The Liquidity Premium Theory-Money and Banking-Handouts, Lecture notes for Banking and Finance. Amity Business School

The Liquidity Premium Theory-Money and Banking-Handouts, Lecture notes for Banking and Finance. Amity Business School

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This course covers following topics: money and the financial system, interest rate, financial institutions, central banks, monetary policy and financial stability, modern monetary economics. This lecture handout includes...
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Money & Banking – MGT411 VU Lesson 18


Liquidity Premium Theory Stocks Essential Characteristics Process Measuring Level of a Stock Market Valuing Stocks

The Liquidity Premium Theory

Risk is the key to understanding the slope of the yield curve The yield curve’s upward slope is due to long-term bonds being riskier than short-term bonds Bondholders face both inflation and interest-rate. The longer the term the greater the inflation

and interest-rate risk Inflation risk increases over time because investors, who care about the real return, must

forecast inflation over longer periods. Interest-rate risk arises when an investor’s horizon and the bond’s maturity do not match. If

holders of long-term bonds need to sell them before maturity and interest rates have increased, the bonds will lose value

Including risk in the model means that we can think of yield as having two parts: Risk-free and Risk premium



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Risk pre mium Pure e x pe cta tions the ory

Figure: Relationship between the Liquidity Premium and Expectations Theories

Liquidity Premium Theory Yield curve

Liquidity premium

Expectations Theory Yield curve (If short term interest rates are expected to remain


Time to maturity

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Money & Banking – MGT411 VU

Again, we arrive at the same three conclusions about the term structure of interest rates Interest rates of different maturities tend to move together. Yields on short-term bonds are more volatile than those on long-term bonds. Long-term yields tend to be higher than short-term yields

Stocks: An Introduction

Stocks provide a key instrument for holding personal wealth as well as a way to diversify, spreading and reducing the risks that we face

For companies, they are one of several ways to obtain financing. Additionally, Stocks and stock markets are one of the central links between the financial world and the real

economy. Stock prices are fundamental to the functioning of a market-based economy They indicate the value of the companies that issued the stocks and, They allocate scarce investment resources The firms deemed most valuable in the marketplace for stocks are the ones that will be able to

obtain financing for growth. When resources flow to their most valued uses, the economy operates more efficiently

Most people see stock market as a place where fortunes are easily made or lost, and they recoil at its unfathomable booms and busts.

Great American Depression (1929) Post-September 11, 2001 scenario Pakistan stock market on roller-coaster-ride (March 2005) What happens in reality? Stock prices tend to rise steadily and slowly, and Collapse rarely when normal market mechanisms are out of alignment For most people the experience of losing or gaining wealth suddenly is more memorable than the

experience of making it gradually. By being preoccupied with the potential short-term losses associated with crashes, we lose sight of

the gains we could realize if we took a longer-term view

Essential Characteristics of Common Stock

Stocks, also known as common stock or equity, are shares in a firm’s ownership From their early days, stocks had two important characteristics that today are taken for granted: The shares are issued in small denominations and The shares are transferable Until recently, stockowners received a certificate from the issuing company, but now it is a

computerized process where the shares are registered in the names of brokerage firms that hold them on the owner’s behalf

The ownership of common stock conveys a number of rights A stockholder is entitled to participate in the shares of the enterprise, but this is a residual claim i.e.

meaning the leftovers after all other creditors have been paid. Stockholders also have limited liability, Even if a company fails, the maximum amount that the stockholder can lose is the initial

investment Stockholders are entitled to vote at the firm’s annual meeting including voting to elect (or remove)

the firm’s board of directors Following are some salient features of stock trading

1. An individual share represents only a small fraction of the value of the company that issued it

2. A large number of shares are outstanding

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Money & Banking – MGT411 VU3. Prices of individual shares are low, allowing individuals to make relatively small

investments 4. As residual claimants, stockholders receive the proceeds of a firm’s activities only after all

other creditors have been paid 5. Because of limited liability, investor’s losses cannot exceed the price they paid for the

stock; and 6. Shareholders can replace managers who are doing a bad job

Measuring the Level of the Stock Market

Stocks are one way in which we choose to hold our wealth, so when stock values rise we get richer and when they fall we get poorer

These changes affect our consumption and saving patterns, causing general economic activity to fluctuate

We need to understand the dynamics of the stock market, in order to Manage our personal finances and See the connections between stock values and economic conditions Stock market indexes Designed to give us a sense of the extent to which stock prices are going up or down Tell us both how much the value of an average stock has changed, and how much total wealth has

gone up or down Provide benchmarks for performance of money managers, comparing how they have done to the

market as a whole Every major country in the world has a stock market, and each of these markets has an index For the most part, these are value-weighted indices To analyze the performance of these different markets it is useful to look at percentage changes,

but percentage change isn’t everything The Dow Jones Industrial Average The Standard & Poor's 500 Index NASDAQ Composite index Financial Times Stock Exchange 100 Index Hang Seng 100 Nikkei 225 KSE 100 Index The KSE100 It contains a representative sample of common stock that trade on the Karachi Stock Exchange. The KSE stocks that comprise the index have a total market value of around Rs. 1,197 Billion

compared to total market value of Rs. 1,365 Billion for over 679 stocks listed on the Karachi Stock Exchange.

This means that the KSE100 Index represents 88 percent of the total market capitalization of the Karachi Stock Exchange, as of February, 2004

© Copyright Virtual University of Pakistan 61

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