Social Beliefs and Judgments - Social Psychology - Lecture Slides, Slides for Social Psychology
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honda-civic10 September 2013

Social Beliefs and Judgments - Social Psychology - Lecture Slides, Slides for Social Psychology

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Keywords in this lecture are: Social Beliefs and Judgments, Social World, Constructing Memories, Misinformation Effect, Belief Perseverance, Perceiving and Interpreting Events, Priming, Belief Perseverance, Misinformatio...
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Social Belifes and Judgements

Social Psychology Social Beliefs and Judgments

 Perceiving Our Social World

 Judging Our Social World

 Explaining Our Social World

 Expectations of Our Social World docsity.com

Perceiving Our Social Worlds

We respond not to reality as it is but to reality

as we construe it.

– Priming

– Perceiving and Interpreting Events

– Belief Perseverance

– Constructing Memories

Misinformation effect

Reconstructing our past attitudes

Reconstructing our past behavior docsity.com

Perceiving Our Social Worlds

Priming

 Priming: Activating particular associations in

memory.

docsity.com

Perceiving Our Social Worlds

Perceiving and Interpreting Events

 First impressions are more often right than wrong.

 Our beliefs shape our interpretation of everything else.

docsity.com

Perceiving Our Social Worlds

Belief Perseverance

 Belief Perseverance: Persistence of one’s initial

conceptions, as when the basis for one’s belief

is discredited but an explanation of why the

belief might be true survives.

– Children do eventually stop believing in Santa

Claus, but….sometimes they hold out.

– Explains why even an accusation of a crime

can ruin a reputation.

docsity.com

Perceiving Our Social Worlds

Constructing Memories of Ourselves and Our

Worlds

 85% of college students agree with the

following:

Memory can be likened to a storage chest in the

brain into which we deposit material and from which

we can withdraw it later if needed. Occasionally,

something is lost from the “chest,” and then we say

we have forgotten.

 Instead, the memories in our storage chests

change while being stored and maybe again

while being retrieved.

docsity.com

Perceiving Our Social Worlds

Constructing Memories of Ourselves and Our

Worlds

docsity.com

Perceiving Our Social Worlds

Constructing Memories of Ourselves and Our

Worlds

 Children’s memories are particularly suggestible

– Can implant almost any memory

– Can not distinguish between real and fake

memories

 If children questioned first by a neutral observer, they

might produce accurate memories.

 Misinformation Effect: Distortions in memory caused

by misleading information.

– People being grilled might eventually come to believe the

thing that the questioner keeps asking. docsity.com

Perceiving Our Social Worlds

Constructing Memories of Ourselves and Our

Worlds

 Reconstructing our past attitudes

– People’s memories of past events such as vacations are rated as more pleasant than they were rated at the time of experience (rosy retrospection).

 Reconstructing our past behavior

– Hindsight bias involves memory revision

– In surveys, people remember smoking far fewer cigarettes than are sold.

– People recall voting at a higher rate than people actually vote. docsity.com

Judging Our Social World

Intuitive Judgments

We seem to think and make decisions using a

dual track system.

– Controlled Processing: “Explicit” thinking that is

deliberate, reflective, and conscious.

 Remembering facts

– Automatic Processing: “Implicit” thinking that is

effortless, habitual, and without awareness, roughly

corresponds to “intuition”.

 Schemas, Emotional reactions, Expertise

 People without an ability to create new explicit

memories can “learn” implicit skills. docsity.com

Judging Our Social World

Intuitive Judgments

Most thinking and decision making done at a

subconscious level.

– Choice of when to breathe and blink

– Driving involves thousands of “decisions”

involving muscle movements, most of which

are subconscious.

– Some tasks such as typing and shoe tying

get worse when we try to exhibit conscious

control.

docsity.com

Judging Our Social World

Intuitive Judgments

 Numerous studies show that we can “know”

things without being aware.

– Subliminal smiles and frowns flashed before

unfamiliar Chinese characters alters our

impressions of them.

– Selective attention work shows we can

“ignore” irrelevant information, but if asked in

the proper way, we do “know” this

information.

docsity.com

Judging Our Social World

Overconfidence

 Confidence is a good thing.

– It gives us higher motivation, persistence, energy and optimism, and can allow us to accomplish things that we otherwise might not have even undertaken.

– Confidence contributes to happiness.

 Overconfidence Phenomenon: The tendency to be more confident than correct-to overestimate the accuracy of one’s beliefs and judgments.

– Why? We tend not to seek out information that might disprove what we believe. docsity.com

Judging Our Social World

Overconfidence

 There is virtually no correlation between

confidence and accuracy.

– Rising accuracy does not create rising

confidence.

– Then what does create increased

confidence?

Males much more confident than females

Over 30 much more confident

docsity.com

Judging Our Social World

Overconfidence

 82% of people say they are in the top 30% of safe drivers

 86% of Harvard Business School students say they are better looking than their classmates (would you expect anything less from Harvard graduates?)

 68% of lawyers in civil cases believe that their side will prevail

 81% of new business owners think their business has at least a 70% chance of success, but only 39% think any business like theirs would be likely to succeed. docsity.com

Judging Our Social World

Overconfidence

 Confirmation Bias: A tendency to search for

information that confirms one’s perceptions.

docsity.com

Judging our Social World

Heuristics

 Heuristic: Rule-of-thumb strategy that often

allows us to make judgments and solve

problems efficiently.

– With precious little time to process a lot of

information, our cognitive system is fast and frugal.

– Fast decisions are often adaptive, “that’s

dangerous”

– The cost of fast decisions is more errors in decision-

making.

docsity.com

Judging Our Social World

Representativeness Heuristic

Representativeness Heuristic: A rule of thumb for judging the likelihood of things in

terms of how well they seem to represent, or

match, particular prototypes; may lead one to

ignore other relevant information.

docsity.com

Judging Our Social World

Representativeness Heuristic

 Linda is 31 years old, single, outspoken, and very bright. She majored in philosophy. As a student, she was deeply concerned with issues of discrimination and social justice, and also participated in antinuclear demonstrations. Please choose the most likely alternative:

– Linda is a bank teller.

– Linda is a bank teller and is active in the feminist movement.

docsity.com

Judging Our Social World

Representativeness Heuristic

 The conjunction, or co-occurrence, of two events cannot be more likely than the probability of either event alone.

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Judging Our Social World

Representativeness Heuristic

 The accuracy of actuarial (based on empirical

relations) predictions far exceeds the accuracy

of clinical (based on human judgment)

predictions.

 Clinical judgments are often based on

heuristics, which can be biased.

 Imagine the implications for medical science or

the legal system!

– How well does this guy being charged

represent my prototype of a criminal? docsity.com

Judging Our Social World

Availability Heuristic

 Availability Heuristic: Estimating the likelihood

of events based on their availability in memory;

if instances come readily to mind (perhaps

because of their vividness), we presume such

events are common.

 However, sometimes things are easier to

remember not because they are more common,

but because they are easier to think about,

have taken place recently, or are highly

emotional. docsity.com

Judging Our Social World

Availability Heuristic

What causes more deaths in America, shark attacks or falling airplane parts?

Which of these possibilities comes more readily to mind, thanks to the media (remember the summer of the shark!)?

Which one is easier to visualize, thanks to Jaws?

docsity.com

 If we simply recognize a brand, we will judge it more positively.

– Researchers asked people to pick which of two airlines to fly on, one familiar, one unfamiliar.

People overwhelmingly chose the familiar.

Even after adding three troubling pieces of information, such as accidents, 67% still chose the familiar company.

 One goal of advertising is to blitz us with a name so many times that it unconsciously triggers the recognition heuristic.

– Children definitely preferred the taste of food in McDonalds wrappers over the same food in plain wrappers.

Judging Our Social World

Recognition Heuristic

docsity.com

Judging Our Social World

Heuristics

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