Social Security Measures
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Social Security Measures

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SOCIAL SECURITY MEASURES IN INDIA Sathish Chandra MR1, Veena V2

Social Security is defined by the

International Labour Organization

(ILO) as “The protection which so-

ciety provides for its members

through a series of public

measures against the economic

and social distress that otherwise

would be caused by the stoppage

or substantial reduction of earn-

ings resulting from sickness, ma-

ternity, employment injury, inva-

lidity and death; the provision of

medical care; and the provision of

subsidies for families with chil-

dren” (1984). The security which

society furnishes through appro-

priate organizations against cer-

tain risks to which its members are

perennially exposed.

NEEDS OF SOCIAL SECURITY

In India 90% of families earn

their livelihood from the unor-

ganized sector. Most of the rural

and informal sector workers in the

world do not have any social secu-

rity measures. In most of the devel-

oping countries the rural and in-

formal sectors constitute the bulk

of the population. They do not

have any form of insurance or se-

curity (e.g. Maternity benefits, re-

tirement benefits, health insurance

etc) nor do they have representa-

tive organizations that might help

them by fighting for these benefits.

Poor are particularly vulnerable to

the lack of health security

measures. They spend a greater

percentage of their budget on

health related expenditures. Dur-

ing sickness they need to spend

large amounts of money for treat-

ment and are unable to earn

money while under treatment. Ma-

jority of poor households reside in

remote rural areas where no gov-

ernment or private medical facili-

ties are available and obtaining

treatment at town or district level

hospital involves travel costs,

which are not insignificant. As a

Worker/Employee, you are a

source of social security protection

for yourself and your family. As an

Employer you are responsible for

providing adequate social security

coverage to all your workers.

NEEDS THAT NECESSITATES

SOCIAL SECURITY

1. Physical risks: Sickness, in-

validity, old age, maternity, acci-

dents, death.

2. Economic risks : Unemploy-

ment

3. Economic burden of large

family

SOCIAL IMPACT OF SOCIAL

SECURITY MEASURES

Short term effects:

Provides adequate medical care

and prevents accidents and illness

which will ultimately benefit the

workers and the society.

Long term effects:

More efficient workers. Higher

productivity and a greater feeling

of security. Reduced absenteeism,

labour turnover and stabilized

working class. Improve the living

standards of the people and

strengthen livelihoods.

Significance of Social Security

Methods:

Important step towards the

goal of welfare state and helps in

the formation of stable and effi-

cient labour force.Tends to reduce

the wastage arising out of indus-

trial disputes, sickness, and disa-

bility.Social cost of industrializa-

tion in the shape of unemploy-

ment, disability, frustration and

mass dissatisfaction is considera-

bly minimized.

AIM OF SOCIAL SECURITY

Measures to be taken to im-

prove the condition of work

 Reduction in the hours of

work.

 Better lighting and ventila-

tion.

 Proper disposal of trade

waste and adequate provision for

bathrooms etc.

 Improve the safety

measures to reduce accidents and

disability.

Restoration: Early restoration

of the workers to their normal oc-

cupation as early as possible.

APPROACHES TO SOCIAL

SECURITY (Table 1)

There are mainly two types:

1. Social assistance

2. Social insurance

Social assistance:

A method to provide benefits as

of right to persons usually of small

means in amounts sufficient to

meet a minimum standards of liv-

ing from general revenues of the

state. Characteristics feature of this

is the beneficiaries do not make

any contribution towards various

benefits which are made available

to them. It is a “Non-contributory

benefits” towards the maintenance

of vulnerable groups such as chil-

dren, mothers, aged peoples, disa-

bled etc. Very much essential for

the effective working of the eco-

nomic system.

Social Insurance

A method to provide benefits as

a matter of right for persons of

small earnings, in amounts which

combine the contributions of the

beneficiaries with subsidies from

Perspectives

1Assistant Professor, Department of Community Medicine, BGS Global Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangalore Correspondence to Dr Sathish Chandra MR (sathi.medico@yahoo.co.in)

ANNALS OF COMMUNITY HEALTH | VOL 2 | ISSUE 2 | APR - JUNE 2014 | Page: 48

ANNALS OF COMMUNITY HEALTH | VOL 2 | ISSUE 2 | APR - JUNE 2014 49

the employer and the state. Char-

acteristics feature of this is the ben-

eficiaries, employers and the Gov-

ernment make contributions to-

wards the creation of common

pool, out of which benefits are paid

to the members in the event of any

contingencies. Type of compulsory

mutual aid with benefits can be

claimed as a matter of right. Suita-

ble where the class of workers to be

covered is sufficiently well orga-

nized, legally regulated and finan-

cially stable.

SOCIAL SECURITY SCHEMES

IN INDIA

The principal social security

laws for workers are the following:

 The Employees State Insur-

ance Act, 1948 (ESI Act)

 The Employees Provident

Funds & Miscellaneous Provisions

Act, 1952 (EPF & MP Act)

 The Workmen’s Compensa-

tion Act, 1923 (WC Act)

 The Maternity Benefit Act,

1961 (M.B. Act)

 Coal Mines Provident Fund

Bonus Scheme, 1948

 Employees Family Pension

Scheme, 1971

Social security for civil servants:

Central Government Health

Scheme (CGHS)

Social Assistance Scheme:

National Social Assistance Pro-

gramme (NSAP). Three compo-

nents of this are:

 National Old Age Pension

Scheme

 National Family Benefit

Scheme

 National Maternity Benefit

Scheme

The Employees State Insurance

Act, 1948 (ESI Act)

The Act contains an enabling

provision under which the "appro-

priate government" is empowered

to extend the provisions of the Act

to other classes of establishments -

industrial, commercial, agricul-

tural or other-wise. Under these

provisions most of the State Govts.

have extended the provisions of

the Act to new classes of establish-

ments namely: shops, hotels, res-

taurants, cinemas including pre-

view theatres, road-motor

transport undertakings and news-

paper establishments employing

20 or more coverable employees.

Administration: The ESI

Scheme is administered by a cor-

porate body called the Employees’

State Insurance Corporation

(ESIC). Union Minister For Labour

is the chairman of this corporation.

It consists of members represent-

ing Central and State Govern-

ments, employers and employees

organizations, medical profes-

sion and parliament. The Head

Quarters of the ESI Corporation is

located at Delhi and has 58 field of-

fices such as 23 Regional Office, 26

Sub-Regional Office and 4 Divi-

sional Office and 2 Camp Office

and 3 Liaison Office throughout

the county. Besides, there are 610

Branch Offices and 187 Pay Offices

for administration of cash benefits

to Insured Persons. The Govern-

ment’s recent decision to raise the

pay limit from Rs 15,000/month to

Rs 25,000/month to get coverage

under the Employees State Insur-

ance Scheme (ESI) without any im-

provement in service quality has

been opposed by a section of trade

unions.

Coverage of this scheme: 91.48

lakh employees, including 15.43

lakhs women and the total number

of beneficiaries were around 354

lakhs. Medical facilities are pro-

vided through a network of 1427

ESI dispensaries, over 2100 panel

clinics, 307 diagnostic centres, 143

ESI hospitals and 43 hospital an-

nexes with over 27000 beds. The

payment of cash benefits is made

at the grass root level through 610

branch offices.

Finance of the scheme: Run by

the contributions by employee,

employer and grants from the Cen-

tral and State Governments.Em-

ployer – 4.75 % of total wage bill.

Employee – 1.75 % of wage bill.

State Government's share of ex-

penditure on medical care is 1/8 of

total cost of medical care; ESI Cor-

poration‘s share of expenditure on

medical care is 7/8 of total cost of

medical care.

Benefits to the employees:

Medical Benefit, Sickness Benefit,

Maternity Benefit, Disablement

Benefit, Dependents Benefit, Fu-

neral Expenses, Rehabilitation al-

lowance.

Table 1- Showing difference between Social Assistance and

Social Insurance

Social Assistance Social Insurance

 A method to provide bene-

fits as of right to persons usually

of small means in amounts suffi-

cient to meet a minimum stand-

ards of living from general reve-

nues of the state.

 A method to provide bene-

fits as a matter of right for persons

of small earnings, in amounts

which combine the contributions

of the beneficiaries with subsidies

from the employer and the state.

 Non contributory  Contributory

 For the vulnerable groups

of the community (children,

mothers, invalids, aged people,

disabled)

 For the well-organized, le-

gally regulated, financially stable

community.

 Cannot be claimed as a

matter of right (Provided)

 Can be claimed as a matter

of right

50 ANNALS OF COMMUNITY HEALTH | VOL 2 | ISSUE 2 | APR - JUNE 2014

Medical BenefitincludesOut pa-

tient care, Supply of drugs and

dressings, Specialist services in all

branches of medicine, Pathological

and radiological investigations,

Domiciliary services, Antenatal,

Natal, Post natal services, Immun-

ization services, Family planning

services, Emergency services, Am-

bulance services, In patient ser-

vices.

Sickness Benefit: Periodic cash

payment to an insured person in

case ofsickness. Maximum period

of 91 days.

Extended Sickness Benefit: For

long term diseases; for a maximum

period of 2 years; where the in-

sured person has been in continu-

ous employment for 2 years.

Maternity Benefit: Confinement

- 12 weeks, Miscarriage- 6 weeks

andSickness arising out of con-

finement-30 days.

Disablement Benefit: For tempo-

rary disablement – 150 % of the

SBR as longas temporary disable-

ment persists.For total permanent

disablement – Insured person is

given life pension as decided by

medical board of ESIC.

Dependants Benefits: In case of

death; as a result of employment

injury, thedependants of an in-

sured person are eligible for peri-

odical payments, Widow 3/5, chil-

dren 2/5.

Funeral expenses: Funeral ex-

penses are in the nature of a lump

sum payment upto a maximum of

Rs. 10,000/- made to defray the ex-

penditure on the funeral of de-

ceased insured person. The

amount is paid either to the eldest

surviving member of the family or,

in his absence, to the person who

actually incurs the expenditure on

the funeral

Rehabilitation: On monthly pay-

ment of Rs.10, insured, person and

his family members continue to get

medical, treatment after perma-

nent disablement or retirement.

The Workmen’s Compensation

Act, 1923

Any worker employed in any

way of a wide variety of hazardous

occupations suffers an injury is eli-

gible for compensation. The injury

must disable him for more than 3

days, totally or partially. Work-

man must have been employed in

the specified occupation for a con-

tinuous period of at least 6 months.

The rate of compensation:

Death: 40% of the monthly

wage of the deceased workman,

multiplied by the relevant factor,

or Rs.20000; whichever is more.

Total permanent disablement:

50% of the monthly wage; multi-

plied by the relevant factor; or

Rs.24000 whichever is more.

Partial permanent disable-

ment: The compensation is a per-

centage of that payable in the case

of total permanent disablement.

Temporary disablement: A

sum equal to 25%of the monthly

wages of the workman shall be

paid half- monthly.

State Government appoints

Commissioners to investigate and

solve every case for workmen’s

compensation

The Employees’ Provident Funds

& Miscellaneous Provisions Act,

1952

EPF & MP Act applies to spe-

cific scheduled factories and estab-

lishments employing 20 or more

employees and ensures terminal

benefits to provident fund, super-

annuation pension, and family

pension in case of death during

service. The EPFO extends to the

entire country covering over 4lakh

establishments. At present, over

3.9 crore EPF Members and their

families get benefits under the so-

cial security schemes administered

by the EPFO. Schemes under the

EPFO are Employees Provident

Fund (EPF), Employees Pension

Scheme (EPS), Employees Deposit

Linked Insurance Scheme (EDLI).

The Maternity Benefit Act, 1961

The act apply to whole of India.

It applies to all establishments -

factories, mines, manufacturing

units and shops etc. where a mini-

mum of ten or more workers are

working. According to this act,

every woman is entitled to pay-

ment of maternity benefit at the

rate of the average daily wages for

the period of 6 weeks up to and in-

cluding the day of delivery and for

the period of 6 weeks postnatally;

i.e. a total of 12 weeks. In case of

MTP or miscarriage she is entitled

to leave with wages for a period of

6 weeks immediately following the

period of miscarriage or MTP. She

should have been worked for not

less than 80 days in the 12 months

immediately preceding the date of

her expected delivery. There is

provision of leave with wages for

tubectomy operation for a period

of 2 weeks. A woman suffering

from illness arising out of preg-

nancy, delivery, premature birth of

child, miscarriage or tubectomy

operation shall be entitled, in addi-

tion to the period of absence al-

lowed to her, to leave with wages

at the rate of maternity benefit for

a maximum period of one month.

Central Government Health

Scheme (CGHS)

Established on 1-7-1954 with

the objectives of providing com-

prehensive medical care facilities

to the central Government em-

ployees and their family members

and to avoid cumbersome system

of medical reimbursement

Beneficiaries: Members and Ex-

members of Parliament, Judges of

Supreme Court and High Court,

sitting and retired, Freedom

Fighters, Central Government Pen-

sioners, Employees of Autono-

ANNALS OF COMMUNITY HEALTH | VOL 2 | ISSUE 2 | APR - JUNE 2014 51

mous bodies/Semi Govt. organiza-

tion, Accredited Journalists, Ex-

Governors and Ex-Vice Presidents

of India. Facilities provided under

CGHS through: Dispensaries, poly

clinics and Government / recog-

nized hospitals.

Facilities provided: Outpatient

care facilities in all systems, Emer-

gency Services in Allopathic sys-

tem, Free supply of necessary

drugs, Lab and Radiological inves-

tigations, Domiciliary visits to seri-

ously ill patients, Specialist consul-

tation both at the dispensary and

hospital level, Family welfare ser-

vices, Specialized treatment in

both Govt. and Private recognized

hospitals, 90% advance for under-

going specialized procedures on

admission in hospitals when re-

quired.

National Social Assistance Pro-

gramme (NSAP)

In 1995, the Government of In-

dia introduced for the first time an

all-India protective type social se-

curity scheme, the National Social

Assistance Programme (NSAP).

The NSAP encompasses a national

policy for social assistance benefits

to poor households in the case of

old age, death of breadwinner and

maternity.

The programme has, so far,

three main components: the Na-

tional Old Age Pension Scheme,

the National Family Benefit

Scheme, and the National Mater-

nity Benefit Scheme

National Old Age Pension

Scheme

Under the Scheme, Central as-

sistance is available with Age of

the applicant (male or female) is 65

years or above and The applicant is

destitute in the sense of having lit-

tle or no regular means of subsist-

ence from his/her own sources of

income or through support from

family members or other sources.

National Family Benefit Scheme

(NFBS)

Central assistance under the

Scheme is available on death of

primary breadwinner occurs while

he or she is more than 18 years and

less than 65 years of age.The pri-

mary breadwinner shall be a mem-

ber whose earnings contribute sub-

stantially to the household income.

The bereaved household qualifies

as one below the poverty line ac-

cording to the criteria prescribed

by the Government of India.The

amount of benefit is Rs.10,000/- in

the case of death of primary bread-

winner due to natural or accidental

cause and is paid to the member of

the household of the deceased

who, after local inquiry, is deter-

mined to be the head of the house-

hold.

Janani Suraksha Yojana

It was launched on 12th April

2005.

Objectives of this scheme were

reducing maternal mortality and

infant mortality through encour-

aging delivery at health institu-

tions & focusing at institutional

care among women in below pov-

erty line families.

Salient features of this scheme

were 100 percent centrally spon-

sored scheme & it integrates the

benefit of cash assistance with in-

stitutional care during ante natal,

natal and immediate post-partum

care.

Table 2 - Showing financial assistance under Janani Suraksha Yojana scheme

Category

of States

Rural Area Urban Area

Eligibility Criteria Mother ASHA Total Mother ASHA Total

Financial Assistance for Institutional Delivery

Low Per-

forming

States

(LPS)

Rs.1400 Rs.600 Rs.2000 Rs.1000 Rs.400 Rs.1400 Available to all women regard-

less of age and number of chil-

dren for delivery in Government

/ private accredited health facili-

ties.

High Per-

forming

States

(HPS)

Rs.700 Rs.600 Rs.1300 Rs.600 Rs.400 Rs.1000 Available only to BPL/SC/ST

women regardless of age and

number of children for delivery

in government / private accred-

ited health facilities.

Financial assistance for Home Delivery

LPS Rs.500 nil Rs.500 nil Rs.500 nil Available only to BPL women

who prefer to deliver at home re-

gardless of age and number of

children

HPS Rs.500 nil Rs.500 nil Rs.500 nil

52 ANNALS OF COMMUNITY HEALTH | VOL 2 | ISSUE 2 | APR - JUNE 2014

Criteria for beneficiaries:

 Women delivering at home

or admitted to sub centre / Govern-

ment hospital / recognized private

hospital (general ward).

 Belonging to the BPL fami-

lies.

 Current delivery must be

the first or second live delivery.

 She should be more than 19

years of age.

 She must have got ANC

check-up at least 3 times.

 She must have taken IFA

tablets and TT injection.

ASHA would work as a link

health worker between the poor

pregnant women and public sector

health institution in the ten LPS.

They will also get an assistance

of Rs. 500 if delivered at home up

to two live births and also assis-

tance of up to Rs. 1500 for caesar-

ean section.

Yashaswini Health Insurance

Scheme of Karnataka

The Government of Karnataka

has introduced Yashaswini Health

Scheme during the year 2002-03 for

the benefit of the members of agri-

cultural credit societies and banks

and it has been extended to the

members of the “Self Help Group”

unable to afford for surgeries.

 It has more than 2 million

members.

 More than 1600 surgeries

are covered under this scheme.

 Insured person can claim in

150 private hospitals aligned with

the scheme.

 Maximum coverage pro-

vided for per person per year

amount to Rs. 2,00,000.

 Single surgery of up to Rs.

96000 is covered.

 Annual premium is Rs. 120.

 The scheme also receives

Government subsidies.

 The scheme does not cover

in patient admission without sur-

geries.

 Free OPD treatment is also

provided.

Prasoothi Araike - Care for the

pregnant

It covers all pregnant women

belonging to BPL of all districts.

The benefits and conditions of the

scheme are the pregnant women

have to register their names with

the Junior Female Health Assistant

of the area. The beneficiaries will

get Rs.1000 during the second tri-

mester ante natal check-up (i.e., be-

tween 4th and 6th month) and

Rs.1000 during the third trimester

ante natal check-up (ie., between

7th and 9th month), totalling Rs.2000

paid through bearer cheque. Dur-

ing every ANC check-up, the Med-

Table 3- Financial Assistance under Old age pension scheme and

Sandhya Suraksha Yojane.

Sl

no

Indira Gandhi National Old

Age Pension

Sandhya Suraksha Yojane

Demographic Criteria

1 Age>65 years Age>65 years

Income Criteria

2 BPL as per criteria of Govern-

ment of India (equal or less than

26 points out of 52 points criteria

as fixed by Rural Development

and Panchayat Raj Department).

As per existing criteria pension is

granted to a destitute person

with little or no regular means of

subsistence from his/ her own

sources of income or through fi-

nancial support from family

members or other sources

Annual Income of the husband or

wife or both should not exceed

Rs.20,000 as certified by the local rev-

enue authority and the total value of

combined deposited amount held by

the pensioner and his/ her spouse

should not exceed Rs.10,000. If the

income is declared by beneficiary

himself/ herself, the income of chil-

dren will not be counted for calcula-

tion of the income of the proposed

social security pensioner.

Residential Criteria

3 He/ She should be a resident of

Karnataka for 10years or more

He/ She should be a resident of Kar-

nataka for 10years or more

Amount of Pension

4 A sum of Rs.400 will be dis-

bursed every month, equally

shared by the Central and the

State government.

A sum of Rs.400 will be disbursed

every month, with 100% contribu-

tion from the State government.

Type of Beneficiaries

5 BPL is the Criteria for selection of

beneficiaries. Such of the persons

availing widow pension, physi-

cally handicapped pension,

Sandhya Suraksha Yojane pen-

sion or any form of pension from

public/ private sources are not el-

igible for this scheme.

Beneficiaries are selected from

among small farmers, marginal

farmers, Agricultural farmers, weav-

ers and unorganized workers. Such

of the persons availing old age pen-

sion, destitute widow pension, phys-

ically handicapped pension or any

form of pension from public/ private

sources are not eligible for this

scheme.

ANNALS OF COMMUNITY HEALTH | VOL 2 | ISSUE 2 | APR - JUNE 2014 53

ical Officer of the Health Cen-

tre/Hospital puts the signature,

date and seal on the ANC card.

This facility is extended to all preg-

nant women belonging to below

poverty line families. The benefit is

limited to the first two deliveries.

The Junior Female Health Assis-

tant has to record the ANC regis-

tration number along with noting

whether it is first or second deliv-

ery.

Madilu Scheme

The scheme came into opera-

tional from August 15, 2007.

Objectives were to bring down

the maternal mortality and neona-

tal mortality & Promote institu-

tional deliveries among pregnant

women belonging to BPL group.

Beneficiaries of this scheme:

Pregnant woman (BPL) who deliv-

ers in Government hospitals.

Limited to first two live births.

Contains mosquito curtain, Me-

dium sized carpet, Medium sized

bed sheet, A thick blanket for

mother, Bathing Soap, Washing

soap, Cloth to tie abdomen of

mother, Sanitary pads, Comb and

coconut oil, Towel, Tooth paste

and brush, bed spread over rubber

sheet for the baby, Bed sheet for

baby, Bathing soap for baby, Rub-

ber sheet for baby, Diaper, Baby

vest, Sweater, cap and socks for

baby, One plastic kit bag.

Thayi Bhagya Scheme

It is public-private partnership

in maternal health care. Here

women belonging to BPL families

can avail totally cashless treatment

in recognized private hospitals.

Under this scheme, the pregnant

women belonging to BPL family

can avail delivery services free of

cost in the registered private hos-

pitals near her house. Benefit is

limited to the first two live deliver-

ies. Registered hospitals will be

paid Rs. 3 lakh per 100 deliveries

which include normal and compli-

cated deliveries.

Other schemes:

Monthly Social Security Pen-

sion of Rs.400/- to be granted to the

senior citizens under “Sandhya

Suraksha” Scheme to the citizens

above 60 years of age. The benefi-

ciaries under this scheme will be

chosen from among small and

marginal farmers, labourers from

unorganized sector including agri-

cultural labourers, weavers, fisher-

men.

Bhagyalakshmi scheme which

deposits Rs 10,000/- in the name of

the 1st born girl child of families

below poverty line (BPL) which

she can draw at the age of 18yrs

with interest.

The benefits of the scheme are

restricted to 2 girl children of a BPL

family. The father, mother or

guardian should have undergone

terminal family planning methods

and the total number of children

should not exceed 3.After enrol-

ment and due verification by the

department, an amount of Rs.

10,000/- will be deposited with the

selected financial institution in the

girl child's name.

Arogya Kavacha: Launched on

2nd Nov. 2008. In case of an emer-

gency like ill health, accidents or

fire one has to dial 108; fully

equipped ambulance will arrive

within 20 minutes anywhere in the

city. Medical staff in the ambu-

lance will provide pre hospital

treatment. 500 ambulances in 29

districts. EMRI (NGO) has tied up

with 610 private hospitals.

PROBLEMS IN

IMPLEMENTING SOCIAL

SECURITY SCHEMES:

1. The scope of the scheme -

Whom to and what to cover?

Priority with respect to risk to

be covered:

 Employment injury and

invalidity

 Sickness and death

 Maternity

 Old age and survivor-

ship

 Unemployment

2. Financing of social security

schemes

3. Administration of social se-

curity scheme

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