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A midterm exam for economics 001, held on october 6th, 2011. The exam consists of 7 multiple-choice questions and 2 short-answer questions. Students are required to write their answers in the provided blue books. Questions cover topics such as comparative advantage, opportunity cost, elasticity of demand, and market equilibrium.

Typology: Exams

2011/2012

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Download Econ 001 Midterm 1: Economics Exam with Multiple Choice and Short-Answer Questions and more Exams Economics in PDF only on Docsity! Econ 001: Midterm 1- Stein October 6th, 2011 Instructions: This is a 60-minute examination. Write all answers in the blue books provided. Show all work. Use diagrams where appropriate and label all diagrams carefully. Write your name and your Recitation Instructor's name in every blue book that you use. This exam is given under the rules of Penn's Honor system. All blue books, blank or filled, must be handed in at the end of this exam. No blue books may be taken from the room. No calculators allowed! The Midterm has 2 parts. Part 1 consists of 7 multiple-choice questions. Part 2 consists of 2 short-answer questions. You need 2 blue books. You are required to use the two blue books as follows: BOOK 1: write your answers to the 7 multiple-choice questions on the first page and then write your answers to the first short-answer question in the remainder of the book. BOOK 2: write your answers to the second short-answer question. Part I: Multiple Choice Questions (5 points each/35 points total): 1. In a recent article in the New York times, Mark Bittman compares the cost of a McDonalds meal for four ( $28 ) to the cost of a home cooked chicken dinner ($13.78). An economist would likely claim that the true cost of the home cooked meal is _______ than $13.78, as we need to add to the cost of groceries also the opportunity cost of _______. a. Higher. Prepetition and cooking time. b. Lower, Prepetition and cooking time. c. Higher. Benefits of health home cooking. d. An economist would have no idea how you cook a chicken anyway. 2. The following table shows the productivity of Antonia and Elena on sandwiches. Each of them works at most 8 hours a day. Using the following information, which of the statements below is correct? Cheese Steak (units per hour) BLT (units per hour) Antonia 1 1 Elena 2 1 I. Antonia has a comparative advantage for BLT II. They are willing to trade with each other if the price of BLT (in terms of CheeseSteak) is 3 Cheesesteaks. III. They are willing to trade with the outside world at a price 1 Cheese Steak=2 BLT a. Only I b. I and II c. I and III d. II and III e. All three statements are correct. 3. An analyst believed that after the financial crisis in 2008, we have had a huge excess supply in the U.S. housing market and he predicted that, in the next 5 years, the housing market will approach a new equilibrium through price adjustment. According to his prediction, what might be observed in the next 5 years? a. A decrease in demand. b. An increase in quantity demanded. c. A decrease in quantity demanded. d. An increase in demand. 4. If Penn Dining decreases the price of their freshmen dining plans and notices an increase in total revenue, then we can say that, demand for dining plans was: a. Elastic b. Inelastic c. Unit elastic d. Inferior Answer Key: a. Three person PPF with cider on horizontal axis. Key points at (0,90), (60,60), (100,20), (110,0). Points: 6 General shape;2 Each point:1 b. Answer: Answer: Producing 105 units of cider, so X = (105,10). Dan produces 60 units of cider (he has the lowest opportunity cost of producing cider), Jake produces 40 units of cider (he has the next lowest opportunity cost of producing cider), Kyle produces 5 units of cider and the 10 units of pretzels. Points: 12 Q Cider=105: 2 Correct on PPF: 2 Dan 60 units of cider:2; Jake: 40 cider:2; Kyle: 5 cider & 10 pretzels: 2 each c. Points: 5 Allocative efficiency. While point X is productively efficient, if the marginal benefit of cider in terms of pretzels is less than 2 pretzels, then they would be better off having Kyle produce more pretzels. In detail: We know Kyle wants MORE pretzels and LESS cider. For allocative efficiency we need MB=MC. As MB is diminishing the MORE of a good we have the LOWER is the MB. In terms of cider: we are told we currently have too much, so we must be willing to move along (left) the MB curve from a point where MB(cider)<MC(cider) to a point where MB(c)=MC(c) In terms of pretzels: we are producing too few, so we want to go from a point where the MB(pretzels)>MC(pretzels) by moving down along the MB curve. Points: Use of terminology as follows: Not Allocatively Efficinct:5; MB<MC:4; Prefrences:3 d. Dan is correct. Note that the trade line runs from (0, 90) to (180, 0) and is tangent to the joint PPF along the segment (0, 90) to (60, 60). Graphically: consumption pint on the CPF outside PPS at cider=105. Numerical answer: If they still want 105 units of cider (as at point X) then they can get this by producing 90 units of pretzels and trading 52.5 units of pretzels for the 105 units of cider, leaving them with 37.5 units of pretzels compared with the 10 units they used to have. Points: 10 Graphing correct CPF: 4 (1 if CPF intersects PPF, 2 if not correct slope) Graphing correct consumption point: 3 Calculating that consumption of pretzels now 37.5=3 Q2. (32 points). Please write your answer in bluebook #2. Suppose that the market for vaccines is characterized by an upward sloping supply and downward sloping demand. a. Draw a typical Supply and Demand graph for this market and show the equilibrium price and quantity. b. At the equilibrium price some people do not purchase vaccines. Show these people on your graph. c. In order to encourage vaccinations the government wishes to make them more affordable. It thus places a price ceiling that is below the equilibrium price in this market. Will such a policy increase the number of people who are vaccinated? Explain using your graph. d. In order to encourage vaccinations the government wishes to make them more affordable. It thus decides to subsidize them by a set amount (s) per unit. Will such a policy increase the number of people who are vaccinated? Explain using your graph. Is this policy therefore efficient? Explain using your graph. Answer Key: a. Typical upward sloping supply and downward sloping demand. Points: 4 Axis:2; P* & Q*: 1 each b. The horizontal space from the eqbm quantity over to where the demand curve intersects the horizontal axis. Also ok if mark the part of the demand curve where MB<P* Points: 4 c. Need to show price ciling below P*. At this price there is excess demand as the quantity of vaccines supplied falls (show where supply curve intersects the price ceiling) and the quantity demanded increases. As the short side of the market determines the quantity traded so this policy will actually decrease the number of people who are vaccinated. Points:8 Mark price ceiling:2; Qs & Qd: 2 each Understanding that the quantity exchanged is the lesser of the two: 2 Note: a student who marks a price ceiling but does not understand the impact: 3 points max d. Describe this as either supply shifts out or demand shifts out. Either way the number of people vaccinated increases. In the context of this problem (in which no issue of externalities is raised) the subsidies create DWL from over production and thus do not lead to an efficient outcome. Need to show graphically DWL or that at Q1 MC>MB. Points: 16 General understanding of subsidy graph: 4 points New equilibrium quantity: 4 points Greater than Q*: 2 points DWL or MC>MB market clearly on the graph: 4 points for correct area Thus inefficient: 2 points Note: students will get the 2 points for explanation even if not correctly marked on the graph. These students can get a max of 12 points on this part. Attention:weassumedthatpartsc&dareseparate.Studentswhoaddedthesubsidy toanexistingpriceceilingansweredaverynicequestionthoughsomewhatmore difficultquestion.Theywillgetfullcreditaslongtheiranalysisisconsistentwiththeir graph.