Principle of Management, Study notes for Management Fundamentals

Principle of Management, Study notes for Management Fundamentals

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MBA SEM I- Principal of Management Regardless of size, nature and type of organization, all the managers have to perform some basic functions which are as follows: (a) Planning: Planning is always the first function performed by every manager. Planning refers to “deciding in advance what to do, how to do, when to do, and who is going to do it. Planning bridges the gap between where we stand today and where we want to reach”. Every manager starts with deciding in advance the objectives of an enterprise and how to accomplish these objectives. Planning is the base of all other functions of management.

Image Courtesy : (b) Organizing: After setting up of plans next function of every manager is to organise the activities and establishing an organisation structure to execute the plan. Setting up organisational structure means deciding the framework of working how many units and sub-units or departments are needed, how many posts or designations are needed in each department, how to distribute the authority and responsibility among different people. Once these decisions are taken an organisational structure gets set up. (c) Staffing: Staffing is the third step or function of a manager. It refers to recruiting, selecting, appointing the employees, assigning them duties, maintaining cordial relations and taking care of grievances of employees. It also includes training and developing the employees, deciding their remuneration, promotion, increments, etc., evaluating the performance, maintaining personal records of employees. (d) Directing: Once the employees are appointed there is need to instruct them and get the work done. Directing refers to giving directions or instructions to employees by motivating them, supervising the activities of employees, communicating with them. Managers act as leaders and guide them to right direction, so directing function includes, supervising, motivating, communicating and leadership. (e) Controlling: This is the last function of managers. In this function managers try to match the actual performance with the planned performance and if there is no match between both then managers try to find out the reasons of deviation and suggest corrective measures to come on the path of plan. Controlling functions refer to all the performance measurements and follow up actions that keep the actual performance on the path of plan. Focus of management function at different levels: Any person who performs managerial function, i.e., planning organising, staffing, directing and controlling, is considered as a manager. The focus of different levels is at different functions such as: i. Top level concentrates on planning and organising. ii. Middle level keeps their focus on staffing and coordination. iii. Lower level focus on directing and controlling as they give direction to workers. How to Institutionalize Ethics in a Corporation Ethical business practices do more than create a good name for a company. They tell employees, suppliers, investors and shareholders they are associating with a trustworthy company that will protect their interests and make decisions not based solely on profit. Ethics reaches to every corner of a business and requires that employees and everyone who represents the company or acts on its behalf understands the policies and rules regarding ethical behavior. Ethics should be part of the corporate culture and modeled at the highest levels of the organization. Corporate Policies

Most people learn the difference between right and wrong at an early age. But sometimes the difference between right and wrong in a business setting isn’t black and white. A company should establish guidelines for

ethical behavior and identify the proper course of action in situations that might have several possible outcomes. Train employees on the policies, and provide periodic updates when situations arise that suggest a policy might be unclear or needs to be reinforced.

Ethics Training

Establish annual ethics training for employees to ensure they understand the corporate ethics policies and know how to respond if presented with a situation that might compromise the company. Scenario-based training involving employees, suppliers, management and others in hypothetical situations is an excellent way to learn how to respond ethically to situations where there are several possible outcomes. Give employees a printed or downloadable ethics manual for reference during the training and throughout the year.


Even with clearly defined ethics policies, employees may face situations involving unethical behavior but don’t want to get a co-worker or supervisor in trouble. Or an employee might be afraid that reporting unethical behavior could jeopardize his job. Corporations can reinforce ethics policies and encourage employees to abide by ethical standards by providing an ombudsman to discuss sensitive situations with them, advise them on the proper course of action and protect them from retaliation.

Industry Recognition

Look for opportunities for recognition among industry peers as an ethical business. Ethisphere, which recognizes the “World’s Most Ethical Companies” each year, uses a rating system to capture a company’s ethical performance. It found that companies that make the cut have greater return on investment than those that don’t. Having a designation as an ethical business can attract employees and investors and earn positive press for your company. In turn, it helps strengthen the corporate image, build equity in the brand and position the company favorably on Wall Street and in the marketplace.

Planning and controlling are inseparable. Planning is the primary function of every organisation it is the thinking process, which mean looking ahead or making plans that how desired goal is achieved in future thus it is called a formed looking function on the other hand controlling is a systematic function which measures the actual performance with the planned performance. It compared and analysed the whole process of an organisation and take correcting actions. Thus, it is a backward looking function but the statement "Planning is looking ahead and controlling is looking back" is partially correct because it should be understood that planning is glided by past experiences and the corrective action initiated by control function which aims to improve future performance. Thus, planning and controlling are both backward looking as well as a forward looking function. Contingency planning and risk management are essential components of any business strategy. A small business owner working on limited funds must pay careful attention to contingency planning and risk management when evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of a proposed business strategy. Smart planning can provide the edge the small business owner needs to establish a niche in the market and sustain growth. Anticipating Business Risks

A business plan that only considers the best-case scenario for your small business isn't likely to last long. Anticipating risks to your company, including seasonal drops in revenue and new competitor products entering the market, is crucial to ensure your overall business strategy has the wide vision necessary to keep your business from being caught off-guard by foreseeable events. The more risks your business can anticipate, the better your company is at meeting the many challenges that can arise for a small business in any industry.

Developing Mitigation Strategies

Contingency planning and risk management are only as good as the strategies developed to help mitigate the potential financial damage to your company. Mitigation strategies may include a variety of methods for limiting the affects of future problems to your business, including storing capital for revenue shortfalls as well as making improvements to facilities to reduce the chances of employee injury. These strategies provide your small business with a plan of action in the event of a problem. This allows your company to devote more time to solving a problem in the moment without having to first sit down and develop a plan of action.

Mobility of Business Strategies

In evaluating your business strategy, contingency plans should give your company the mobility necessary to shift focus to different aspects of your company and change operating strategies as needs in the market shift. Mobility is an essential element of contingency planning and your business strategy as a whole. If you notice your company's strategy isn't working, you must have the systems in place to switch gears and find the profitable solution. Without mobility, your small business could remain locked in the same money-draining strategy until you're broke and out of business.

Seizing Business Opportunities

Planning for business opportunities is just as important as developing risk management strategies for your business. Incorporating opportunity planning into your contingency plans can allow your company to get ahead of the competition in a variety of areas, including developing new products to meet a need in the market or increasing promotional campaigns in advance of a tourist season. Taking advantage of these opportunities helps your company maximize its profit potential and secure new customers or clients.

Decision making is a primary task of manager Decision making is a distinct management function. Being the essence of management, it’s a primary task of manager. Every manager is duty-bound to make decisions in relation to various business matters, questions, problems, concerns and disputes. Decision making is a crucial part of managerial activity that demands knowledge, intellect, self-awareness, clear perception with reasonable experience and exposure to the events. Considering the managerial activities, it would be appropriate to say that hardly might there be a day when decisions have not been made by a business manager.

Decision-making is regarded as the cognitive process resulting in the selection of a belief or a course of action among several alternative possibilities. Every decision-making process produces a final choice that may or may not prompt action. Decision making is the process of making choices or reaching conclusions especially on business matters. According to George Terry, “Decision making is the selection of a particular course of action, based on some criteria, from two or more possible alternatives.” Decision making is thus choosing the best course of action out of the available options while aiming at the achievement of particular organizational objectives. Management and decision making are to be considered as inseparable. It is the intellectual process and a purposeful activity which at varied times takes in hands all the managerial activities, such as, planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling. It is the process wherein an executive, by taking in to consideration several alternatives, reaches at the conclusion about how it should be dealt successfully in a given situation.

The decisions that are taken by a manager on the basis of his authority being associated with his designation are regarded as organizational decisions. For instance, he can assign a subordinate for a particular task; with the authority given to him, he can promote his subordinate and propose job enrichment etc. On the contrary, the decisions that belong to him personally are called as personal decisions; such as, he leaves the organization for his own sake. There are routine and strategic decisions that a manager needs to make as and when needed. With regard to the routine decisions, it may be said that they are related with day-to-day course of business activities in which there is no specific judgment is needed. In this context, it is proper to say that such decisions are normally to be taken by lower management level. While on the other

hand, strategic decisions need be taken by top management since they are concerned with policy matters or they involve long-term plans. Besides, programmed and non-programmed decisions have a lot to do with a business organization. Programmed decisions are concerned with repetitive problems of a business that call for particular policies, procedures etc. As regards non-programmed decisions, they are to be dealt with such situations that occur unexpectedly which in turn are referred to the top management.

Finally, it must be noted that the process of decision making is to be initiated when there are alternatives so that a decision may be made or a conclusion may be reached at by selecting the best alternative in order to fulfill the purpose or to attain the organizational objectives. Decision making is integral part of management as the survival and growth of business hinges on the quality of decision making. Thus, being a continuous activity, decision making is regarded to be the heart of management. What are the forms of formal communication? Formal communication is written, oral or graphic communication routed through the "official channels" These follow the lines of authority and accountability. What is formal communication? A formal communication is when some one is wearing a dress or a top and a shirt or just something when someone looks very pretty. What is formal organization? it is an organization which clearly defines the authority ,responsibility and inter relations of people working therein Define formal communication? a formal communication can be defined as a means of communication that is normally controled by the managers in an organisation. it has been called the main line of the organization operational communication. this is intended the reports ,records,and other forms that flow up and down in the system

What are formal communication channels? What are formal communication channels? formal communication channels-that flows within the chain of command or task responsibility defined by the organisation. 1. VERTICAL COMMUNITION 2. HORIZONTAL COMMUNICATION 3. EXTERNAL COMMUNICATION

Discuss the communication model in context to formal and informal flow of information in an organization?

The informal flow of communication gives many ideas and help in increasing the productivity of the organization to certain extent.

What are the types of formal organization?

Thereare 3 types of formal organisation 1. Coersive - association people which force to join 2. Normative - organisation we join voluntary which is to gain prestige and common interest 3. Utilitarian - organisation we join voluntary and provide material reward

Definition of formal and informal organization? A formal organisation structure shows a recognisable chain of command, it also has many levels of management. This make comunication slower and decision making harder to implement.. An informal structure is much more relaxed, with very few levels of management. This makes comunication much easier between levels and decisions anr made faster.. Hope that helped!

What is formal and informal communication? Formal communication is organized and managed information that is shared with relevant individuals in order to secure coordinated action throughout the organization. . Informal communication in the workplace satisfies a variety of needs, particularly social and emotional, and are not based on the positions individuals occupy within the organizations. As a result, the communication is not managed or planned in any organized

fashion. It's more relaxed, casual and tends to be spread by word-of-mouth quickly throughout a department or organization because it's not restricted to approvals and an established path of distribution.

What is an example of formal communication?

Formal communication is a type document, letter, or verbalpresentation intended to share information to professionals or usedfor official purposes. Examples of this communication include somepublications, newsletters, and letters of congratulations.

Formal n informal communication? As a general rule, people would most often use formal communication whilst writing an essay, research paper, or something of the latter. Formal communication is usually as grammatically correct as possible. Informal communication is used everyday throughout people's speech and dialogue, and is not as grammatically correct as a formal style of communication. Examples: Formal: "Bob and I were going to the market." Informal: "Bob and me were gonna go to the market."

Define formal and informal communication?

a formal communication can be defined as a means of communication that is normally controled by the managers in an organisation. it has been called the main line of the organization operational communication. this is intended the reports ,records,and other forms that flow up and down in the system .

What is a formal organization for the IRS? Formal organization means that an organization has set itself up under state law. It has issued an employer identification number (EIN) by the IRS. Its appropriate federal tax classification (corporation, partnership, etc.) has been identified. Formal organization is required in order to apply for tax-exempt status with the IRS. Tax-exempt status means exempt from federal income tax under section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code. An organization that's been granted tax-exempt status by the IRS is called a charitable organization. For more information, go to for Publication 557 (Tax-Exempt Status for Your Organization). Also go to the IRS Charities and Non-Profits Section at for Exempt Organizations FAQs and more

Advantages of formal organization?

There are so many advantages a formal organization. They includeproper handling of issues, good record keeping, operations are runin a proficient manner and so on.

What is formal lines of communication?

Formal lines of communication refer to something written, or oftenan oral presentation. In this form of communication, there islittle to no humor, and it is exact, technical, and calculated.

Importance of formal communication? Formal communication is important because it reaches all areas ofbusiness in newsletters, emails, and manuals. It follows rules,procedures, or established systems and is a smooth communicationsystem. It provides a permanent record, increases efficiency, andis reliable.

What is formal communication in business organization?

Depending on the business and its governing documents, formal communication can take the form of a public speech, a newsletter, a publication or a letter.. Formal communication delivers an official position.. For example, when you receive a letter from a company in which you hold stock asking that you vote for -- or against -- a ballot issue, you can consider the letter a kind of formal communication.. Its opposite, informal communication, could be, for example, the internal 'grapevine' which can be oral or written that represents individual opinions and not necessarily a corporate position.

What is non formal communication?

Communication that is colloquial - i.e. more like a natural conversation. It may not follow grammatical rules 100%, but is usually easier to read and friendlier in tone.

What is formal communication pattern in organization?

The characteristics of Formal Communication patterns observed in a large-size business organisation are: (i) The communication flows within the prescribed channels of chain of command or task responsibility which is determined by the organisational hierarchy and work relationships. (ii) The speed of formal communication is generally slow as it flows through predetermined channels. (iii) The formal communication messages are considered as true and authentic versions of official policies by the recipients. (iv) The risks of creation of any distortions in the process of formal communication are minimum. (v) The process of formal communication is expensive and time-consuming as it involves careful planning, appropriate presentation and relatively greater paper work. (vi) The process of formal communications has restrictive implications as information of confidential nature should n

Avantages and disadvantages of formal communication?

Advantage: (1) Formal communication is official, it is more binding and thusmore likely to be obeyed. Disadvantages of Formal Communication (1) It increases the workload of the line superior because allcommunications are transmitted through them. It leaves no time toperform other functions well.

What is formal communication systems?

Such communication in which record is save.... Every thing done in a proper is most important

What is meant by formal and informal organization?

formal organisation have written directions, rules and regulations and a pre determine goal to achieve and formed. informal organisation is created by itself, it is necessary for formal org. it has no rules and regulations, but it helps formal organisation to attain its goals.

Ics formal and informal communication?

Both formal and informal communication is utilized within the ICS.The purpose of formal communication is to facilitate communicationbetween the Incident Commander and various other supervisors whenan incident requires direct management or attention. The purpose ofinformal communication is to facilitate information regarding aparticular incident, however it is not used to direct action orassign specific tasks.

A formal organization is often conceived of as a communication system.isit how?

\nFormal organization is a fixed set of rules of intra-organization procedures and structures. As such, it is usually set out in writing, with a language of rules that ostensibly leave little discretion for interpretation. In some societies and in some organization, such rules may be strictly followed; in others, they may be little more than an empty formalism.\n. \nDistinction from informal organization\n. \nFormal rules are often adapted to subjective interests â0 08 00 09 4 social structures within an enterprise and the personal goals, desires, sympathies and behaviors of the individual workers â0 08 00 09 4 so that the practical everyday life of an organization becomes informal. Practical experience shows no organization is ever completely rule-bound: instead, all real organizations represent some mix of formal and informal. Consequently, when attempting to legislate for an organization and to create a formal structure, it is necessary to recognize informal organization in order to create workable structures. However, informal organization can fail, or, if already set in order, can work against mismanagement.\n. \nFormal organizations are typically understood to be systems of coordinated and controlled activities that arise when work is embedded in complex networks of technical relations and boundary-spanning exchanges. But in modern societies, formal organizational structures arise in highly institutional contexts. Organizations are driven to incorporate the practices and procedures defined by prevailing rationalized concepts of organizational work and institutionalized in

society. Organizations that do so increase their legitimacy and their survival prospects, independent of the immediate efficacy of the acquired practices and procedures. There can develop a tension between on the one hand, the institutionalized products, services, techniques, policies, and programs that function as myths (and may be ceremonially adopted), and efficiency criteria on the other hand. To maintain ceremonial conformity, organizations that reflect institutional rules tend to buffer their formal structures from the uncertainties of the technical activities by developing a loose coupling between their formal structures and actual work activities. - (John Meyer and Brian Rowan, 1976)\n. \n. \nThe Hawthorne Experiments\nThe deviation from rulemaking on a higher level was documented for the first time in the Hawthorne studies (1924-1932) and called informal organization. At first this discovery was ignored and dismissed as the product of avoidable errors, until it finally had to be recognized that these unwritten laws of work of everyday life often had more influence on the fate of the enterprise than those conceived on organizational charts of the executive level. Numerous empirical studies in sociological organization research followed, ever more clearly proving this, particularly during the Human Relations Movement. It is important to analyze informal structures within an enterprise to make use of positive innovations, but also to be able to do away with bad habits that have developed over time.\n. \nReasons for informal organization\n. \nThere are many different reasons for informal organization:\n. \nInformal standards: personal goals and interests of workers differ from official organizational goals.\nInformal communication: changes of communication routes within an enterprise due to personal relations between coworkers.\nInformal group: certain groups of coworkers have the same interests, or (for example) the same origin.\nInformal leaders: due to charisma and general popularity, certain members of the organization win more influence than originally intended. \nDifferent interests and preferences of coworkers.\nDifferent status of coworkers.\nDifficult work requirements.\nUnpleasant conditions of work. \n. \n. \nManagerial organization theory often still regards informal organization as rather disturbing, but sometimes helpful. In the opinion of systems theory and cybernetics, however, formal organization fades into the background and only serves, if necessary, to supplement or to correct. Changes in structure always redevelop because of the conduct and differences among coworkers, and the ability of self-organization is recognized as a natural characteristic of a social system

What is formal communication consist of?

Formal communication consists of business letters, publicpresentations, and official memorandums. Emails exchanged in aprofessional context are also formal communication.

What are the three formal communication flows found organization?

Communication can be categorized into formal and informalcommunication. The three types of formal communication arehorizontal communication, upward communication and downwardcommunication.

Formal communication is used in reporting?

Formal communication is used for reporting the progress of assignedtasks. It does not use slang terminology and conforms toestablished rules, standard and processes.

What is formal system and informal system? I am going to give a very bad answer here: search inside this book "Godel, Escher, Bach" by Douglas R. Hofstadter

Why is formal and informal communication vital to the organization?

Formal and informal communication serve different roles. Formalcommunication takes longer to develop and is often used to documentprocedures, requirements, and policies. Informal communicationsmoothes the day-to-day running of the organization.

Disadvantages of formal communication?

When there is a downward communication, there is an authoritariantone to dominate lower employees. It is a rigid form ofcommunication and change can not be considered easily whenrequired. It reflects authoritarian pattern of behavior in theorganizational structure and negatively affects the mind of theemployees.

When was communism conceived? The modern version of communism was conceived after the publication of Marx and Engel's Communist Manifesto in 1848.

What are the functions of formal groups in an organization?

The functions of a formal group are usually where there is one thatis in charge such as a supervisor. The others of the group worktogether or separately to perform tasks.

Is formal communication effective or not?

yes it is because it lets the adults show respect to one another and show a understanding with each other

State the principles of formal organization?

Unity of Objective . Span of Control . Specialisation or division of Work . Exception Principle . Scalar Principle . Functional Defination . Unity of Command . Continuity . Flexibility . Balance . Efficiency . Coordination

What are the examples of 'formal' and 'informal' communication?

when u talk your used formal language.and when you talk your friend .you used informal language

Why is church a formal organization?

I'm just guessing, but it might be a formal organization because Church is where people learn about God, and who also respect God in his house.(a.k.a. Church)

What are characteristics of school as a formal organization? A formal organization is usually organized like a pyramid. A schoolis usually one of those organizations. There is a head principaland all employees of the school are underneath him. There areusually vice principals that report back to the head principal.Other employees are also categorized underneath of them.

What is meant by formal and informal communication?

Informal communication vs formal communication Informal- less respectful, more joking around. you do this when you are with friends or people who you know wont get insulted. Lots of slang is used. Formal- Very respectful of others, ie. Sir, Ma'am, ect. you use this either when arguing with a superior, applying for something, like taking an interview, or when you are about to get in trouble.

What are the examples of formal and informal organization?

Meetings can be formal - with a defined organisational membership, an agenda, a regular time, written minutes etc - or informal - a group gossiping, staff who are smokers chatting together outside the premises.

When was the metric system conceived?

Metric System in 1799, in France. This system based on criteria like proved too much land or water properties have been established and has been used..

Why may an individual use a form of communication that is not based on a formal language system?

One reason a person uses a form of communication that is not basedon a formal language system is if they have learning disabilitiesand cannot use a formal language. Other medical reasons may keepthem from communicating.

How does on organism benefit from organ systems that work together ans communicate?

Organ systems that work together make a more efficient being andhelp keep a state of balance within the body.

Analyze reasons why an individual may use a form of communication that is not based on a formal language system?

They may not share a language system with the recipient of the communication. They may not be able to speak for some medical or physiological reason. They may not be able to access their normal language skills (e.g following a stroke). There may be a barrier to normal methods of communication (distance or a noisy environment). They may be operating in a dangerous situation in which the sound of speech would increase their danger (e.g. military or police about to execute a raid). They may be operating in a situation where sound would alert a prey animal or target, enabling it to escape (e.g. a hunting trip or police trying to catch a suspect). The form of communication may be behavioural (e.g. body language). The communication may take the form of an image in which symbolism communicates the message.

Why do most small companies use functionally organized departments. The most small companies use functionally organised departments in order to maintain higher level of efficiency , with each department responsible for discharging its given set of duties itself , which also helps in maintaining proper time management as well as , meeting official deadlines . Apart from that , this kind of system gives more transparency to the working of an Organisation . The most small companies use functionally organised departments in order to maintain higher level of efficiency , with each department responsible for discharging its given set of duties itself , which also helps in maintaining proper time management as well as , meeting official deadlines . Apart from that , this kind of system gives more transparency to the working of an Organisation . The most small companies use functionally organised departments in order to maintain higher level of efficiency , with each department responsible for discharging its given set of duties itself , which also helps in maintaining proper time management as well as , meeting official deadlines . Apart from that , this kind of system gives more transparency to the working of an Organisation . The most small companies use functionally organised departments in order to maintain higher level of efficiency , with each department responsible for discharging its given set of duties itself , which also helps in maintaining proper time management as well as , meeting official deadlines . Apart from that , this kind of system gives more transparency to the working of an Organisation .

The most small companies use functionally organised departments in order to maintain higher level of efficiency , with each department responsible for discharging its given set of duties itself , which also helps in maintaining proper time management as well as , meeting official deadlines . Apart from that , this kind of system gives more transparency to the working of an Organisation . The most small companies use functionally organised departments in order to maintain higher level of efficiency , with each department responsible for discharging its given set of duties itself , which also helps in maintaining proper time management as well as , meeting official deadlines . Apart from that , this kind of system gives more transparency to the working of an Organisation . The most small companies use functionally organised departments in order to maintain higher level of efficiency , with each department responsible for discharging its given set of duties itself , which also helps in maintaining proper time management as well as , meeting official deadlines . Apart from that , this kind of system gives more transparency to the working of an Organisation . The most small companies use functionally organised departments in order to maintain higher level of efficiency , with each department responsible for discharging its given set of duties itself , which also helps in maintaining proper time management as well as , meeting official deadlines . Apart from that , this kind of system gives more transparency to the working of an Organisation . What is the function of the US Department of Labor?

Department of Labor According to the Columbia Encyclopedia, the US Department of Labor is the "federal executive department established in 1913 and charged with administering and enforcing statutes that promote the welfare of U.S. wage earners, improve their working conditions, and advance their opportunities for profitable employment.

What are the functions of the US cabinet departments? The responsibilities of the 15 departments within the Executive Branch of the US : 1. State- the Department of State is responsible for foreign affairs. Led by the Secretary of State, the department manages diplomatic relations, advises the president on foreign policy, and provides services to Americans traveling and living overseas. The State Department has over 250 diplomatic and consular posts around the world. 2. Treasury- The mission of the Department of the Treasury is to formulate and recommend economic, fiscal and tax policies; to serve as financial agent of the United States Government; and to manufacture coins and currency 3. Defense - The Department of Defense is responsible for providing the military forces needed to deter war and protect the security of the United States 4. Labor- The U.S. Department of Labor is charged with preparing the American workforce for new and better jobs, and ensuring the adequacy of America's workplaces. The department oversees a wide variety of workplace issues for nearly 10 million employers and well over 100 million workers, including protecting workers' wages, health and safety, employment and pension rights, promoting equal employment opportunities, administering job training, unemployment insurance, workers' compensation programs, and strengthening free collective bargaining. The department also collects, analyzes and publishes labor and economic statistics. 5. Justice- the Department of Justice serves as counsel for its citizens. Through its thousands of lawyers, investigators, and agents, the department plays a key role in protection against criminals and subversion, ensuring healthy competition of business in our free enterprise system, safeguarding the consumer, and enforcing drug, immigration, and naturalization laws. The Department also works to protect citizens through its efforts for effective law enforcement, crime prevention, crime detection, and prosecution and rehabilitation of offenders. 6. Interior- The U.S Department of Interior manages the federal resources of the United States including National parks, American, Indian and native tribal lands and approving commercial and development projects on federal land. 7. Agriculture -Make sure no animals are abused, Raw meats do not poison others, and no one is using farm equipment illegally. 8. Commerce - the Department of Commerce is responsible for promoting American business and trade. The department works to encourage economic growth and the creation of new jobs in the business community. 9. Transportation - the United States Department of Transportation was formed in April, 1967, and consists of seven divisions representing the various modes of transportation, plus the U.S. Coast Guard, the St. Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation and the Office of the Secretary. The department is responsible for transportation safety improvements and enforcement, international transportation agreements and the continuity of transportation services in the public interest. The department also prepares and proposes all legislation relating to transportation, coordinates transportation issues with other concerned agencies, and provides technical assistance to the states and cities in support of transportation programs and objectives. 10. Health and human services - principle agency for protecting the health of all Americans. Including- public health, biomedical research, Medicare and medicaid, welfare, social services and more. 11. Housing and urban development - HUD), The Mission of Housing and Urban Development was established 1965 to coordinate and administer programs that provide assistance for housing and community development. The department assists in finding solutions to the problems of housing and urban development through state, local, or private action. It makes direct loans, insures mortgages, and provides housing subsidies, and it promotes and enforces equal housing opportunity. The secretary of the department has cabinet rank. Robert Clifton, the department's first head, was also the first African-American cabinet member in U.S. history 12. Energy- the Department of Energy is charged with providing for the scientific and institutional leadership necessary to achieve efficiency in energy use and diversity in energy sources. The agency also seeks to implement policies leading to a more productive and competitive economy, improved environmental quality, and a secure national defense. 13. Education - Administers federal aid to schools, conducts educational research. 14. Veterans Affairs - Administers

benefits, pensions and medical programs for veterans of the Armed Forces, oversees Military cemeteries. 15. Homeland Security - The President George W. Bush established the Office of Homeland Security and the Homeland Security Council, following the tragic events of September 11. The officials of Department of homeland security develop and coordinate a comprehensive national strategy to strengthen protections against terrorist threats or attacks in the United States.

What are the functions of a legal department in a company?

Law department is responsible for providing legal services and advice to the company, its divisions and employees. The department office faces a great number of different legal matters. These matters include: business development, contract management, real estate transactions, customer claims against the company for product damages and defects, litigation, employment law, sales and leases matters, debt collection, bankruptcy, case prosecution, and much more. All these activities create the workflow of Legal department. If to look at the workflow in whole, the following main functions of the legal department can seen: . Providing legal advice and guidance . Prosecution of cases in courts and litigation management . Documentation preparation and drafting Let's briefly consider each of these functions. 1. Providing legal advice and guidance This is a core function of Legal department. During the company's everyday life, there are a lot of legal issues which require qualified advice from Lawyers and Legal Advisors. This is about giving advice for resolving such issues as sales, purchasing, customer support, partnership, licensing, and other. The implementation of the function is based on the following activities the department concerns: . Giving advice to the company, its divisions and employees on matters of law and legal protection . Keeping company activities in strict compliance with new legislation . Representing company in all meetings, conferences and public events 2. Prosecution of cases in courts and litigation management Legal department represents and defends the company interests and its employees in courts and government bodies. The department initiates litigation in case of court examinations, and the legal staff members are responsible for creating and enforcing ordinances and gathering existing claims in favor of the company. This function is fulfilled by the following activities: . Preparation of protocols, claims and counter-claims to courts . Representation of company in courts . Protection of company's rights and interests in judicial sittings 3. Documentation preparation and drafting This function concerns legal part of document management. Law department is responsible for drafting documents in forms which do not contradict or infringe existing legislation, both local and international (if company conducts oversees activities). The fulfillment of this function is based upon the following activities: . Creation of legal documentation requirements . Drafting and approving document layouts . Complying documentation with existing local/international agreements and legislation

What are the functions of a IT department?

As per my observation and knowledge the main and most important functions of any IT department are as following:- . IT Director - budgeting, strategic planning, department management, purchasing, PR, etc. . Network administrator - manage network services and servers . Database administrator - manage academic and administrative databases . Webmaster - coordinate content; manage web software, server, and graphics . Telephone administrator - manage phone system, cell phones, billing . Hardware/software installation & repairs - setup, imaging, upgrades, etc . Digital media management - editing, graphic design, communications . Audio-visual support - setup & support AV events, recording, streaming etc. . Academic Tech Director - tech integration, curriculum, and professional development . Library services - manage information resources, delivery, support, etc. . Help Desk - track & respond to incoming requests for help, support, problems . Training - teach faculty and staff how to use systems, equipment, and applications . Technology teachers - teach technology-related classes to students . Lab coordinator - manage one or more labs, carts, facilities I am sure you will be find the answer of your question.

Functions of IT department?

The IT department has various functions. For instance, they makesure that the company server and website are up and running.

What are the functions of it department?

There is a requirement of IT deparment in most of the companyespecially the MNC as the most of the data of a company is storedin digital for in some digital storage device like computer harddisk using some software which make it easy to store the data incomparision to traditional method of manual entry. As in case ofMNC their office are situated in various geogarphical laocation sothere is a reqirement of maintaining communication between officeat different location so we need a reliable method to communicatewith them in way to maintain that network using computer andcomunication equipment there is a essential need of IT department.

What organs function as the most important physiological buffer systems?

buffer systems function mainly to regulate the acid or base balance in the body. there are 3 principal classes of buffers in the body - proteins, phosphate buffer system and the bicarbonate buffer system. however, you are asking of the organs involved. these are the kidneys and the lungs.

What are the functions of the procurement department in a production company? Main function of Procurement department in a Production company are 1. Checking of requisitions/purchase indents. 2. Selection of suppliers for issue of enquiries. 3. Issuing enquiries/tenders and obtaining quotations. 4. Analysing quotations and bids etc., and preparation of comparative statement (quotation charts). 5. Consultation with the Indenture for selection and approval of quotations and with Accounts Officer for pre-audit. 6. Negotiating contracts. 7. Checking legal conditions of contracts. 8. Followup of purchase orders for delivery in due time 9. Verification and passing of suppliers' bills to see that payments are made promptly. 10. Correspondence and dealing with suppliers, carriers etc., regarding shortages, rejections etc., reported by the Stores Department. 11. Maintenance of purchase records. 12.Maintenance of vendor performance records/data. 13. Keeping various Departments/Divisions informed of the progress of their indents in case of delay in obtaining supplies. 13. Serving as an information center on the materials' knowledge i.e. their prices, source of supply, specification and other allied matters.

Function of the engineering department in an organization? The engineering department has several different functions in anorganization. These would be providing technical skills, as well asbudgetary control of power.

What company makes the most money in US?

I'm not entirely sure, but I believe that it may be Wal-Mart. I think it's the U.S. mint. It seams that they make all the money.

What is the meaning of functional department and what its function?

A functional region is a type of region that is characterized by its function such as a drainage basin, city- region, or a metropolitan area..

Discuss the role of electronic media in communication Communication and electronic media go hand in hand. In this technology oriented era the use of electronic communication is inevitable. The role and importance of electronic communication can't be overlooked. Electronic information interchange is necessary for the survival in current era. Information is the back bone of the economy of a Nation. Electronic media has improved communication numerous ways. Internet has immensely helped in communicating. There are a lot of new websites coming in each day, each hour. Emails are an efficient and economical mode for

communication with no time restraints and country borders. More and more people use emails to communicate and spread information. These characteristics of electronic communication have a tempting effect on the organizations to carry on their businesses. Organizations use electronic communication as their marketing tool leading to spam for some of the recipients. The Internet and electronic communications (also called computer mediated communications, or CMC) doesn't just mean new tools for communication; it means new ways to communicate. Today our organization interacts with its various constituents differently - employees, board members, customers, partners and others - depending upon the nature of the message, the goals you are trying to achieve and the strengths (and weaknesses) of the available media - telephones, voice mail, fax machines, print, etc. Electronic communications adds a powerful new channel that not only will change how you use this mix of options, but it will create entirely new ways to interact. For example:

• Electronic communications lets you combine numerous media - text, graphics sound, video, etc. - into a single message. That can result in far more meaningful communications tailored to the nature of your particular audience. In contrast to broadcasting, narrowcasting reflects the ability to develop numerous communications for subsets of your market or constituencies.

• Electronic communications is interactive. It engages audiences in active, two-way communications. That requires a new way of thinking about advertising copy and the handling of public relations. The pay-off, however, is a self- selected audience, engaged and actively participating in the communications process.

• Two-way communication is nothing new. But electronic communications creates a new form of many-to-many communications that lets geographically distributed groups communicate interactively and simultaneously through text, sound and video. You can hold inexpensive video conferences or press conferences from your desk, or conference with people at several desks located across the world. One of the burgeoning phenomena of the Internet is businesses and organizations sponsoring, supporting and moderating discussion groups about issues, products, strategies - anything of interest to the organization and its constituents. Sponsorships are also solicited for popular resources, such as indexes and other Internet search tools, and these provide a further communications and marketing opportunity.

• Many organizations are using electronic communications facilities, such as the World Wide Web, as internal communications tools to enhance team work. Many individuals at different locations can work on the same documents, hold meetings and integrate research findings.

• Electronic communications removes the power of communications gatekeepers to both positive and negative effects. Most organizations are used to controlling the messages that go out to its constituents through managers, spokespeople and others. But with the Internet, constituents begin to talk among themselves, requiring new approaches and a new emphasis on listening and reacting, not just talking.

• With the Internet you have the ability to transmit and receive large amounts of information quickly to and from individuals and workgroups around the world. This changes the way activists, for example, can galvanize communities, inform legislators and change public opinion. It changes the sources and depth of your constituents' knowledge levels. It also lets those constituents reach you with new kinds of communications they may never have attempted before. What are the merits and demerits of electronic media?

Answer . Here's some banter to think about :). Television spreads information in an accessible format to viewers quite quickly. When an important event occurs, the audio and visual proceedings of that event can be broadcast in order to inform viewers of the event. This of course requires the proper technicians, reporters/journalists/broadcasters/etc., equipment, timing, and infrastructure that work behind (and in front of) the scenes to bring a programme to the viewers.. When information is presented, such as a political party's platform, television can be quite useful to a viewer.. Of course, a fundamental problem arises when a company needs to hire and maintain the infrastructure needed to perform the television service: they need money! Unfortunately for television, there are numerous other sources where one may obtain information (the internet, newspapers, radio, word-of-mouth) and therefore television must find methods of attaining and maintaining viewership.. [Of course, viewership allows the company

to provide an advertisement space that is very lucrative for other companies.]. These methods may include:. Quick reporting - the fastest person wins, sort of thing. This tends to be inaccurate and speculative in nature, but does provide instant viewership. . Sensationalism - attention- grabbing, controversial programming. Tends to focus on wild or shocking stories rather than "boring" (although possibly more important) issues. . I could go on, but that's a good place to start. When I say TV, I immediately think entertainment. Therefore it may have started purely as an entertainment method. We will never know :). However, with the current events these days, network/TV bias is playing a large role in politics among other things. Something else you could look into.. M. Nadeem Anwar. Gujranwala

What does a media communicator do? People can use a media communicator to better communicate by using Microphone and Camera or Video, just like communicate face to face.

What is the role of media? to inform people about current news affairs and to tell about the latest gossip. and fashion.

What is electronic media? Electronic media means a media which can be operated by devices which are only powered by electricity.

What are the advantages of electronic media? Advantages of Electronic Media . Advantages include large information storage capacity in small size and re usability (most of electronic media devices are reusable). Storage density and how many times it can be reused for storage will depend on the electronic media type. . Television,Radio,Internet,Mobilephones are examples of electronic media.It gives us alot of information through news,dramas.stories,movies.CDs and DVDs are also included in electronic media as they have stored information inn the form of electronic signals. . Electronic media (or storage devices) are of different types based on technique used for storing information. e.g. Flash memory based, Optical Storage (DVD, CD) or more traditional magnetic storage devices (floppy discs/storage tapes/hard)

What are the importance of communication channel on communication media?

Communication is the mode of transfer of information from one person to another. So first importance of communication you can see is that with help of communication you are able to ask a question and i am able to express my views regarding your question. In all of the organisations,companies, institutes throughout the world depends on communication whether the informations are transferred from management to employees or vice-versa. Between different managements of different organisations communication take place first of all there. Even this is also find in bacteria,fungi,plants & other animals. so,its very important.

Disadvantages of electronic media? Electronic media can affect and exposed personÃ0 09 5s mind to violencethrough movies, mobile phones, video games and television. This canalso affect the way people learn.

What are the disadvantages of electronic media? the disadvantages of electronic media is that .it is harming us and destroying all insects. by micro waves which are beaming down from the sat lites . and specially the cell phone which we are using all over the day. the specially the community of young s. age guys and girls.

What is electronic communication? Electronic communication is a new and exciting field which includes computer communication and cell phone use for email and text messaging. Electronic communications have increased speed of communication and have had a negative financial impact on mail delivery service companies.

How media is communicate? Media is a way of communicating because it allows senders to sendmessages. When you watch a commercial, you are receiving a messagefrom the organization.

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