM Page 880

881 APPENDIX 1

TABLE A–12

Properties of saturated propane

Volume Enthalpy Specific Thermal Prandtl Expansion

Saturation Density of Heat Conductivity Dynamic Viscosity Number Coefficient Surface

Temp. Pressure r, kg/m 3

Vaporization cp, J/kg·K k, W/m·K m, kg/m·s Pr b, l/K Tension, T, C P, kPa Liquid Vapor hfg, kJ/kg Liquid Vapor Liquid Vapor Liquid Vapor Liquid Vapor Liquid N/m

120 0.4053 664.7 0.01408 498.3 2003 1115 0.1802 0.00589 6.136  104 4.372  106 6.820 0.827 0.00153 0.02630 110 1.157 654.5 0.03776 489.3 2021 1148 0.1738 0.00645 5.054  104 4.625  106 5.878 0.822 0.00157 0.02486 100 2.881 644.2 0.08872 480.4 2044 1183 0.1672 0.00705 4.252  104 4.881  106 5.195 0.819 0.00161 0.02344 90 6.406 633.8 0.1870 471.5 2070 1221 0.1606 0.00769 3.635  104 5.143  106 4.686 0.817 0.00166 0.02202 80 12.97 623.2 0.3602 462.4 2100 1263 0.1539 0.00836 3.149  104 5.409  106 4.297 0.817 0.00171 0.02062 70 24.26 612.5 0.6439 453.1 2134 1308 0.1472 0.00908 2.755  104 5.680  106 3.994 0.818 0.00177 0.01923 60 42.46 601.5 1.081 443.5 2173 1358 0.1407 0.00985 2.430  104 5.956  106 3.755 0.821 0.00184 0.01785 50 70.24 590.3 1.724 433.6 2217 1412 0.1343 0.01067 2.158  104 6.239  106 3.563 0.825 0.00192 0.01649 40 110.7 578.8 2.629 423.1 2258 1471 0.1281 0.01155 1.926  104 6.529  106 3.395 0.831 0.00201 0.01515 30 167.3 567.0 3.864 412.1 2310 1535 0.1221 0.01250 1.726  104 6.827  106 3.266 0.839 0.00213 0.01382 20 243.8 554.7 5.503 400.3 2368 1605 0.1163 0.01351 1.551  104 7.136  106 3.158 0.848 0.00226 0.01251 10 344.4 542.0 7.635 387.8 2433 1682 0.1107 0.01459 1.397  104 7.457  106 3.069 0.860 0.00242 0.01122

0 473.3 528.7 10.36 374.2 2507 1768 0.1054 0.01576 1.259  104 7.794  106 2.996 0.875 0.00262 0.00996 5 549.8 521.8 11.99 367.0 2547 1814 0.1028 0.01637 1.195  104 7.970  106 2.964 0.883 0.00273 0.00934

10 635.1 514.7 13.81 359.5 2590 1864 0.1002 0.01701 1.135  104 8.151  106 2.935 0.893 0.00286 0.00872 15 729.8 507.5 15.85 351.7 2637 1917 0.0977 0.01767 1.077  104 8.339  106 2.909 0.905 0.00301 0.00811 20 834.4 500.0 18.13 343.4 2688 1974 0.0952 0.01836 1.022  104 8.534  106 2.886 0.918 0.00318 0.00751 25 949.7 492.2 20.68 334.8 2742 2036 0.0928 0.01908 9.702  105 8.738  106 2.866 0.933 0.00337 0.00691 30 1076 484.2 23.53 325.8 2802 2104 0.0904 0.01982 9.197  105 8.952  106 2.850 0.950 0.00358 0.00633 35 1215 475.8 26.72 316.2 2869 2179 0.0881 0.02061 8.710  105 9.178  106 2.837 0.971 0.00384 0.00575 40 1366 467.1 30.29 306.1 2943 2264 0.0857 0.02142 8.240  105 9.417  106 2.828 0.995 0.00413 0.00518 45 1530 458.0 34.29 295.3 3026 2361 0.0834 0.02228 7.785  105 9.674  106 2.824 1.025 0.00448 0.00463 50 1708 448.5 38.79 283.9 3122 2473 0.0811 0.02319 7.343  105 9.950  105 2.826 1.061 0.00491 0.00408 60 2110 427.5 49.66 258.4 3283 2769 0.0765 0.02517 6.487  105 1.058  105 2.784 1.164 0.00609 0.00303 70 2580 403.2 64.02 228.0 3595 3241 0.0717 0.02746 5.649  105 1.138  105 2.834 1.343 0.00811 0.00204 80 3127 373.0 84.28 189.7 4501 4173 0.0663 0.03029 4.790  105 1.249  105 3.251 1.722 0.01248 0.00114 90 3769 329.1 118.6 133.2 6977 7239 0.0595 0.03441 3.807  105 1.448  105 4.465 3.047 0.02847 0.00037

Note 1: Kinematic viscosity n and thermal diffusivity a can be calculated from their definitions, n  m/r and a  k/mcp  n/Pr. The properties listed here (except the vapor density) can be used at any pressures with negligible error except at temperatures near the critical-point value.

Note 2: The unit kJ/kg·C for specific heat is equivalent to kJ/kg·K, and the unit W/m·C for thermal conductivity is equivalent to W/m·K.

Source: Data generated from the EES software developed by S. A. Klein and F. L. Alvarado. Original sources: Reiner Tillner-Roth, “Fundamental Equations of State,” Shaker, Verlag, Aachan, 1998; B. A. Younglove and J. F. Ely, “Thermophysical Properties of Fluids. II Methane, Ethane, Propane, Isobutane, and Normal Butane,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, Vol. 16, No. 4, 1987; G.R. Somayajulu, “A Generalized Equation for Surface Tension from the Triple-Point to the Critical- Point,” International Journal of Thermophysics, Vol. 9, No. 4, 1988.

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882 APPENDIX 1

TABLE A–13

Properties of liquids

Volume Specific Thermal Thermal Dynamic Kinematic Prandtl Expansion

Temp. Density Heat Conductivity Diffusivity Viscosity Viscosity Number Coeff. T, C r, kg/m3 cp, J/kg·K k, W/m·K a, m2/s m, kg/m·s n, m2/s Pr b, 1/K

Methane [CH4]

160 420.2 3492 0.1863 1.270  107 1.133  104 2.699  107 2.126 0.00352 150 405.0 3580 0.1703 1.174  107 9.169  105 2.264  107 1.927 0.00391 140 388.8 3700 0.1550 1.077  107 7.551  105 1.942  107 1.803 0.00444 130 371.1 3875 0.1402 9.749  108 6.288  105 1.694  107 1.738 0.00520 120 351.4 4146 0.1258 8.634  108 5.257  105 1.496  107 1.732 0.00637 110 328.8 4611 0.1115 7.356  108 4.377  105 1.331  107 1.810 0.00841 100 301.0 5578 0.0967 5.761  108 3.577  105 1.188  107 2.063 0.01282

90 261.7 8902 0.0797 3.423  108 2.761  105 1.055  107 3.082 0.02922

Methanol [CH3(OH)]

20 788.4 2515 0.1987 1.002  107 5.857  104 7.429  107 7.414 0.00118 30 779.1 2577 0.1980 9.862  108 5.088  104 6.531  107 6.622 0.00120 40 769.6 2644 0.1972 9.690  108 4.460  104 5.795  107 5.980 0.00123 50 760.1 2718 0.1965 9.509  108 3.942  104 5.185  107 5.453 0.00127 60 750.4 2798 0.1957 9.320  108 3.510  104 4.677  107 5.018 0.00132 70 740.4 2885 0.1950 9.128  108 3.146  104 4.250  107 4.655 0.00137

Isobutane (R600a)

100 683.8 1881 0.1383 1.075  107 9.305  104 1.360  106 12.65 0.00142 75 659.3 1970 0.1357 1.044  107 5.624  104 8.531  107 8.167 0.00150 50 634.3 2069 0.1283 9.773  108 3.769  104 5.942  107 6.079 0.00161 25 608.2 2180 0.1181 8.906  108 2.688  104 4.420  107 4.963 0.00177

0 580.6 2306 0.1068 7.974  108 1.993  104 3.432  107 4.304 0.00199 25 550.7 2455 0.0956 7.069  108 1.510  104 2.743  107 3.880 0.00232 50 517.3 2640 0.0851 6.233  108 1.155  104 2.233  107 3.582 0.00286 75 478.5 2896 0.0757 5.460  108 8.785  105 1.836  107 3.363 0.00385

100 429.6 3361 0.0669 4.634  108 6.483  105 1.509  107 3.256 0.00628

Glycerin

0 1276 2262 0.2820 9.773  108 10.49 8.219  103 84,101 5 1273 2288 0.2835 9.732  108 6.730 5.287  103 54,327

10 1270 2320 0.2846 9.662  108 4.241 3.339  103 34,561 15 1267 2354 0.2856 9.576  108 2.496 1.970  103 20,570 20 1264 2386 0.2860 9.484  108 1.519 1.201  103 12,671 25 1261 2416 0.2860 9.388  108 0.9934 7.878  104 8,392 30 1258 2447 0.2860 9.291  108 0.6582 5.232  104 5,631 35 1255 2478 0.2860 9.195  108 0.4347 3.464  104 3,767 40 1252 2513 0.2863 9.101  108 0.3073 2.455  104 2,697

Engine Oil (unused)

0 899.0 1797 0.1469 9.097  108 3.814 4.242  103 46,636 0.00070 20 888.1 1881 0.1450 8.680  108 0.8374 9.429  104 10,863 0.00070 40 876.0 1964 0.1444 8.391  108 0.2177 2.485  104 2,962 0.00070 60 863.9 2048 0.1404 7.934  108 0.07399 8.565  105 1,080 0.00070 80 852.0 2132 0.1380 7.599  108 0.03232 3.794  105 499.3 0.00070

100 840.0 2220 0.1367 7.330  108 0.01718 2.046  105 279.1 0.00070 120 828.9 2308 0.1347 7.042  108 0.01029 1.241  105 176.3 0.00070 140 816.8 2395 0.1330 6.798  108 0.006558 8.029  106 118.1 0.00070 150 810.3 2441 0.1327 6.708  108 0.005344 6.595  106 98.31 0.00070

Source: Data generated from the EES software developed by S. A. Klein and F. L. Alvarado. Originally based on various sources.

cen98128_App-A_p865-892.qxd 1/8/10 3:29 PM Page 882

883 APPENDIX 1

TABLE A–14

Properties of liquid metals

Volume Specific Thermal Thermal Dynamic Kinematic Prandtl Expansion

Temp. Density Heat Conductivity Diffusivity Viscosity Viscosity Number Coeff. T, C r, kg/m3 cp, J/kg·K k, W/m·K a, m2/s m, kg/m·s n, m2/s Pr b, 1/K

Mercury (Hg) Melting Point: 39C

0 13595 140.4 8.18200 4.287  106 1.687  103 1.241  107 0.0289 1.810  104

25 13534 139.4 8.51533 4.514  106 1.534  103 1.133  107 0.0251 1.810  104

50 13473 138.6 8.83632 4.734  106 1.423  103 1.056  107 0.0223 1.810  104

75 13412 137.8 9.15632 4.956  106 1.316  103 9.819  108 0.0198 1.810  104

100 13351 137.1 9.46706 5.170  106 1.245  103 9.326  108 0.0180 1.810  104

150 13231 136.1 10.07780 5.595  106 1.126  103 8.514  108 0.0152 1.810  104

200 13112 135.5 10.65465 5.996  106 1.043  103 7.959  108 0.0133 1.815  104

250 12993 135.3 11.18150 6.363  106 9.820  104 7.558  108 0.0119 1.829  104

300 12873 135.3 11.68150 6.705  106 9.336  104 7.252  108 0.0108 1.854  104

Bismuth (Bi) Melting Point: 271C

350 9969 146.0 16.28 1.118  105 1.540  103 1.545  107 0.01381 400 9908 148.2 16.10 1.096  105 1.422  103 1.436  107 0.01310 500 9785 152.8 15.74 1.052  105 1.188  103 1.215  107 0.01154 600 9663 157.3 15.60 1.026  105 1.013  103 1.048  107 0.01022 700 9540 161.8 15.60 1.010  105 8.736  104 9.157  108 0.00906

Lead (Pb) Melting Point: 327C

400 10506 158 15.97 9.623  106 2.277  103 2.167  107 0.02252 450 10449 156 15.74 9.649  106 2.065  103 1.976  107 0.02048 500 10390 155 15.54 9.651  106 1.884  103 1.814  107 0.01879 550 10329 155 15.39 9.610  106 1.758  103 1.702  107 0.01771 600 10267 155 15.23 9.568  106 1.632  103 1.589  107 0.01661 650 10206 155 15.07 9.526  106 1.505  103 1.475  107 0.01549 700 10145 155 14.91 9.483  106 1.379  103 1.360  107 0.01434

Sodium (Na) Melting Point: 98C

100 927.3 1378 85.84 6.718  105 6.892  104 7.432  107 0.01106 200 902.5 1349 80.84 6.639  105 5.385  104 5.967  107 0.008987 300 877.8 1320 75.84 6.544  105 3.878  104 4.418  107 0.006751 400 853.0 1296 71.20 6.437  105 2.720  104 3.188  107 0.004953 500 828.5 1284 67.41 6.335  105 2.411  104 2.909  107 0.004593 600 804.0 1272 63.63 6.220  105 2.101  104 2.614  107 0.004202

Potassium (K) Melting Point: 64C

200 795.2 790.8 43.99 6.995  105 3.350  104 4.213  107 0.006023 300 771.6 772.8 42.01 7.045  105 2.667  104 3.456  107 0.004906 400 748.0 754.8 40.03 7.090  105 1.984  104 2.652  107 0.00374 500 723.9 750.0 37.81 6.964  105 1.668  104 2.304  107 0.003309 600 699.6 750.0 35.50 6.765  105 1.487  104 2.126  107 0.003143

Sodium-Potassium (%22Na-%78K) Melting Point: 11C

100 847.3 944.4 25.64 3.205  105 5.707  104 6.736  107 0.02102 200 823.2 922.5 26.27 3.459  105 4.587  104 5.572  107 0.01611 300 799.1 900.6 26.89 3.736  105 3.467  104 4.339  107 0.01161 400 775.0 879.0 27.50 4.037  105 2.357  104 3.041  107 0.00753 500 751.5 880.1 27.89 4.217  105 2.108  104 2.805  107 0.00665 600 728.0 881.2 28.28 4.408  105 1.859  104 2.553  107 0.00579

Source: Data generated from the EES software developed by S. A. Klein and F. L. Alvarado. Originally based on various sources.

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884 APPENDIX 1

TABLE A–15

Properties of air at 1 atm pressure

Specific Thermal Thermal Dynamic Kinematic Prandtl Temp. Density Heat Conductivity Diffusivity Viscosity Viscosity Number T, C r, kg/m3 cp, J/kg·K k, W/m·K a, m2/s m, kg/m·s n, m2/s Pr

150 2.866 983 0.01171 4.158  106 8.636  106 3.013  106 0.7246 100 2.038 966 0.01582 8.036  106 1.189  105 5.837  106 0.7263 50 1.582 999 0.01979 1.252  105 1.474  105 9.319  106 0.7440 40 1.514 1002 0.02057 1.356  105 1.527  105 1.008  105 0.7436 30 1.451 1004 0.02134 1.465  105 1.579  105 1.087  105 0.7425 20 1.394 1005 0.02211 1.578  105 1.630  105 1.169  105 0.7408 10 1.341 1006 0.02288 1.696  105 1.680  105 1.252  105 0.7387

0 1.292 1006 0.02364 1.818  105 1.729  105 1.338  105 0.7362 5 1.269 1006 0.02401 1.880  105 1.754  105 1.382  105 0.7350

10 1.246 1006 0.02439 1.944  105 1.778  105 1.426  105 0.7336 15 1.225 1007 0.02476 2.009  105 1.802  105 1.470  105 0.7323 20 1.204 1007 0.02514 2.074  105 1.825  105 1.516  105 0.7309 25 1.184 1007 0.02551 2.141  105 1.849  105 1.562  105 0.7296 30 1.164 1007 0.02588 2.208  105 1.872  105 1.608  105 0.7282 35 1.145 1007 0.02625 2.277  105 1.895  105 1.655  105 0.7268 40 1.127 1007 0.02662 2.346  105 1.918  105 1.702  105 0.7255 45 1.109 1007 0.02699 2.416  105 1.941  105 1.750  105 0.7241 50 1.092 1007 0.02735 2.487  105 1.963  105 1.798  105 0.7228 60 1.059 1007 0.02808 2.632  105 2.008  105 1.896  105 0.7202 70 1.028 1007 0.02881 2.780  105 2.052  105 1.995  105 0.7177 80 0.9994 1008 0.02953 2.931  105 2.096  105 2.097  105 0.7154 90 0.9718 1008 0.03024 3.086  105 2.139  105 2.201  105 0.7132

100 0.9458 1009 0.03095 3.243  105 2.181  105 2.306  105 0.7111 120 0.8977 1011 0.03235 3.565  105 2.264  105 2.522  105 0.7073 140 0.8542 1013 0.03374 3.898  105 2.345  105 2.745  105 0.7041 160 0.8148 1016 0.03511 4.241  105 2.420  105 2.975  105 0.7014 180 0.7788 1019 0.03646 4.593  105 2.504  105 3.212  105 0.6992 200 0.7459 1023 0.03779 4.954  105 2.577  105 3.455  105 0.6974 250 0.6746 1033 0.04104 5.890  105 2.760  105 4.091  105 0.6946 300 0.6158 1044 0.04418 6.871  105 2.934  105 4.765  105 0.6935 350 0.5664 1056 0.04721 7.892  105 3.101  105 5.475  105 0.6937 400 0.5243 1069 0.05015 8.951  105 3.261  105 6.219  105 0.6948 450 0.4880 1081 0.05298 1.004  104 3.415  105 6.997  105 0.6965 500 0.4565 1093 0.05572 1.117  104 3.563  105 7.806  105 0.6986 600 0.4042 1115 0.06093 1.352  104 3.846  105 9.515  105 0.7037 700 0.3627 1135 0.06581 1.598  104 4.111  105 1.133  104 0.7092 800 0.3289 1153 0.07037 1.855  104 4.362  105 1.326  104 0.7149 900 0.3008 1169 0.07465 2.122  104 4.600  105 1.529  104 0.7206

1000 0.2772 1184 0.07868 2.398  104 4.826  105 1.741  104 0.7260 1500 0.1990 1234 0.09599 3.908  104 5.817  105 2.922  104 0.7478 2000 0.1553 1264 0.11113 5.664  104 6.630  105 4.270  104 0.7539

Note: For ideal gases, the properties cp, k, m, and Pr are independent of pressure. The properties r, n, and a at a pressure P (in atm) other than 1 atm are determined by multiplying the values of r at the given temperature by P and by dividing n and a by P.

Source: Data generated from the EES software developed by S. A. Klein and F. L. Alvarado. Original sources: Keenan, Chao, Keyes, Gas Tables, Wiley, 1984; and Thermophysical Properties of Matter. Vol. 3: Thermal Conductivity, Y. S. Touloukian, P. E. Liley, S. C. Saxena, Vol. 11: Viscosity, Y. S. Touloukian, S. C. Saxena, and P. Hestermans, IFI/Plenun, NY, 1970, ISBN 0-306067020-8.

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885 APPENDIX 1

TABLE A–16

Properties of gases at 1 atm pressure

Specific Thermal Thermal Dynamic Kinematic Prandtl Temp. Density Heat Conductivity Diffusivity Viscosity Viscosity Number T, C r, kg/m3 cp, J/kg·K k, W/m·K a, m2/s m, kg/m·s n, m2/s Pr

Carbon Dioxide, CO2

50 2.4035 746 0.01051 5.860  106 1.129  105 4.699  106 0.8019 0 1.9635 811 0.01456 9.141  106 1.375  105 7.003  106 0.7661

50 1.6597 866.6 0.01858 1.291  105 1.612  105 9.714  106 0.7520 100 1.4373 914.8 0.02257 1.716  105 1.841  105 1.281  105 0.7464 150 1.2675 957.4 0.02652 2.186  105 2.063  105 1.627  105 0.7445 200 1.1336 995.2 0.03044 2.698  105 2.276  105 2.008  105 0.7442 300 0.9358 1060 0.03814 3.847  105 2.682  105 2.866  105 0.7450 400 0.7968 1112 0.04565 5.151  105 3.061  105 3.842  105 0.7458 500 0.6937 1156 0.05293 6.600  105 3.416  105 4.924  105 0.7460

1000 0.4213 1292 0.08491 1.560  104 4.898  105 1.162  104 0.7455 1500 0.3025 1356 0.10688 2.606  104 6.106  105 2.019  104 0.7745 2000 0.2359 1387 0.11522 3.521  104 7.322  105 3.103  104 0.8815

Carbon Monoxide, CO

50 1.5297 1081 0.01901 1.149  105 1.378  105 9.012  106 0.7840 0 1.2497 1048 0.02278 1.739  105 1.629  105 1.303  105 0.7499

50 1.0563 1039 0.02641 2.407  105 1.863  105 1.764  105 0.7328 100 0.9148 1041 0.02992 3.142  105 2.080  105 2.274  105 0.7239 150 0.8067 1049 0.03330 3.936  105 2.283  105 2.830  105 0.7191 200 0.7214 1060 0.03656 4.782  105 2.472  105 3.426  105 0.7164 300 0.5956 1085 0.04277 6.619  105 2.812  105 4.722  105 0.7134 400 0.5071 1111 0.04860 8.628  105 3.111  105 6.136  105 0.7111 500 0.4415 1135 0.05412 1.079  104 3.379  105 7.653  105 0.7087

1000 0.2681 1226 0.07894 2.401  104 4.557  105 1.700  104 0.7080 1500 0.1925 1279 0.10458 4.246  104 6.321  105 3.284  104 0.7733 2000 0.1502 1309 0.13833 7.034  104 9.826  105 6.543  104 0.9302

Methane, CH4

50 0.8761 2243 0.02367 1.204  105 8.564  106 9.774  106 0.8116 0 0.7158 2217 0.03042 1.917  105 1.028  105 1.436  105 0.7494

50 0.6050 2302 0.03766 2.704  105 1.191  105 1.969  105 0.7282 100 0.5240 2443 0.04534 3.543  105 1.345  105 2.567  105 0.7247 150 0.4620 2611 0.05344 4.431  105 1.491  105 3.227  105 0.7284 200 0.4132 2791 0.06194 5.370  105 1.630  105 3.944  105 0.7344 300 0.3411 3158 0.07996 7.422  105 1.886  105 5.529  105 0.7450 400 0.2904 3510 0.09918 9.727  105 2.119  105 7.297  105 0.7501 500 0.2529 3836 0.11933 1.230  104 2.334  105 9.228  105 0.7502

1000 0.1536 5042 0.22562 2.914  104 3.281  105 2.136  104 0.7331 1500 0.1103 5701 0.31857 5.068  104 4.434  105 4.022  104 0.7936 2000 0.0860 6001 0.36750 7.120  104 6.360  105 7.395  104 1.0386

Hydrogen, H2

50 0.11010 12635 0.1404 1.009  104 7.293  106 6.624  105 0.6562 0 0.08995 13920 0.1652 1.319  104 8.391  106 9.329  105 0.7071

50 0.07603 14349 0.1881 1.724  104 9.427  106 1.240  104 0.7191 100 0.06584 14473 0.2095 2.199  104 1.041  105 1.582  104 0.7196 150 0.05806 14492 0.2296 2.729  104 1.136  105 1.957  104 0.7174 200 0.05193 14482 0.2486 3.306  104 1.228  105 2.365  104 0.7155

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886 APPENDIX 1

300 0.04287 14481 0.2843 4.580  104 1.403  105 3.274  104 0.7149 400 0.03650 14540 0.3180 5.992  104 1.570  105 4.302  104 0.7179 500 0.03178 14653 0.3509 7.535  104 1.730  105 5.443  104 0.7224

1000 0.01930 15577 0.5206 1.732  103 2.455  105 1.272  103 0.7345 1500 0.01386 16553 0.6581 2.869  103 3.099  105 2.237  103 0.7795 2000 0.01081 17400 0.5480 2.914  103 3.690  105 3.414  103 1.1717

Nitrogen, N2

50 1.5299 957.3 0.02001 1.366  105 1.390  105 9.091  106 0.6655 0 1.2498 1035 0.02384 1.843  105 1.640  105 1.312  105 0.7121

50 1.0564 1042 0.02746 2.494  105 1.874  105 1.774  105 0.7114 100 0.9149 1041 0.03090 3.244  105 2.094  105 2.289  105 0.7056 150 0.8068 1043 0.03416 4.058  105 2.300  105 2.851  105 0.7025 200 0.7215 1050 0.03727 4.921  105 2.494  105 3.457  105 0.7025 300 0.5956 1070 0.04309 6.758  105 2.849  105 4.783  105 0.7078 400 0.5072 1095 0.04848 8.727  105 3.166  105 6.242  105 0.7153 500 0.4416 1120 0.05358 1.083  104 3.451  105 7.816  105 0.7215

1000 0.2681 1213 0.07938 2.440  104 4.594  105 1.713  104 0.7022 1500 0.1925 1266 0.11793 4.839  104 5.562  105 2.889  104 0.5969 2000 0.1502 1297 0.18590 9.543  104 6.426  105 4.278  104 0.4483

Oxygen, O2

50 1.7475 984.4 0.02067 1.201  105 1.616  105 9.246  106 0.7694 0 1.4277 928.7 0.02472 1.865  105 1.916  105 1.342  105 0.7198

50 1.2068 921.7 0.02867 2.577  105 2.194  105 1.818  105 0.7053 100 1.0451 931.8 0.03254 3.342  105 2.451  105 2.346  105 0.7019 150 0.9216 947.6 0.03637 4.164  105 2.694  105 2.923  105 0.7019 200 0.8242 964.7 0.04014 5.048  105 2.923  105 3.546  105 0.7025 300 0.6804 997.1 0.04751 7.003  105 3.350  105 4.923  105 0.7030 400 0.5793 1025 0.05463 9.204  105 3.744  105 6.463  105 0.7023 500 0.5044 1048 0.06148 1.163  104 4.114  105 8.156  105 0.7010

1000 0.3063 1121 0.09198 2.678  104 5.732  105 1.871  104 0.6986 1500 0.2199 1165 0.11901 4.643  104 7.133  105 3.243  104 0.6985 2000 0.1716 1201 0.14705 7.139  104 8.417  105 4.907  104 0.6873

Water Vapor, H2O

50 0.9839 1892 0.01353 7.271  106 7.187  106 7.305  106 1.0047 0 0.8038 1874 0.01673 1.110  105 8.956  106 1.114  105 1.0033

50 0.6794 1874 0.02032 1.596  105 1.078  105 1.587  105 0.9944 100 0.5884 1887 0.02429 2.187  105 1.265  105 2.150  105 0.9830 150 0.5189 1908 0.02861 2.890  105 1.456  105 2.806  105 0.9712 200 0.4640 1935 0.03326 3.705  105 1.650  105 3.556  105 0.9599 300 0.3831 1997 0.04345 5.680  105 2.045  105 5.340  105 0.9401 400 0.3262 2066 0.05467 8.114  105 2.446  105 7.498  105 0.9240 500 0.2840 2137 0.06677 1.100  104 2.847  105 1.002  104 0.9108

1000 0.1725 2471 0.13623 3.196  104 4.762  105 2.761  104 0.8639 1500 0.1238 2736 0.21301 6.288  104 6.411  105 5.177  104 0.8233 2000 0.0966 2928 0.29183 1.032  103 7.808  105 8.084  104 0.7833

Note: For ideal gases, the properties cp, k, m, and Pr are independent of pressure. The properties r, n, and a at a pressure P (in atm) other than 1 atm are determined by multiplying the values of p at the given temperature by r and by dividing n and a by P.

Source: Data generated from the EES software developed by S. A. Klein and F. L. Alvarado. Originally based on various sources.

TABLE A–16

Properties of gases at 1 atm pressure (Concluded)

Specific Thermal Thermal Dynamic Kinematic Prandtl Temp. Density Heat Conductivity Diffusivity Viscosity Viscosity Number T, C r, kg/m3 cp, J/kg·K k, W/m·K a, m2/s m, kg/m·s n, m2/s Pr

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887 APPENDIX 1

TABLE A–17

Properties of the atmosphere at high altitude

Speed of Thermal Altitude, Temperature, Pressure, Gravity Sound, Density, Viscosity Conductivity,

z, m T , C P, kPa g, m/s2 c, m/s r, kg/m3 m, kg/m·s k, W/m·K

0 15.00 101.33 9.807 340.3 1.225 1.789  105 0.0253 200 13.70 98.95 9.806 339.5 1.202 1.783  105 0.0252 400 12.40 96.61 9.805 338.8 1.179 1.777  105 0.0252 600 11.10 94.32 9.805 338.0 1.156 1.771  105 0.0251 800 9.80 92.08 9.804 337.2 1.134 1.764  105 0.0250

1000 8.50 89.88 9.804 336.4 1.112 1.758  105 0.0249 1200 7.20 87.72 9.803 335.7 1.090 1.752  105 0.0248 1400 5.90 85.60 9.802 334.9 1.069 1.745  105 0.0247 1600 4.60 83.53 9.802 334.1 1.048 1.739  105 0.0245 1800 3.30 81.49 9.801 333.3 1.027 1.732  105 0.0244 2000 2.00 79.50 9.800 332.5 1.007 1.726  105 0.0243 2200 0.70 77.55 9.800 331.7 0.987 1.720  105 0.0242 2400 0.59 75.63 9.799 331.0 0.967 1.713  105 0.0241 2600 1.89 73.76 9.799 330.2 0.947 1.707  105 0.0240 2800 3.19 71.92 9.798 329.4 0.928 1.700  105 0.0239 3000 4.49 70.12 9.797 328.6 0.909 1.694  105 0.0238 3200 5.79 68.36 9.797 327.8 0.891 1.687  105 0.0237 3400 7.09 66.63 9.796 327.0 0.872 1.681  105 0.0236 3600 8.39 64.94 9.796 326.2 0.854 1.674  105 0.0235 3800 9.69 63.28 9.795 325.4 0.837 1.668  105 0.0234 4000 10.98 61.66 9.794 324.6 0.819 1.661  105 0.0233 4200 12.3 60.07 9.794 323.8 0.802 1.655  105 0.0232 4400 13.6 58.52 9.793 323.0 0.785 1.648  105 0.0231 4600 14.9 57.00 9.793 322.2 0.769 1.642  105 0.0230 4800 16.2 55.51 9.792 321.4 0.752 1.635  105 0.0229 5000 17.5 54.05 9.791 320.5 0.736 1.628  105 0.0228 5200 18.8 52.62 9.791 319.7 0.721 1.622  105 0.0227 5400 20.1 51.23 9.790 318.9 0.705 1.615  105 0.0226 5600 21.4 49.86 9.789 318.1 0.690 1.608  105 0.0224 5800 22.7 48.52 9.785 317.3 0.675 1.602  105 0.0223 6000 24.0 47.22 9.788 316.5 0.660 1.595  105 0.0222 6200 25.3 45.94 9.788 315.6 0.646 1.588  105 0.0221 6400 26.6 44.69 9.787 314.8 0.631 1.582  105 0.0220 6600 27.9 43.47 9.786 314.0 0.617 1.575  105 0.0219 6800 29.2 42.27 9.785 313.1 0.604 1.568  105 0.0218 7000 30.5 41.11 9.785 312.3 0.590 1.561  105 0.0217 8000 36.9 35.65 9.782 308.1 0.526 1.527  105 0.0212 9000 43.4 30.80 9.779 303.8 0.467 1.493  105 0.0206

10,000 49.9 26.50 9.776 299.5 0.414 1.458  105 0.0201 12,000 56.5 19.40 9.770 295.1 0.312 1.422  105 0.0195 14,000 56.5 14.17 9.764 295.1 0.228 1.422  105 0.0195 16,000 56.5 10.53 9.758 295.1 0.166 1.422  105 0.0195 18,000 56.5 7.57 9.751 295.1 0.122 1.422  105 0.0195

Source: U.S. Standard Atmosphere Supplements, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1966. Based on year-round mean conditions at 45 latitude and varies with the time of the year and the weather patterns. The conditions at sea level (z  0) are taken to be P  101.325 kPa, T  15C, r  1.2250 kg/m3, g  9.80665 m2/s.

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888 APPENDIX 1

TABLE A–18

Emissivities of surfaces (a) Metals

Temperature, Emissivity, Material K e

Aluminum Polished 300–900 0.04–0.06 Commercial sheet 400 0.09 Heavily oxidized 400–800 0.20–0.33 Anodized 300 0.8

Bismuth, bright 350 0.34 Brass

Highly polished 500–650 0.03–0.04 Polished 350 0.09 Dull plate 300–600 0.22 Oxidized 450–800 0.6

Chromium, polished 300–1400 0.08–0.40 Copper

Highly polished 300 0.02 Polished 300–500 0.04–0.05 Commercial sheet 300 0.15 Oxidized 600–1000 0.5–0.8 Black oxidized 300 0.78

Gold Highly polished 300–1000 0.03–0.06 Bright foil 300 0.07

Iron Highly polished 300–500 0.05–0.07 Case iron 300 0.44 Wrought iron 300–500 0.28 Rusted 300 0.61 Oxidized 500–900 0.64–0.78

Lead Polished 300–500 0.06–0.08 Unoxidized, rough 300 0.43 Oxidized 300 0.63

Temperature, Emissivity, Material K e

Magnesium, polished 300–500 0.07–0.13 Mercury 300–400 0.09–0.12 Molybdenum

Polished 300–2000 0.05–0.21 Oxidized 600–800 0.80–0.82

Nickel Polished 500–1200 0.07–0.17 Oxidized 450–1000 0.37–0.57

Platinum, polished 500–1500 0.06–0.18 Silver, polished 300–1000 0.02–0.07 Stainless steel

Polished 300–1000 0.17–0.30 Lightly oxidized 600–1000 0.30–0.40 Highly oxidized 600–1000 0.70–0.80

Steel Polished sheet 300–500 0.08–0.14 Commercial sheet 500–1200 0.20–0.32 Heavily oxidized 300 0.81

Tin, polished 300 0.05 Tungsten

Polished 300–2500 0.03–0.29 Filament 3500 0.39

Zinc Polished 300–800 0.02–0.05 Oxidized 300 0.25

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889 APPENDIX 1

TABLE A–18

Emissivities of surfaces (Concluded) (b) Nonmetals

Temperature, Emissivity, Material K e

Alumina 800–1400 0.65–0.45 Aluminum oxide 600–1500 0.69–0.41 Asbestos 300 0.96 Asphalt pavement 300 0.85–0.93 Brick

Common 300 0.93–0.96 Fireclay 1200 0.75

Carbon filament 2000 0.53 Cloth 300 0.75–0.90 Concrete 300 0.88–0.94 Glass

Window 300 0.90–0.95 Pyrex 300–1200 0.82–0.62 Pyroceram 300–1500 0.85–0.57

Ice 273 0.95–0.99 Magnesium oxide 400–800 0.69–0.55 Masonry 300 0.80 Paints

Aluminum 300 0.40–0.50 Black, lacquer, shiny 300 0.88 Oils, all colors 300 0.92–0.96 Red primer 300 0.93 White acrylic 300 0.90 White enamel 300 0.90

Temperature, Emissivity, Material K e

Paper, white 300 0.90 Plaster, white 300 0.93 Porcelain, glazed 300 0.92 Quartz, rough, fused 300 0.93 Rubber

Hard 300 0.93 Soft 300 0.86

Sand 300 0.90 Silicon carbide 600–1500 0.87–0.85 Skin, human 300 0.95 Snow 273 0.80–0.90 Soil, earth 300 0.93–0.96 Soot 300–500 0.95 Teflon 300–500 0.85–0.92 Water, deep 273–373 0.95–0.96 Wood

Beech 300 0.94 Oak 300 0.90

cen98128_App-A_p865-892.qxd 1/8/10 3:29 PM Page 889

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