Propaganda, Public Diplomacy and Psychological Operations - Politics of Terrorism - Lecture Slides, Slides for Sociology. Bengal Engineering & Science University
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panchali4 January 2013

Propaganda, Public Diplomacy and Psychological Operations - Politics of Terrorism - Lecture Slides, Slides for Sociology. Bengal Engineering & Science University

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Propaganda, Public Diplomacy and Psychological Operations, Instruments of National Power, Information Dimension, Global Information, Battlefield or Battlespace, Official ‘Informational’ Components, Perceptual Environment...
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Propaganda, Public Diplomacy & Psychological Operations

Propaganda, Public Diplomacy and Psychological Operations

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Instruments of National Power (the DIME framework)

Diplomatic Economic Military Informational (‘Hard’ and ‘Soft’)

National Policy Objectives

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The Information Dimension:

The Global Information ‘space’ (or battlefield or battlespace)

Features: -  Propaganda vs counter propaganda  Hard Power vs Soft Power  Public Diplomacy and cultural diplomacy  International broadcasting  News management  Educational and cultural exchanges Docsity.com

Official ‘Informational’ Components

Features: - • Propaganda vs counter propaganda (by

another name!) • Hard Power vs Soft Power • Public Diplomacy and cultural diplomacy • National & International broadcasting • News management at home and abroad • Educational and cultural exchanges

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The Informational/Perceptual Environment:

A Global struggle for ‘hearts and minds’?

Mass Media

Official Information Personal Experience

Rumors, disinformation, counter propaganda

Our ‘window on the world’ and the ‘pictures inside our heads’

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PUBLIC DIPLOMACY

CULTURAL DIPLOMACY

INTERNATIONAL BROADCASTING

INFORMATION OPERATIONS

PUBLIC AFFAIRS

STRATEGIC COMMUNICATIONS

Constructing our Strategic Communications ‘map’ – phase one

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Public & Cultural Diplomacy

PUBLIC DIPLOMACY

CULTURAL RELATIONS/ DIPLOMACY

INTERNATIONAL BROADCASTING

PSYCHOLOGICAL OPERATIONS

(Long-term; Elites are main Target audience)

(Short-term) Docsity.com

PUBLIC DIPLOMACY ‘Soft Power’

CULTURAL DIPLOMACY

INTERNATIONAL BROADCASTING

Long-term; Elites are main target audience

Short-term; Mass Communication (radio, TV, internet)

• Reciprocal (two-way) • Mutual • Development of mutual trust and understanding • Talking AND Listening • ‘To know us is to love us’

• One-way (point-to-multipoint) • Counter-propaganda with ‘news’ and ‘facts’ • Needs to be fast (but not ‘real-time’) and CREDIBLE • ‘Truth is the best propaganda’

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PUBLIC DIPLOMACY ‘Soft Power’

CULTURAL DIPLOMACY

INTERNATIONAL BROADCASTING

Long-term; Education

Short-term; News & Views

• British Council • Alliance Française • Dante Alighieri Society • Goethe Institute • Carnegie Foundation • Confucius Institute

• BBC World Service • Radio France International • RAI International • Deutsche Welle • Voice of America • China Radio International

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Public Diplomacy Definitions • PD ‘deals with the influence of public attitudes on

the formation and execution of foreign policies. It encompasses dimensions of international relations beyond traditional diplomacy; the cultivation by governments of public opinion in other countries; the interaction of private groups and interests in one country with those of another; the reporting of foreign affairs and its impact on policy; communication between those whose job is communication, as between diplomats and foreign correspondents; and the processes of inter- cultural communications’.

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PD – the role

‘Public Diplomacy – the open exchange of ideas and information – is an inherent characteristic of democratic societies. Its global mission is central to … foreign policy. And it remains indispensable to … [national] interests, ideals and leadership role in the world’.

(US Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy, 1991 Report).

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Diplomatic & Informational

‘Traditional’ Diplomacy • Government elite to foreign

government elite • Professional civil services • Secrecy justified in terms of

not alerting rival/adversary diplomatic alliances

• Less accountable to public criticism

• ‘secret diplomacy leads to war’

Public Diplomacy • Government to foreign publics

(elite vs. mass) • Professional media

practitioners • Publicity justified in terms of

democratic accountability/open government

• Open to public scrutiny, thus bound by telling ‘the truth’

• Public diplomacy ‘leads to greater mutual understanding and peace’

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Hard Power

HARD = actual use of military force, economic sanctions, coercive diplomacy etc  ‘Hard power is the ability to get others to do what

they otherwise would not do through threats or rewards. Whether by economic carrots or military sticks, the ability to coax or coerce has long been the central element of power.’ (Keohane & Nye)

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Soft Power ‘Soft power …is the ability to get desired outcomes

because others want what you want. It is the ability to achieve goals through attraction rather than coercion. It works by convincing others to follow or getting them to agree to norms and institutions that produce the desired behavior.

Soft power can rest on the appeal of one's ideas or culture … and …depends largely on the persuasiveness of the free information that an actor seeks to transmit. If a state can [do this] it may not need to expend as many costly traditional economic or military resources.’ (Keohane & Nye)

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Propaganda for Peace?

• Is this ‘propaganda’ or ‘persuasion’? • It depends which side you are one! • Propaganda usually benefits the source • PD/CD rests on mutual understanding

and mutual interests in order to benefit…..who?

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A key element of soft power = public (and cultural) diplomacy

 Long term = cultural and educational exchanges, establishment and maintenance of credibility and mutual trust  Short term = credible information dissemination through all available media (espec. Broadcasting)  News based (Public Affairs/Public Information/Media Operations) for domestic audiences)  Public Diplomacy is (usually) for overseas audiences  But where is the line between national and international anymore?

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Public & Cultural Diplomacy

PUBLIC DIPLOMACY

CULTURAL RELATIONS

INTERNATIONAL BROADCASTING

PSYCHOLOGICAL OPERATIONS

(Long-term; Elites are main Target audience)

(Short-term) Docsity.com

…And what about another line?

• Is this ‘propaganda’ or ‘persuasion’? • It depends which side you are on! • Propaganda usually benefits the source • PD/CD rests on mutual understanding and

mutual interests in order to benefit…..who?

• News or Views?

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National Media Image vs National Official Image

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PD/CD Landmarks • ‘Open covenants, openly arrived at’ • French invented CD – language teaching

schools (Alliance Francaise) • British Council founded 1934 to provide an

alternative view of the world other than totalitarianism

• BBC began foreign language broadcasts in 1938 • Voice of America began 1942 • USIA founded 1953, closed 1999

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The Cold War (of Words) • Competition between two ‘ways of life’ • Long-term Soviet commitment to international

broadcasting since 1920s • US sets up Radio Free Europe, Radio Liberty

etc in 1950s • Radio Swan for Cuba • The Reagan Reinvigoration in 1980s • Radio Marti, Radio this, Radio that…. • PD or Psychological Warfare?

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The Cold War ‘won’ – then losing the peace

• Gorbachev and Glassnost • Chernobyl, 1986 • ‘The Voices’ and their impact on Eastern

Europe • The end of Soviet jamming • The arrival of new technologies (faxes,

satellite TV, then the internet) • PD in decline in 1990s: US power left to

speak for itself while others filled the info- space with anti-Americanism

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PDD 68 (1999): International Public Information

Goal: Achieve national objectives without resorting to force, or act as a force multiplier in the event force is required

Objective: ‘to enhance US security, bolster America’s economic prosperity and to promote democracy abroad’

USIA incorporated into State Department 1999

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US Public Diplomacy

• Under the State Department's reorganization on October 1, 1999, Evelyn Lieberman became the first Under Secretary for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs.

• As she remarked in her confirmation hearing: "[P]ublic diplomacy, practiced in harmony with traditional diplomacy, will enable us to advance our interest, to protect our security, and to continue to provide the moral basis for our leadership in the world." http://www.usinfo.state.gov Docsity.com

US Organisation • Bureau of Public Affairs (domestic) ‘to help

Americans understand the importance of foreign affairs’

• Bureau of Educational & Cultural Affairs (overseas) ‘fosters mutual understanding between the people of the United States and other countries’ – Fulbright & Rhodes scholarships

• Elite audiences, not masses (e.g. the Arab ‘street’) the main target audience

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