Thermodynamic_tables_SI, Formulas and forms for Applied Thermodynamics. Eastern Mediterranean University
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cen84959_ap01.qxd

Appendix 1 PROPERTY TABLES AND CHARTS (SI UNITS)

| 883

Table A–1 Molar mass, gas constant, and critical-point properties

Table A–2 Ideal-gas specific heats of various common gases

Table A–3 Properties of common liquids, solids, and foods

Table A–4 Saturated water—Temperature table Table A–5 Saturated water—Pressure table Table A–6 Superheated water Table A–7 Compressed liquid water Table A–8 Saturated ice–water vapor Figure A–9 T-s diagram for water Figure A–10 Mollier diagram for water Table A–11 Saturated refrigerant-134a—

Temperature table

Table A–12 Saturated refrigerant-134a— Pressure table

Table A–13 Superheated refrigerant-134a Figure A–14 P-h diagram for refrigerant-134a Figure A–15 Nelson–Obert generalized

compressibility chart

Table A–16 Properties of the atmosphere at high altitude

Table A–17 Ideal-gas properties of air Table A–18 Ideal-gas properties of nitrogen, N2 Table A–19 Ideal-gas properties of oxygen, O2

Table A–20 Ideal-gas properties of carbon dioxide, CO2

Table A–21 Ideal-gas properties of carbon monoxide, CO

Table A–22 Ideal-gas properties of hydrogen, H2 Table A–23 Ideal-gas properties of water vapor, H2O Table A–24 Ideal-gas properties of monatomic

oxygen, O

Table A–25 Ideal-gas properties of hydroxyl, OH Table A–26 Enthalpy of formation, Gibbs function

of formation, and absolute entropy at 25°C, 1 atm

Table A–27 Properties of some common fuels and hydrocarbons

Table A–28 Natural logarithms of the equilibrium constant Kp

Figure A–29 Generalized enthalpy departure chart Figure A–30 Generalized entropy departure chart Figure A–31 Psychrometric chart at 1 atm total

pressure

Table A–32 One-dimensional isentropic compressible-flow functions for an ideal gas with k  1.4

Table A–33 One-dimensional normal-shock functions for an ideal gas with k  1.4

Table A–34 Rayleigh flow functions for an ideal gas with k  1.4

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TABLE A – 1 Molar mass, gas constant, and critical-point properties

Gas Critical-point properties

Molar mass, constant, Temperature, Pressure, Volume, Substance Formula M kg/kmol R kJ/kg · K* K MPa m3/kmol

Air — 28.97 0.2870 132.5 3.77 0.0883 Ammonia NH3 17.03 0.4882 405.5 11.28 0.0724 Argon Ar 39.948 0.2081 151 4.86 0.0749 Benzene C6H6 78.115 0.1064 562 4.92 0.2603 Bromine Br2 159.808 0.0520 584 10.34 0.1355 n-Butane C4H10 58.124 0.1430 425.2 3.80 0.2547 Carbon dioxide CO2 44.01 0.1889 304.2 7.39 0.0943 Carbon monoxide CO 28.011 0.2968 133 3.50 0.0930 Carbon tetrachloride CCl4 153.82 0.05405 556.4 4.56 0.2759 Chlorine Cl2 70.906 0.1173 417 7.71 0.1242 Chloroform CHCl3 119.38 0.06964 536.6 5.47 0.2403 Dichlorodifluoromethane (R-12) CCl2F2 120.91 0.06876 384.7 4.01 0.2179 Dichlorofluoromethane (R-21) CHCl2F 102.92 0.08078 451.7 5.17 0.1973 Ethane C2H6 30.070 0.2765 305.5 4.48 0.1480 Ethyl alcohol C2H5OH 46.07 0.1805 516 6.38 0.1673 Ethylene C2H4 28.054 0.2964 282.4 5.12 0.1242 Helium He 4.003 2.0769 5.3 0.23 0.0578 n-Hexane C6H14 86.179 0.09647 507.9 3.03 0.3677 Hydrogen (normal) H2 2.016 4.1240 33.3 1.30 0.0649 Krypton Kr 83.80 0.09921 209.4 5.50 0.0924 Methane CH4 16.043 0.5182 191.1 4.64 0.0993 Methyl alcohol CH3OH 32.042 0.2595 513.2 7.95 0.1180 Methyl chloride CH3Cl 50.488 0.1647 416.3 6.68 0.1430 Neon Ne 20.183 0.4119 44.5 2.73 0.0417 Nitrogen N2 28.013 0.2968 126.2 3.39 0.0899 Nitrous oxide N2O 44.013 0.1889 309.7 7.27 0.0961 Oxygen O2 31.999 0.2598 154.8 5.08 0.0780 Propane C3H8 44.097 0.1885 370 4.26 0.1998 Propylene C3H6 42.081 0.1976 365 4.62 0.1810 Sulfur dioxide SO2 64.063 0.1298 430.7 7.88 0.1217 Tetrafluoroethane (R-134a) CF3CH2F 102.03 0.08149 374.2 4.059 0.1993 Trichlorofluoromethane (R-11) CCl3F 137.37 0.06052 471.2 4.38 0.2478 Water H2O 18.015 0.4615 647.1 22.06 0.0560 Xenon Xe 131.30 0.06332 289.8 5.88 0.1186

*The unit kJ/kg · K is equivalent to kPa · m3/kg · K. The gas constant is calculated from R  Ru /M, where Ru  8.31447 kJ/kmol · K and M is the molar mass.

Source: K. A. Kobe and R. E. Lynn, Jr., Chemical Review 52 (1953), pp. 117–236; and ASHRAE, Handbook of Fundamentals (Atlanta, GA: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., 1993), pp. 16.4 and 36.1.

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Appendix 1 | 885

TABLE A–2 Ideal-gas specific heats of various common gases

(a) At 300 K

Gas constant, R cp cv Gas Formula kJ/kg · K kJ/kg · K kJ/kg · K k

Air — 0.2870 1.005 0.718 1.400 Argon Ar 0.2081 0.5203 0.3122 1.667 Butane C4H10 0.1433 1.7164 1.5734 1.091 Carbon dioxide CO2 0.1889 0.846 0.657 1.289 Carbon monoxide CO 0.2968 1.040 0.744 1.400 Ethane C2H6 0.2765 1.7662 1.4897 1.186 Ethylene C2H4 0.2964 1.5482 1.2518 1.237 Helium He 2.0769 5.1926 3.1156 1.667 Hydrogen H2 4.1240 14.307 10.183 1.405 Methane CH4 0.5182 2.2537 1.7354 1.299 Neon Ne 0.4119 1.0299 0.6179 1.667 Nitrogen N2 0.2968 1.039 0.743 1.400 Octane C8H18 0.0729 1.7113 1.6385 1.044 Oxygen O2 0.2598 0.918 0.658 1.395 Propane C3H8 0.1885 1.6794 1.4909 1.126 Steam H2O 0.4615 1.8723 1.4108 1.327

Note: The unit kJ/kg · K is equivalent to kJ/kg · °C.

Source: Chemical and Process Thermodynamics 3/E by Kyle, B. G., © 2000. Adapted by permission of Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.

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TABLE A–2 Ideal-gas specific heats of various common gases (Continued)

(b) At various temperatures

cp cv cp cv cp cv

Temperature, kJ/kg · K kJ/kg · K k kJ/kg · K kJ/kg · K k kJ/kg · K kJ/kg · K k

K Air Carbon dioxide, CO2 Carbon monoxide, CO

250 1.003 0.716 1.401 0.791 0.602 1.314 1.039 0.743 1.400 300 1.005 0.718 1.400 0.846 0.657 1.288 1.040 0.744 1.399 350 1.008 0.721 1.398 0.895 0.706 1.268 1.043 0.746 1.398 400 1.013 0.726 1.395 0.939 0.750 1.252 1.047 0.751 1.395 450 1.020 0.733 1.391 0.978 0.790 1.239 1.054 0.757 1.392 500 1.029 0.742 1.387 1.014 0.825 1.229 1.063 0.767 1.387 550 1.040 0.753 1.381 1.046 0.857 1.220 1.075 0.778 1.382 600 1.051 0.764 1.376 1.075 0.886 1.213 1.087 0.790 1.376 650 1.063 0.776 1.370 1.102 0.913 1.207 1.100 0.803 1.370 700 1.075 0.788 1.364 1.126 0.937 1.202 1.113 0.816 1.364 750 1.087 0.800 1.359 1.148 0.959 1.197 1.126 0.829 1.358 800 1.099 0.812 1.354 1.169 0.980 1.193 1.139 0.842 1.353 900 1.121 0.834 1.344 1.204 1.015 1.186 1.163 0.866 1.343

1000 1.142 0.855 1.336 1.234 1.045 1.181 1.185 0.888 1.335

Hydrogen, H2 Nitrogen, N2 Oxygen, O2

250 14.051 9.927 1.416 1.039 0.742 1.400 0.913 0.653 1.398 300 14.307 10.183 1.405 1.039 0.743 1.400 0.918 0.658 1.395 350 14.427 10.302 1.400 1.041 0.744 1.399 0.928 0.668 1.389 400 14.476 10.352 1.398 1.044 0.747 1.397 0.941 0.681 1.382 450 14.501 10.377 1.398 1.049 0.752 1.395 0.956 0.696 1.373 500 14.513 10.389 1.397 1.056 0.759 1.391 0.972 0.712 1.365 550 14.530 10.405 1.396 1.065 0.768 1.387 0.988 0.728 1.358 600 14.546 10.422 1.396 1.075 0.778 1.382 1.003 0.743 1.350 650 14.571 10.447 1.395 1.086 0.789 1.376 1.017 0.758 1.343 700 14.604 10.480 1.394 1.098 0.801 1.371 1.031 0.771 1.337 750 14.645 10.521 1.392 1.110 0.813 1.365 1.043 0.783 1.332 800 14.695 10.570 1.390 1.121 0.825 1.360 1.054 0.794 1.327 900 14.822 10.698 1.385 1.145 0.849 1.349 1.074 0.814 1.319

1000 14.983 10.859 1.380 1.167 0.870 1.341 1.090 0.830 1.313

Source: Kenneth Wark, Thermodynamics, 4th ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1983), p. 783, Table A–4M. Originally published in Tables of Thermal Properties of Gases, NBS Circular 564, 1955.

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Appendix 1 | 887

TABLE A–2 Ideal-gas specific heats of various common gases (Concluded)

(c) As a function of temperature _ cp  a  bT  cT 2  dT 3

(T in K, cp in kJ/kmol · K)

Temperature % error

Substance Formula a b c d range, K Max. Avg.

Nitrogen N2 28.90 0.1571  102 0.8081  105 2.873  109 273–1800 0.59 0.34 Oxygen O2 25.48 1.520  102 0.7155  105 1.312  109 273–1800 1.19 0.28 Air — 28.11 0.1967  102 0.4802  105 1.966  109 273–1800 0.72 0.33 Hydrogen H2 29.11 0.1916  102 0.4003  105 0.8704  109 273–1800 1.01 0.26 Carbon monoxide CO 28.16 0.1675  102 0.5372  105 2.222  109 273–1800 0.89 0.37

Carbon dioxide CO2 22.26 5.981  102 3.501  105 7.469  109 273–1800 0.67 0.22

Water vapor H2O 32.24 0.1923  102 1.055  105 3.595  109 273–1800 0.53 0.24 Nitric oxide NO 29.34 0.09395  102 0.9747  105 4.187  109 273–1500 0.97 0.36 Nitrous oxide N2O 24.11 5.8632  102 3.562  105 10.58  109 273–1500 0.59 0.26 Nitrogen dioxide NO2 22.9 5.715  102 3.52  105 7.87  109 273–1500 0.46 0.18

Ammonia NH3 27.568 2.5630  102 0.99072  105 6.6909  109 273–1500 0.91 0.36 Sulfur S2 27.21 2.218  102 1.628  105 3.986  109 273–1800 0.99 0.38 Sulfur dioxide SO2 25.78 5.795  102 3.812  105 8.612  109 273–1800 0.45 0.24

Sulfur trioxide SO3 16.40 14.58  102 11.20  105 32.42  109 273–1300 0.29 0.13

Acetylene C2H2 21.8 9.2143  102 6.527  105 18.21  109 273–1500 1.46 0.59 Benzene C6H6 36.22 48.475  102 31.57  105 77.62  109 273–1500 0.34 0.20 Methanol CH4O 19.0 9.152  102 1.22  105 8.039  109 273–1000 0.18 0.08 Ethanol C2H6O 19.9 20.96  102 10.38  105 20.05  109 273–1500 0.40 0.22 Hydrogen chloride HCl 30.33 0.7620  102 1.327  105 4.338  109 273–1500 0.22 0.08

Methane CH4 19.89 5.024  102 1.269  105 11.01  109 273–1500 1.33 0.57 Ethane C2H6 6.900 17.27  102 6.406  105 7.285  109 273–1500 0.83 0.28 Propane C3H8 4.04 30.48  102 15.72  105 31.74  109 273–1500 0.40 0.12 n-Butane C4H10 3.96 37.15  102 18.34  105 35.00  109 273–1500 0.54 0.24 i-Butane C4H10 7.913 41.60  102 23.01  105 49.91  109 273–1500 0.25 0.13 n-Pentane C5H12 6.774 45.43  102 22.46  105 42.29  109 273–1500 0.56 0.21 n-Hexane C6H14 6.938 55.22  102 28.65  105 57.69  109 273–1500 0.72 0.20 Ethylene C2H4 3.95 15.64  102 8.344  105 17.67  109 273–1500 0.54 0.13 Propylene C3H6 3.15 23.83  102 12.18  105 24.62  109 273–1500 0.73 0.17

Source: B. G. Kyle, Chemical and Process Thermodynamics (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1984). Used with permission.

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TABLE A–3 Properties of common liquids, solids, and foods

(a) Liquids

Boiling data at 1 atm Freezing data Liquid properties

Normal Latent heat of Latent heat Specific boiling vaporization Freezing of fusion Temperature, Density heat

Substance point, °C hfg, kJ/kg point, °C hif , kJ/kg °C r, kg/m3 cp, kJ/kg · K

Ammonia 33.3 1357 77.7 322.4 33.3 682 4.43 20 665 4.52

0 639 4.60 25 602 4.80

Argon 185.9 161.6 189.3 28 185.6 1394 1.14 Benzene 80.2 394 5.5 126 20 879 1.72 Brine (20% sodium chloride by mass) 103.9 — 17.4 — 20 1150 3.11 n-Butane 0.5 385.2 138.5 80.3 0.5 601 2.31 Carbon dioxide 78.4* 230.5 (at 0°C) 56.6 0 298 0.59 Ethanol 78.2 838.3 114.2 109 25 783 2.46 Ethyl alcohol 78.6 855 156 108 20 789 2.84 Ethylene glycol 198.1 800.1 10.8 181.1 20 1109 2.84 Glycerine 179.9 974 18.9 200.6 20 1261 2.32 Helium 268.9 22.8 — — 268.9 146.2 22.8 Hydrogen 252.8 445.7 259.2 59.5 252.8 70.7 10.0 Isobutane 11.7 367.1 160 105.7 11.7 593.8 2.28 Kerosene 204–293 251 24.9 — 20 820 2.00 Mercury 356.7 294.7 38.9 11.4 25 13,560 0.139 Methane 161.5 510.4 182.2 58.4 161.5 423 3.49

100 301 5.79 Methanol 64.5 1100 97.7 99.2 25 787 2.55 Nitrogen 195.8 198.6 210 25.3 195.8 809 2.06

160 596 2.97 Octane 124.8 306.3 57.5 180.7 20 703 2.10 Oil (light) 25 910 1.80 Oxygen 183 212.7 218.8 13.7 183 1141 1.71 Petroleum — 230–384 20 640 2.0 Propane 42.1 427.8 187.7 80.0 42.1 581 2.25

0 529 2.53 50 449 3.13

Refrigerant-134a 26.1 217.0 96.6 — 50 1443 1.23 26.1 1374 1.27

0 1295 1.34 25 1207 1.43

Water 100 2257 0.0 333.7 0 1000 4.22 25 997 4.18 50 988 4.18 75 975 4.19

100 958 4.22

* Sublimation temperature. (At pressures below the triple-point pressure of 518 kPa, carbon dioxide exists as a solid or gas. Also, the freezing-point temperature of carbon dioxide is the triple-point temperature of 56.5°C.)

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TABLE A–3 Properties of common liquids, solids, and foods (Concluded )

(b) Solids (values are for room temperature unless indicated otherwise)

Density, Specific heat, Density, Specific heat, Substance r kg/m3 cp kJ/kg · K Substance r kg/m3 cp kJ/kg · K

Metals Nonmetals

Aluminum Asphalt 2110 0.920 200 K 0.797 Brick, common 1922 0.79 250 K 0.859 Brick, fireclay (500°C) 2300 0.960 300 K 2,700 0.902 Concrete 2300 0.653 350 K 0.929 Clay 1000 0.920 400 K 0.949 Diamond 2420 0.616 450 K 0.973 Glass, window 2700 0.800 500 K 0.997 Glass, pyrex 2230 0.840

Bronze (76% Cu, 2% Zn, 8,280 0.400 Graphite 2500 0.711 2% Al) Granite 2700 1.017

Brass, yellow (65% Cu, 8,310 0.400 Gypsum or plaster board 800 1.09 35% Zn) Ice

Copper 200 K 1.56 173°C 0.254 220 K 1.71 100°C 0.342 240 K 1.86

50°C 0.367 260 K 2.01 0°C 0.381 273 K 921 2.11

27°C 8,900 0.386 Limestone 1650 0.909 100°C 0.393 Marble 2600 0.880 200°C 0.403 Plywood (Douglas Fir) 545 1.21

Iron 7,840 0.45 Rubber (soft) 1100 1.840 Lead 11,310 0.128 Rubber (hard) 1150 2.009 Magnesium 1,730 1.000 Sand 1520 0.800 Nickel 8,890 0.440 Stone 1500 0.800 Silver 10,470 0.235 Woods, hard (maple, oak, etc.) 721 1.26 Steel, mild 7,830 0.500 Woods, soft (fir, pine, etc.) 513 1.38 Tungsten 19,400 0.130

(c) Foods

Specific heat, Specific heat, kJ/kg · K Latent kJ/kg · K Latent

Water heat of Water heat of content, Freezing Above Below fusion, content, Freezing Above Below fusion,

Food % (mass) point, °C freezing freezing kJ/kg Food % (mass) point, °C freezing freezing kJ/kg

Apples 84 1.1 3.65 1.90 281 Lettuce 95 0.2 4.02 2.04 317 Bananas 75 0.8 3.35 1.78 251 Milk, whole 88 0.6 3.79 1.95 294 Beef round 67 — 3.08 1.68 224 Oranges 87 0.8 3.75 1.94 291 Broccoli 90 0.6 3.86 1.97 301 Potatoes 78 0.6 3.45 1.82 261 Butter 16 — — 1.04 53 Salmon fish 64 2.2 2.98 1.65 214 Cheese, swiss 39 10.0 2.15 1.33 130 Shrimp 83 2.2 3.62 1.89 277 Cherries 80 1.8 3.52 1.85 267 Spinach 93 0.3 3.96 2.01 311 Chicken 74 2.8 3.32 1.77 247 Strawberries 90 0.8 3.86 1.97 301 Corn, sweet 74 0.6 3.32 1.77 247 Tomatoes, ripe 94 0.5 3.99 2.02 314 Eggs, whole 74 0.6 3.32 1.77 247 Turkey 64 — 2.98 1.65 214 Ice cream 63 5.6 2.95 1.63 210 Watermelon 93 0.4 3.96 2.01 311

Source: Values are obtained from various handbooks and other sources or are calculated. Water content and freezing-point data of foods are from ASHRAE, Handbook of Fundamentals, SI version (Atlanta, GA: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., 1993), Chapter 30, Table 1. Freezing point is the temperature at which freezing starts for fruits and vegetables, and the average freezing temperature for other foods.

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TABLE A–4 Saturated water—Temperature table

Specific volume, Internal energy, Enthalpy, Entropy, m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg · K

Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Temp., press., liquid, vapor, liquid, Evap., vapor, liquid, Evap., vapor, liquid, Evap., vapor, T °C Psat kPa vf vg uf ufg ug hf hfg hg sf sfg sg

0.01 0.6117 0.001000 206.00 0.000 2374.9 2374.9 0.001 2500.9 2500.9 0.0000 9.1556 9.1556 5 0.8725 0.001000 147.03 21.019 2360.8 2381.8 21.020 2489.1 2510.1 0.0763 8.9487 9.0249

10 1.2281 0.001000 106.32 42.020 2346.6 2388.7 42.022 2477.2 2519.2 0.1511 8.7488 8.8999 15 1.7057 0.001001 77.885 62.980 2332.5 2395.5 62.982 2465.4 2528.3 0.2245 8.5559 8.7803 20 2.3392 0.001002 57.762 83.913 2318.4 2402.3 83.915 2453.5 2537.4 0.2965 8.3696 8.6661

25 3.1698 0.001003 43.340 104.83 2304.3 2409.1 104.83 2441.7 2546.5 0.3672 8.1895 8.5567 30 4.2469 0.001004 32.879 125.73 2290.2 2415.9 125.74 2429.8 2555.6 0.4368 8.0152 8.4520 35 5.6291 0.001006 25.205 146.63 2276.0 2422.7 146.64 2417.9 2564.6 0.5051 7.8466 8.3517 40 7.3851 0.001008 19.515 167.53 2261.9 2429.4 167.53 2406.0 2573.5 0.5724 7.6832 8.2556 45 9.5953 0.001010 15.251 188.43 2247.7 2436.1 188.44 2394.0 2582.4 0.6386 7.5247 8.1633

50 12.352 0.001012 12.026 209.33 2233.4 2442.7 209.34 2382.0 2591.3 0.7038 7.3710 8.0748 55 15.763 0.001015 9.5639 230.24 2219.1 2449.3 230.26 2369.8 2600.1 0.7680 7.2218 7.9898 60 19.947 0.001017 7.6670 251.16 2204.7 2455.9 251.18 2357.7 2608.8 0.8313 7.0769 7.9082 65 25.043 0.001020 6.1935 272.09 2190.3 2462.4 272.12 2345.4 2617.5 0.8937 6.9360 7.8296 70 31.202 0.001023 5.0396 293.04 2175.8 2468.9 293.07 2333.0 2626.1 0.9551 6.7989 7.7540

75 38.597 0.001026 4.1291 313.99 2161.3 2475.3 314.03 2320.6 2634.6 1.0158 6.6655 7.6812 80 47.416 0.001029 3.4053 334.97 2146.6 2481.6 335.02 2308.0 2643.0 1.0756 6.5355 7.6111 85 57.868 0.001032 2.8261 355.96 2131.9 2487.8 356.02 2295.3 2651.4 1.1346 6.4089 7.5435 90 70.183 0.001036 2.3593 376.97 2117.0 2494.0 377.04 2282.5 2659.6 1.1929 6.2853 7.4782 95 84.609 0.001040 1.9808 398.00 2102.0 2500.1 398.09 2269.6 2667.6 1.2504 6.1647 7.4151

100 101.42 0.001043 1.6720 419.06 2087.0 2506.0 419.17 2256.4 2675.6 1.3072 6.0470 7.3542 105 120.90 0.001047 1.4186 440.15 2071.8 2511.9 440.28 2243.1 2683.4 1.3634 5.9319 7.2952 110 143.38 0.001052 1.2094 461.27 2056.4 2517.7 461.42 2229.7 2691.1 1.4188 5.8193 7.2382 115 169.18 0.001056 1.0360 482.42 2040.9 2523.3 482.59 2216.0 2698.6 1.4737 5.7092 7.1829 120 198.67 0.001060 0.89133 503.60 2025.3 2528.9 503.81 2202.1 2706.0 1.5279 5.6013 7.1292

125 232.23 0.001065 0.77012 524.83 2009.5 2534.3 525.07 2188.1 2713.1 1.5816 5.4956 7.0771 130 270.28 0.001070 0.66808 546.10 1993.4 2539.5 546.38 2173.7 2720.1 1.6346 5.3919 7.0265 135 313.22 0.001075 0.58179 567.41 1977.3 2544.7 567.75 2159.1 2726.9 1.6872 5.2901 6.9773 140 361.53 0.001080 0.50850 588.77 1960.9 2549.6 589.16 2144.3 2733.5 1.7392 5.1901 6.9294 145 415.68 0.001085 0.44600 610.19 1944.2 2554.4 610.64 2129.2 2739.8 1.7908 5.0919 6.8827

150 476.16 0.001091 0.39248 631.66 1927.4 2559.1 632.18 2113.8 2745.9 1.8418 4.9953 6.8371 155 543.49 0.001096 0.34648 653.19 1910.3 2563.5 653.79 2098.0 2751.8 1.8924 4.9002 6.7927 160 618.23 0.001102 0.30680 674.79 1893.0 2567.8 675.47 2082.0 2757.5 1.9426 4.8066 6.7492 165 700.93 0.001108 0.27244 696.46 1875.4 2571.9 697.24 2065.6 2762.8 1.9923 4.7143 6.7067 170 792.18 0.001114 0.24260 718.20 1857.5 2575.7 719.08 2048.8 2767.9 2.0417 4.6233 6.6650

175 892.60 0.001121 0.21659 740.02 1839.4 2579.4 741.02 2031.7 2772.7 2.0906 4.5335 6.6242 180 1002.8 0.001127 0.19384 761.92 1820.9 2582.8 763.05 2014.2 2777.2 2.1392 4.4448 6.5841 185 1123.5 0.001134 0.17390 783.91 1802.1 2586.0 785.19 1996.2 2781.4 2.1875 4.3572 6.5447 190 1255.2 0.001141 0.15636 806.00 1783.0 2589.0 807.43 1977.9 2785.3 2.2355 4.2705 6.5059 195 1398.8 0.001149 0.14089 828.18 1763.6 2591.7 829.78 1959.0 2788.8 2.2831 4.1847 6.4678 200 1554.9 0.001157 0.12721 850.46 1743.7 2594.2 852.26 1939.8 2792.0 2.3305 4.0997 6.4302

890 | Thermodynamics

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TABLE A–4 Saturated water—Temperature table (Continued)

Specific volume, Internal energy, Enthalpy, Entropy, m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg · K

Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Temp., press., liquid, vapor, liquid, Evap., vapor, liquid, Evap., vapor, liquid, Evap., vapor, T °C Psat kPa vf vg uf ufg ug hf hfg hg sf sfg sg

205 1724.3 0.001164 0.11508 872.86 1723.5 2596.4 874.87 1920.0 2794.8 2.3776 4.0154 6.3930 210 1907.7 0.001173 0.10429 895.38 1702.9 2598.3 897.61 1899.7 2797.3 2.4245 3.9318 6.3563 215 2105.9 0.001181 0.094680 918.02 1681.9 2599.9 920.50 1878.8 2799.3 2.4712 3.8489 6.3200 220 2319.6 0.001190 0.086094 940.79 1660.5 2601.3 943.55 1857.4 2801.0 2.5176 3.7664 6.2840 225 2549.7 0.001199 0.078405 963.70 1638.6 2602.3 966.76 1835.4 2802.2 2.5639 3.6844 6.2483

230 2797.1 0.001209 0.071505 986.76 1616.1 2602.9 990.14 1812.8 2802.9 2.6100 3.6028 6.2128 235 3062.6 0.001219 0.065300 1010.0 1593.2 2603.2 1013.7 1789.5 2803.2 2.6560 3.5216 6.1775 240 3347.0 0.001229 0.059707 1033.4 1569.8 2603.1 1037.5 1765.5 2803.0 2.7018 3.4405 6.1424 245 3651.2 0.001240 0.054656 1056.9 1545.7 2602.7 1061.5 1740.8 2802.2 2.7476 3.3596 6.1072 250 3976.2 0.001252 0.050085 1080.7 1521.1 2601.8 1085.7 1715.3 2801.0 2.7933 3.2788 6.0721

255 4322.9 0.001263 0.045941 1104.7 1495.8 2600.5 1110.1 1689.0 2799.1 2.8390 3.1979 6.0369 260 4692.3 0.001276 0.042175 1128.8 1469.9 2598.7 1134.8 1661.8 2796.6 2.8847 3.1169 6.0017 265 5085.3 0.001289 0.038748 1153.3 1443.2 2596.5 1159.8 1633.7 2793.5 2.9304 3.0358 5.9662 270 5503.0 0.001303 0.035622 1177.9 1415.7 2593.7 1185.1 1604.6 2789.7 2.9762 2.9542 5.9305 275 5946.4 0.001317 0.032767 1202.9 1387.4 2590.3 1210.7 1574.5 2785.2 3.0221 2.8723 5.8944

280 6416.6 0.001333 0.030153 1228.2 1358.2 2586.4 1236.7 1543.2 2779.9 3.0681 2.7898 5.8579 285 6914.6 0.001349 0.027756 1253.7 1328.1 2581.8 1263.1 1510.7 2773.7 3.1144 2.7066 5.8210 290 7441.8 0.001366 0.025554 1279.7 1296.9 2576.5 1289.8 1476.9 2766.7 3.1608 2.6225 5.7834 295 7999.0 0.001384 0.023528 1306.0 1264.5 2570.5 1317.1 1441.6 2758.7 3.2076 2.5374 5.7450 300 8587.9 0.001404 0.021659 1332.7 1230.9 2563.6 1344.8 1404.8 2749.6 3.2548 2.4511 5.7059

305 9209.4 0.001425 0.019932 1360.0 1195.9 2555.8 1373.1 1366.3 2739.4 3.3024 2.3633 5.6657 310 9865.0 0.001447 0.018333 1387.7 1159.3 2547.1 1402.0 1325.9 2727.9 3.3506 2.2737 5.6243 315 10,556 0.001472 0.016849 1416.1 1121.1 2537.2 1431.6 1283.4 2715.0 3.3994 2.1821 5.5816 320 11,284 0.001499 0.015470 1445.1 1080.9 2526.0 1462.0 1238.5 2700.6 3.4491 2.0881 5.5372 325 12,051 0.001528 0.014183 1475.0 1038.5 2513.4 1493.4 1191.0 2684.3 3.4998 1.9911 5.4908

330 12,858 0.001560 0.012979 1505.7 993.5 2499.2 1525.8 1140.3 2666.0 3.5516 1.8906 5.4422 335 13,707 0.001597 0.011848 1537.5 945.5 2483.0 1559.4 1086.0 2645.4 3.6050 1.7857 5.3907 340 14,601 0.001638 0.010783 1570.7 893.8 2464.5 1594.6 1027.4 2622.0 3.6602 1.6756 5.3358 345 15,541 0.001685 0.009772 1605.5 837.7 2443.2 1631.7 963.4 2595.1 3.7179 1.5585 5.2765 350 16,529 0.001741 0.008806 1642.4 775.9 2418.3 1671.2 892.7 2563.9 3.7788 1.4326 5.2114

355 17,570 0.001808 0.007872 1682.2 706.4 2388.6 1714.0 812.9 2526.9 3.8442 1.2942 5.1384 360 18,666 0.001895 0.006950 1726.2 625.7 2351.9 1761.5 720.1 2481.6 3.9165 1.1373 5.0537 365 19,822 0.002015 0.006009 1777.2 526.4 2303.6 1817.2 605.5 2422.7 4.0004 0.9489 4.9493 370 21,044 0.002217 0.004953 1844.5 385.6 2230.1 1891.2 443.1 2334.3 4.1119 0.6890 4.8009 373.95 22,064 0.003106 0.003106 2015.7 0 2015.7 2084.3 0 2084.3 4.4070 0 4.4070

Source: Tables A–4 through A–8 are generated using the Engineering Equation Solver (EES) software developed by S. A. Klein and F. L. Alvarado. The routine used in calculations is the highly accurate Steam_IAPWS, which incorporates the 1995 Formulation for the Thermodynamic Properties of Ordinary Water Substance for General and Scientific Use, issued by The International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS). This formulation replaces the 1984 formulation of Haar, Gallagher, and Kell (NBS/NRC Steam Tables, Hemisphere Publishing Co., 1984), which is also available in EES as the routine STEAM. The new formulation is based on the correlations of Saul and Wagner (J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 16, 893, 1987) with modifica- tions to adjust to the International Temperature Scale of 1990. The modifications are described by Wagner and Pruss (J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 22, 783, 1993). The properties of ice are based on Hyland and Wexler, “Formulations for the Thermodynamic Properties of the Saturated Phases of H2O from 173.15 K to 473.15 K,” ASHRAE Trans., Part 2A, Paper 2793, 1983.

Appendix 1 | 891

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TABLE A–5 Saturated water—Pressure table

Specific volume, Internal energy, Enthalpy, Entropy, m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg · K

Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Press., temp., liquid, vapor, liquid, Evap., vapor, liquid, Evap., vapor, liquid, Evap., vapor, P kPa Tsat °C vf vg uf ufg ug hf hfg hg sf sfg sg

1.0 6.97 0.001000 129.19 29.302 2355.2 2384.5 29.303 2484.4 2513.7 0.1059 8.8690 8.9749 1.5 13.02 0.001001 87.964 54.686 2338.1 2392.8 54.688 2470.1 2524.7 0.1956 8.6314 8.8270 2.0 17.50 0.001001 66.990 73.431 2325.5 2398.9 73.433 2459.5 2532.9 0.2606 8.4621 8.7227 2.5 21.08 0.001002 54.242 88.422 2315.4 2403.8 88.424 2451.0 2539.4 0.3118 8.3302 8.6421 3.0 24.08 0.001003 45.654 100.98 2306.9 2407.9 100.98 2443.9 2544.8 0.3543 8.2222 8.5765

4.0 28.96 0.001004 34.791 121.39 2293.1 2414.5 121.39 2432.3 2553.7 0.4224 8.0510 8.4734 5.0 32.87 0.001005 28.185 137.75 2282.1 2419.8 137.75 2423.0 2560.7 0.4762 7.9176 8.3938 7.5 40.29 0.001008 19.233 168.74 2261.1 2429.8 168.75 2405.3 2574.0 0.5763 7.6738 8.2501

10 45.81 0.001010 14.670 191.79 2245.4 2437.2 191.81 2392.1 2583.9 0.6492 7.4996 8.1488 15 53.97 0.001014 10.020 225.93 2222.1 2448.0 225.94 2372.3 2598.3 0.7549 7.2522 8.0071

20 60.06 0.001017 7.6481 251.40 2204.6 2456.0 251.42 2357.5 2608.9 0.8320 7.0752 7.9073 25 64.96 0.001020 6.2034 271.93 2190.4 2462.4 271.96 2345.5 2617.5 0.8932 6.9370 7.8302 30 69.09 0.001022 5.2287 289.24 2178.5 2467.7 289.27 2335.3 2624.6 0.9441 6.8234 7.7675 40 75.86 0.001026 3.9933 317.58 2158.8 2476.3 317.62 2318.4 2636.1 1.0261 6.6430 7.6691 50 81.32 0.001030 3.2403 340.49 2142.7 2483.2 340.54 2304.7 2645.2 1.0912 6.5019 7.5931

75 91.76 0.001037 2.2172 384.36 2111.8 2496.1 384.44 2278.0 2662.4 1.2132 6.2426 7.4558 100 99.61 0.001043 1.6941 417.40 2088.2 2505.6 417.51 2257.5 2675.0 1.3028 6.0562 7.3589 101.325 99.97 0.001043 1.6734 418.95 2087.0 2506.0 419.06 2256.5 2675.6 1.3069 6.0476 7.3545 125 105.97 0.001048 1.3750 444.23 2068.8 2513.0 444.36 2240.6 2684.9 1.3741 5.9100 7.2841 150 111.35 0.001053 1.1594 466.97 2052.3 2519.2 467.13 2226.0 2693.1 1.4337 5.7894 7.2231

175 116.04 0.001057 1.0037 486.82 2037.7 2524.5 487.01 2213.1 2700.2 1.4850 5.6865 7.1716 200 120.21 0.001061 0.88578 504.50 2024.6 2529.1 504.71 2201.6 2706.3 1.5302 5.5968 7.1270 225 123.97 0.001064 0.79329 520.47 2012.7 2533.2 520.71 2191.0 2711.7 1.5706 5.5171 7.0877 250 127.41 0.001067 0.71873 535.08 2001.8 2536.8 535.35 2181.2 2716.5 1.6072 5.4453 7.0525 275 130.58 0.001070 0.65732 548.57 1991.6 2540.1 548.86 2172.0 2720.9 1.6408 5.3800 7.0207

300 133.52 0.001073 0.60582 561.11 1982.1 2543.2 561.43 2163.5 2724.9 1.6717 5.3200 6.9917 325 136.27 0.001076 0.56199 572.84 1973.1 2545.9 573.19 2155.4 2728.6 1.7005 5.2645 6.9650 350 138.86 0.001079 0.52422 583.89 1964.6 2548.5 584.26 2147.7 2732.0 1.7274 5.2128 6.9402 375 141.30 0.001081 0.49133 594.32 1956.6 2550.9 594.73 2140.4 2735.1 1.7526 5.1645 6.9171 400 143.61 0.001084 0.46242 604.22 1948.9 2553.1 604.66 2133.4 2738.1 1.7765 5.1191 6.8955

450 147.90 0.001088 0.41392 622.65 1934.5 2557.1 623.14 2120.3 2743.4 1.8205 5.0356 6.8561 500 151.83 0.001093 0.37483 639.54 1921.2 2560.7 640.09 2108.0 2748.1 1.8604 4.9603 6.8207 550 155.46 0.001097 0.34261 655.16 1908.8 2563.9 655.77 2096.6 2752.4 1.8970 4.8916 6.7886 600 158.83 0.001101 0.31560 669.72 1897.1 2566.8 670.38 2085.8 2756.2 1.9308 4.8285 6.7593 650 161.98 0.001104 0.29260 683.37 1886.1 2569.4 684.08 2075.5 2759.6 1.9623 4.7699 6.7322

700 164.95 0.001108 0.27278 696.23 1875.6 2571.8 697.00 2065.8 2762.8 1.9918 4.7153 6.7071 750 167.75 0.001111 0.25552 708.40 1865.6 2574.0 709.24 2056.4 2765.7 2.0195 4.6642 6.6837

892 | Thermodynamics

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TABLE A–5 Saturated water—Pressure table (Continued)

Specific volume, Internal energy, Enthalpy, Entropy, m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg · K

Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Press., temp., liquid, vapor, liquid, Evap., vapor, liquid, Evap., vapor, liquid, Evap., vapor, P kPa Tsat °C vf vg uf ufg ug hf hfg hg sf sfg sg

800 170.41 0.001115 0.24035 719.97 1856.1 2576.0 720.87 2047.5 2768.3 2.0457 4.6160 6.6616 850 172.94 0.001118 0.22690 731.00 1846.9 2577.9 731.95 2038.8 2770.8 2.0705 4.5705 6.6409 900 175.35 0.001121 0.21489 741.55 1838.1 2579.6 742.56 2030.5 2773.0 2.0941 4.5273 6.6213 950 177.66 0.001124 0.20411 751.67 1829.6 2581.3 752.74 2022.4 2775.2 2.1166 4.4862 6.6027

1000 179.88 0.001127 0.19436 761.39 1821.4 2582.8 762.51 2014.6 2777.1 2.1381 4.4470 6.5850

1100 184.06 0.001133 0.17745 779.78 1805.7 2585.5 781.03 1999.6 2780.7 2.1785 4.3735 6.5520 1200 187.96 0.001138 0.16326 796.96 1790.9 2587.8 798.33 1985.4 2783.8 2.2159 4.3058 6.5217 1300 191.60 0.001144 0.15119 813.10 1776.8 2589.9 814.59 1971.9 2786.5 2.2508 4.2428 6.4936 1400 195.04 0.001149 0.14078 828.35 1763.4 2591.8 829.96 1958.9 2788.9 2.2835 4.1840 6.4675 1500 198.29 0.001154 0.13171 842.82 1750.6 2593.4 844.55 1946.4 2791.0 2.3143 4.1287 6.4430

1750 205.72 0.001166 0.11344 876.12 1720.6 2596.7 878.16 1917.1 2795.2 2.3844 4.0033 6.3877 2000 212.38 0.001177 0.099587 906.12 1693.0 2599.1 908.47 1889.8 2798.3 2.4467 3.8923 6.3390 2250 218.41 0.001187 0.088717 933.54 1667.3 2600.9 936.21 1864.3 2800.5 2.5029 3.7926 6.2954 2500 223.95 0.001197 0.079952 958.87 1643.2 2602.1 961.87 1840.1 2801.9 2.5542 3.7016 6.2558 3000 233.85 0.001217 0.066667 1004.6 1598.5 2603.2 1008.3 1794.9 2803.2 2.6454 3.5402 6.1856

3500 242.56 0.001235 0.057061 1045.4 1557.6 2603.0 1049.7 1753.0 2802.7 2.7253 3.3991 6.1244 4000 250.35 0.001252 0.049779 1082.4 1519.3 2601.7 1087.4 1713.5 2800.8 2.7966 3.2731 6.0696 5000 263.94 0.001286 0.039448 1148.1 1448.9 2597.0 1154.5 1639.7 2794.2 2.9207 3.0530 5.9737 6000 275.59 0.001319 0.032449 1205.8 1384.1 2589.9 1213.8 1570.9 2784.6 3.0275 2.8627 5.8902 7000 285.83 0.001352 0.027378 1258.0 1323.0 2581.0 1267.5 1505.2 2772.6 3.1220 2.6927 5.8148

8000 295.01 0.001384 0.023525 1306.0 1264.5 2570.5 1317.1 1441.6 2758.7 3.2077 2.5373 5.7450 9000 303.35 0.001418 0.020489 1350.9 1207.6 2558.5 1363.7 1379.3 2742.9 3.2866 2.3925 5.6791

10,000 311.00 0.001452 0.018028 1393.3 1151.8 2545.2 1407.8 1317.6 2725.5 3.3603 2.2556 5.6159 11,000 318.08 0.001488 0.015988 1433.9 1096.6 2530.4 1450.2 1256.1 2706.3 3.4299 2.1245 5.5544 12,000 324.68 0.001526 0.014264 1473.0 1041.3 2514.3 1491.3 1194.1 2685.4 3.4964 1.9975 5.4939

13,000 330.85 0.001566 0.012781 1511.0 985.5 2496.6 1531.4 1131.3 2662.7 3.5606 1.8730 5.4336 14,000 336.67 0.001610 0.011487 1548.4 928.7 2477.1 1571.0 1067.0 2637.9 3.6232 1.7497 5.3728 15,000 342.16 0.001657 0.010341 1585.5 870.3 2455.7 1610.3 1000.5 2610.8 3.6848 1.6261 5.3108 16,000 347.36 0.001710 0.009312 1622.6 809.4 2432.0 1649.9 931.1 2581.0 3.7461 1.5005 5.2466 17,000 352.29 0.001770 0.008374 1660.2 745.1 2405.4 1690.3 857.4 2547.7 3.8082 1.3709 5.1791

18,000 356.99 0.001840 0.007504 1699.1 675.9 2375.0 1732.2 777.8 2510.0 3.8720 1.2343 5.1064 19,000 361.47 0.001926 0.006677 1740.3 598.9 2339.2 1776.8 689.2 2466.0 3.9396 1.0860 5.0256 20,000 365.75 0.002038 0.005862 1785.8 509.0 2294.8 1826.6 585.5 2412.1 4.0146 0.9164 4.9310 21,000 369.83 0.002207 0.004994 1841.6 391.9 2233.5 1888.0 450.4 2338.4 4.1071 0.7005 4.8076 22,000 373.71 0.002703 0.003644 1951.7 140.8 2092.4 2011.1 161.5 2172.6 4.2942 0.2496 4.5439 22,064 373.95 0.003106 0.003106 2015.7 0 2015.7 2084.3 0 2084.3 4.4070 0 4.4070

Appendix 1 | 893

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894 | Thermodynamics

TABLE A–6 Superheated water

T v u h s v u h s v u h s °C m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg  K m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg  K m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg  K

P  0.01 MPa (45.81°C)* P  0.05 MPa (81.32°C) P  0.10 MPa (99.61°C)

Sat.† 14.670 2437.2 2583.9 8.1488 3.2403 2483.2 2645.2 7.5931 1.6941 2505.6 2675.0 7.3589 50 14.867 2443.3 2592.0 8.1741

100 17.196 2515.5 2687.5 8.4489 3.4187 2511.5 2682.4 7.6953 1.6959 2506.2 2675.8 7.3611 150 19.513 2587.9 2783.0 8.6893 3.8897 2585.7 2780.2 7.9413 1.9367 2582.9 2776.6 7.6148 200 21.826 2661.4 2879.6 8.9049 4.3562 2660.0 2877.8 8.1592 2.1724 2658.2 2875.5 7.8356 250 24.136 2736.1 2977.5 9.1015 4.8206 2735.1 2976.2 8.3568 2.4062 2733.9 2974.5 8.0346 300 26.446 2812.3 3076.7 9.2827 5.2841 2811.6 3075.8 8.5387 2.6389 2810.7 3074.5 8.2172 400 31.063 2969.3 3280.0 9.6094 6.2094 2968.9 3279.3 8.8659 3.1027 2968.3 3278.6 8.5452 500 35.680 3132.9 3489.7 9.8998 7.1338 3132.6 3489.3 9.1566 3.5655 3132.2 3488.7 8.8362 600 40.296 3303.3 3706.3 10.1631 8.0577 3303.1 3706.0 9.4201 4.0279 3302.8 3705.6 9.0999 700 44.911 3480.8 3929.9 10.4056 8.9813 3480.6 3929.7 9.6626 4.4900 3480.4 3929.4 9.3424 800 49.527 3665.4 4160.6 10.6312 9.9047 3665.2 4160.4 9.8883 4.9519 3665.0 4160.2 9.5682 900 54.143 3856.9 4398.3 10.8429 10.8280 3856.8 4398.2 10.1000 5.4137 3856.7 4398.0 9.7800

1000 58.758 4055.3 4642.8 11.0429 11.7513 4055.2 4642.7 10.3000 5.8755 4055.0 4642.6 9.9800 1100 63.373 4260.0 4893.8 11.2326 12.6745 4259.9 4893.7 10.4897 6.3372 4259.8 4893.6 10.1698 1200 67.989 4470.9 5150.8 11.4132 13.5977 4470.8 5150.7 10.6704 6.7988 4470.7 5150.6 10.3504 1300 72.604 4687.4 5413.4 11.5857 14.5209 4687.3 5413.3 10.8429 7.2605 4687.2 5413.3 10.5229

P  0.20 MPa (120.21°C) P  0.30 MPa (133.52°C) P  0.40 MPa (143.61°C)

Sat. 0.88578 2529.1 2706.3 7.1270 0.60582 2543.2 2724.9 6.9917 0.46242 2553.1 2738.1 6.8955 150 0.95986 2577.1 2769.1 7.2810 0.63402 2571.0 2761.2 7.0792 0.47088 2564.4 2752.8 6.9306 200 1.08049 2654.6 2870.7 7.5081 0.71643 2651.0 2865.9 7.3132 0.53434 2647.2 2860.9 7.1723 250 1.19890 2731.4 2971.2 7.7100 0.79645 2728.9 2967.9 7.5180 0.59520 2726.4 2964.5 7.3804 300 1.31623 2808.8 3072.1 7.8941 0.87535 2807.0 3069.6 7.7037 0.65489 2805.1 3067.1 7.5677 400 1.54934 2967.2 3277.0 8.2236 1.03155 2966.0 3275.5 8.0347 0.77265 2964.9 3273.9 7.9003 500 1.78142 3131.4 3487.7 8.5153 1.18672 3130.6 3486.6 8.3271 0.88936 3129.8 3485.5 8.1933 600 2.01302 3302.2 3704.8 8.7793 1.34139 3301.6 3704.0 8.5915 1.00558 3301.0 3703.3 8.4580 700 2.24434 3479.9 3928.8 9.0221 1.49580 3479.5 3928.2 8.8345 1.12152 3479.0 3927.6 8.7012 800 2.47550 3664.7 4159.8 9.2479 1.65004 3664.3 4159.3 9.0605 1.23730 3663.9 4158.9 8.9274 900 2.70656 3856.3 4397.7 9.4598 1.80417 3856.0 4397.3 9.2725 1.35298 3855.7 4396.9 9.1394

1000 2.93755 4054.8 4642.3 9.6599 1.95824 4054.5 4642.0 9.4726 1.46859 4054.3 4641.7 9.3396 1100 3.16848 4259.6 4893.3 9.8497 2.11226 4259.4 4893.1 9.6624 1.58414 4259.2 4892.9 9.5295 1200 3.39938 4470.5 5150.4 10.0304 2.26624 4470.3 5150.2 9.8431 1.69966 4470.2 5150.0 9.7102 1300 3.63026 4687.1 5413.1 10.2029 2.42019 4686.9 5413.0 10.0157 1.81516 4686.7 5412.8 9.8828

P  0.50 MPa (151.83°C) P  0.60 MPa (158.83°C) P  0.80 MPa (170.41°C)

Sat. 0.37483 2560.7 2748.1 6.8207 0.31560 2566.8 2756.2 6.7593 0.24035 2576.0 2768.3 6.6616 200 0.42503 2643.3 2855.8 7.0610 0.35212 2639.4 2850.6 6.9683 0.26088 2631.1 2839.8 6.8177 250 0.47443 2723.8 2961.0 7.2725 0.39390 2721.2 2957.6 7.1833 0.29321 2715.9 2950.4 7.0402 300 0.52261 2803.3 3064.6 7.4614 0.43442 2801.4 3062.0 7.3740 0.32416 2797.5 3056.9 7.2345 350 0.57015 2883.0 3168.1 7.6346 0.47428 2881.6 3166.1 7.5481 0.35442 2878.6 3162.2 7.4107 400 0.61731 2963.7 3272.4 7.7956 0.51374 2962.5 3270.8 7.7097 0.38429 2960.2 3267.7 7.5735 500 0.71095 3129.0 3484.5 8.0893 0.59200 3128.2 3483.4 8.0041 0.44332 3126.6 3481.3 7.8692 600 0.80409 3300.4 3702.5 8.3544 0.66976 3299.8 3701.7 8.2695 0.50186 3298.7 3700.1 8.1354 700 0.89696 3478.6 3927.0 8.5978 0.74725 3478.1 3926.4 8.5132 0.56011 3477.2 3925.3 8.3794 800 0.98966 3663.6 4158.4 8.8240 0.82457 3663.2 4157.9 8.7395 0.61820 3662.5 4157.0 8.6061 900 1.08227 3855.4 4396.6 9.0362 0.90179 3855.1 4396.2 8.9518 0.67619 3854.5 4395.5 8.8185

1000 1.17480 4054.0 4641.4 9.2364 0.97893 4053.8 4641.1 9.1521 0.73411 4053.3 4640.5 9.0189 1100 1.26728 4259.0 4892.6 9.4263 1.05603 4258.8 4892.4 9.3420 0.79197 4258.3 4891.9 9.2090 1200 1.35972 4470.0 5149.8 9.6071 1.13309 4469.8 5149.6 9.5229 0.84980 4469.4 5149.3 9.3898 1300 1.45214 4686.6 5412.6 9.7797 1.21012 4686.4 5412.5 9.6955 0.90761 4686.1 5412.2 9.5625

*The temperature in parentheses is the saturation temperature at the specified pressure. † Properties of saturated vapor at the specified pressure.

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Appendix 1 | 895

TABLE A–6 Superheated water (Continued)

T v u h s v u h s v u h s °C m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg  K m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg  K m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg  K

P  1.00 MPa (179.88C) P  1.20 MPa (187.96C) P  1.40 MPa (195.04C)

Sat. 0.19437 2582.8 2777.1 6.5850 0.16326 2587.8 2783.8 6.5217 0.14078 2591.8 2788.9 6.4675 200 0.20602 2622.3 2828.3 6.6956 0.16934 2612.9 2816.1 6.5909 0.14303 2602.7 2803.0 6.4975 250 0.23275 2710.4 2943.1 6.9265 0.19241 2704.7 2935.6 6.8313 0.16356 2698.9 2927.9 6.7488 300 0.25799 2793.7 3051.6 7.1246 0.21386 2789.7 3046.3 7.0335 0.18233 2785.7 3040.9 6.9553 350 0.28250 2875.7 3158.2 7.3029 0.23455 2872.7 3154.2 7.2139 0.20029 2869.7 3150.1 7.1379 400 0.30661 2957.9 3264.5 7.4670 0.25482 2955.5 3261.3 7.3793 0.21782 2953.1 3258.1 7.3046 500 0.35411 3125.0 3479.1 7.7642 0.29464 3123.4 3477.0 7.6779 0.25216 3121.8 3474.8 7.6047 600 0.40111 3297.5 3698.6 8.0311 0.33395 3296.3 3697.0 7.9456 0.28597 3295.1 3695.5 7.8730 700 0.44783 3476.3 3924.1 8.2755 0.37297 3475.3 3922.9 8.1904 0.31951 3474.4 3921.7 8.1183 800 0.49438 3661.7 4156.1 8.5024 0.41184 3661.0 4155.2 8.4176 0.35288 3660.3 4154.3 8.3458 900 0.54083 3853.9 4394.8 8.7150 0.45059 3853.3 4394.0 8.6303 0.38614 3852.7 4393.3 8.5587

1000 0.58721 4052.7 4640.0 8.9155 0.48928 4052.2 4639.4 8.8310 0.41933 4051.7 4638.8 8.7595 1100 0.63354 4257.9 4891.4 9.1057 0.52792 4257.5 4891.0 9.0212 0.45247 4257.0 4890.5 8.9497 1200 0.67983 4469.0 5148.9 9.2866 0.56652 4468.7 5148.5 9.2022 0.48558 4468.3 5148.1 9.1308 1300 0.72610 4685.8 5411.9 9.4593 0.60509 4685.5 5411.6 9.3750 0.51866 4685.1 5411.3 9.3036

P  1.60 MPa (201.37C) P  1.80 MPa (207.11C) P  2.00 MPa (212.38C)

Sat. 0.12374 2594.8 2792.8 6.4200 0.11037 2597.3 2795.9 6.3775 0.09959 2599.1 2798.3 6.3390 225 0.13293 2645.1 2857.8 6.5537 0.11678 2637.0 2847.2 6.4825 0.10381 2628.5 2836.1 6.4160 250 0.14190 2692.9 2919.9 6.6753 0.12502 2686.7 2911.7 6.6088 0.11150 2680.3 2903.3 6.5475 300 0.15866 2781.6 3035.4 6.8864 0.14025 2777.4 3029.9 6.8246 0.12551 2773.2 3024.2 6.7684 350 0.17459 2866.6 3146.0 7.0713 0.15460 2863.6 3141.9 7.0120 0.13860 2860.5 3137.7 6.9583 400 0.19007 2950.8 3254.9 7.2394 0.16849 2948.3 3251.6 7.1814 0.15122 2945.9 3248.4 7.1292 500 0.22029 3120.1 3472.6 7.5410 0.19551 3118.5 3470.4 7.4845 0.17568 3116.9 3468.3 7.4337 600 0.24999 3293.9 3693.9 7.8101 0.22200 3292.7 3692.3 7.7543 0.19962 3291.5 3690.7 7.7043 700 0.27941 3473.5 3920.5 8.0558 0.24822 3472.6 3919.4 8.0005 0.22326 3471.7 3918.2 7.9509 800 0.30865 3659.5 4153.4 8.2834 0.27426 3658.8 4152.4 8.2284 0.24674 3658.0 4151.5 8.1791 900 0.33780 3852.1 4392.6 8.4965 0.30020 3851.5 4391.9 8.4417 0.27012 3850.9 4391.1 8.3925

1000 0.36687 4051.2 4638.2 8.6974 0.32606 4050.7 4637.6 8.6427 0.29342 4050.2 4637.1 8.5936 1100 0.39589 4256.6 4890.0 8.8878 0.35188 4256.2 4889.6 8.8331 0.31667 4255.7 4889.1 8.7842 1200 0.42488 4467.9 5147.7 9.0689 0.37766 4467.6 5147.3 9.0143 0.33989 4467.2 5147.0 8.9654 1300 0.45383 4684.8 5410.9 9.2418 0.40341 4684.5 5410.6 9.1872 0.36308 4684.2 5410.3 9.1384

P  2.50 MPa (223.95C) P  3.00 MPa (233.85C) P  3.50 MPa (242.56C)

Sat. 0.07995 2602.1 2801.9 6.2558 0.06667 2603.2 2803.2 6.1856 0.05706 2603.0 2802.7 6.1244 225 0.08026 2604.8 2805.5 6.2629 250 0.08705 2663.3 2880.9 6.4107 0.07063 2644.7 2856.5 6.2893 0.05876 2624.0 2829.7 6.1764 300 0.09894 2762.2 3009.6 6.6459 0.08118 2750.8 2994.3 6.5412 0.06845 2738.8 2978.4 6.4484 350 0.10979 2852.5 3127.0 6.8424 0.09056 2844.4 3116.1 6.7450 0.07680 2836.0 3104.9 6.6601 400 0.12012 2939.8 3240.1 7.0170 0.09938 2933.6 3231.7 6.9235 0.08456 2927.2 3223.2 6.8428 450 0.13015 3026.2 3351.6 7.1768 0.10789 3021.2 3344.9 7.0856 0.09198 3016.1 3338.1 7.0074 500 0.13999 3112.8 3462.8 7.3254 0.11620 3108.6 3457.2 7.2359 0.09919 3104.5 3451.7 7.1593 600 0.15931 3288.5 3686.8 7.5979 0.13245 3285.5 3682.8 7.5103 0.11325 3282.5 3678.9 7.4357 700 0.17835 3469.3 3915.2 7.8455 0.14841 3467.0 3912.2 7.7590 0.12702 3464.7 3909.3 7.6855 800 0.19722 3656.2 4149.2 8.0744 0.16420 3654.3 4146.9 7.9885 0.14061 3652.5 4144.6 7.9156 900 0.21597 3849.4 4389.3 8.2882 0.17988 3847.9 4387.5 8.2028 0.15410 3846.4 4385.7 8.1304

1000 0.23466 4049.0 4635.6 8.4897 0.19549 4047.7 4634.2 8.4045 0.16751 4046.4 4632.7 8.3324 1100 0.25330 4254.7 4887.9 8.6804 0.21105 4253.6 4886.7 8.5955 0.18087 4252.5 4885.6 8.5236 1200 0.27190 4466.3 5146.0 8.8618 0.22658 4465.3 5145.1 8.7771 0.19420 4464.4 5144.1 8.7053 1300 0.29048 4683.4 5409.5 9.0349 0.24207 4682.6 5408.8 8.9502 0.20750 4681.8 5408.0 8.8786

cen84959_ap01.qxd 4/27/05 2:59 PM Page 895

TABLE A–6 Superheated water (Continued)

T v u h s v u h s v u h s °C m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg  K m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg  K m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg  K

P  4.0 MPa (250.35C) P  4.5 MPa (257.44C) P  5.0 MPa (263.94C)

Sat. 0.04978 2601.7 2800.8 6.0696 0.04406 2599.7 2798.0 6.0198 0.03945 2597.0 2794.2 5.9737 275 0.05461 2668.9 2887.3 6.2312 0.04733 2651.4 2864.4 6.1429 0.04144 2632.3 2839.5 6.0571 300 0.05887 2726.2 2961.7 6.3639 0.05138 2713.0 2944.2 6.2854 0.04535 2699.0 2925.7 6.2111 350 0.06647 2827.4 3093.3 6.5843 0.05842 2818.6 3081.5 6.5153 0.05197 2809.5 3069.3 6.4516 400 0.07343 2920.8 3214.5 6.7714 0.06477 2914.2 3205.7 6.7071 0.05784 2907.5 3196.7 6.6483 450 0.08004 3011.0 3331.2 6.9386 0.07076 3005.8 3324.2 6.8770 0.06332 3000.6 3317.2 6.8210 500 0.08644 3100.3 3446.0 7.0922 0.07652 3096.0 3440.4 7.0323 0.06858 3091.8 3434.7 6.9781 600 0.09886 3279.4 3674.9 7.3706 0.08766 3276.4 3670.9 7.3127 0.07870 3273.3 3666.9 7.2605 700 0.11098 3462.4 3906.3 7.6214 0.09850 3460.0 3903.3 7.5647 0.08852 3457.7 3900.3 7.5136 800 0.12292 3650.6 4142.3 7.8523 0.10916 3648.8 4140.0 7.7962 0.09816 3646.9 4137.7 7.7458 900 0.13476 3844.8 4383.9 8.0675 0.11972 3843.3 4382.1 8.0118 0.10769 3841.8 4380.2 7.9619

1000 0.14653 4045.1 4631.2 8.2698 0.13020 4043.9 4629.8 8.2144 0.11715 4042.6 4628.3 8.1648 1100 0.15824 4251.4 4884.4 8.4612 0.14064 4250.4 4883.2 8.4060 0.12655 4249.3 4882.1 8.3566 1200 0.16992 4463.5 5143.2 8.6430 0.15103 4462.6 5142.2 8.5880 0.13592 4461.6 5141.3 8.5388 1300 0.18157 4680.9 5407.2 8.8164 0.16140 4680.1 5406.5 8.7616 0.14527 4679.3 5405.7 8.7124

P  6.0 MPa (275.59C) P  7.0 MPa (285.83C) P  8.0 MPa (295.01C)

Sat. 0.03245 2589.9 2784.6 5.8902 0.027378 2581.0 2772.6 5.8148 0.023525 2570.5 2758.7 5.7450 300 0.03619 2668.4 2885.6 6.0703 0.029492 2633.5 2839.9 5.9337 0.024279 2592.3 2786.5 5.7937 350 0.04225 2790.4 3043.9 6.3357 0.035262 2770.1 3016.9 6.2305 0.029975 2748.3 2988.1 6.1321 400 0.04742 2893.7 3178.3 6.5432 0.039958 2879.5 3159.2 6.4502 0.034344 2864.6 3139.4 6.3658 450 0.05217 2989.9 3302.9 6.7219 0.044187 2979.0 3288.3 6.6353 0.038194 2967.8 3273.3 6.5579 500 0.05667 3083.1 3423.1 6.8826 0.048157 3074.3 3411.4 6.8000 0.041767 3065.4 3399.5 6.7266 550 0.06102 3175.2 3541.3 7.0308 0.051966 3167.9 3531.6 6.9507 0.045172 3160.5 3521.8 6.8800 600 0.06527 3267.2 3658.8 7.1693 0.055665 3261.0 3650.6 7.0910 0.048463 3254.7 3642.4 7.0221 700 0.07355 3453.0 3894.3 7.4247 0.062850 3448.3 3888.3 7.3487 0.054829 3443.6 3882.2 7.2822 800 0.08165 3643.2 4133.1 7.6582 0.069856 3639.5 4128.5 7.5836 0.061011 3635.7 4123.8 7.5185 900 0.08964 3838.8 4376.6 7.8751 0.076750 3835.7 4373.0 7.8014 0.067082 3832.7 4369.3 7.7372

1000 0.09756 4040.1 4625.4 8.0786 0.083571 4037.5 4622.5 8.0055 0.073079 4035.0 4619.6 7.9419 1100 0.10543 4247.1 4879.7 8.2709 0.090341 4245.0 4877.4 8.1982 0.079025 4242.8 4875.0 8.1350 1200 0.11326 4459.8 5139.4 8.4534 0.097075 4457.9 5137.4 8.3810 0.084934 4456.1 5135.5 8.3181 1300 0.12107 4677.7 5404.1 8.6273 0.103781 4676.1 5402.6 8.5551 0.090817 4674.5 5401.0 8.4925

P  9.0 MPa (303.35C) P  10.0 MPa (311.00C) P  12.5 MPa (327.81C)

Sat. 0.020489 2558.5 2742.9 5.6791 0.018028 2545.2 2725.5 5.6159 0.013496 2505.6 2674.3 5.4638 325 0.023284 2647.6 2857.1 5.8738 0.019877 2611.6 2810.3 5.7596 350 0.025816 2725.0 2957.3 6.0380 0.022440 2699.6 2924.0 5.9460 0.016138 2624.9 2826.6 5.7130 400 0.029960 2849.2 3118.8 6.2876 0.026436 2833.1 3097.5 6.2141 0.020030 2789.6 3040.0 6.0433 450 0.033524 2956.3 3258.0 6.4872 0.029782 2944.5 3242.4 6.4219 0.023019 2913.7 3201.5 6.2749 500 0.036793 3056.3 3387.4 6.6603 0.032811 3047.0 3375.1 6.5995 0.025630 3023.2 3343.6 6.4651 550 0.039885 3153.0 3512.0 6.8164 0.035655 3145.4 3502.0 6.7585 0.028033 3126.1 3476.5 6.6317 600 0.042861 3248.4 3634.1 6.9605 0.038378 3242.0 3625.8 6.9045 0.030306 3225.8 3604.6 6.7828 650 0.045755 3343.4 3755.2 7.0954 0.041018 3338.0 3748.1 7.0408 0.032491 3324.1 3730.2 6.9227 700 0.048589 3438.8 3876.1 7.2229 0.043597 3434.0 3870.0 7.1693 0.034612 3422.0 3854.6 7.0540 800 0.054132 3632.0 4119.2 7.4606 0.048629 3628.2 4114.5 7.4085 0.038724 3618.8 4102.8 7.2967 900 0.059562 3829.6 4365.7 7.6802 0.053547 3826.5 4362.0 7.6290 0.042720 3818.9 4352.9 7.5195

1000 0.064919 4032.4 4616.7 7.8855 0.058391 4029.9 4613.8 7.8349 0.046641 4023.5 4606.5 7.7269 1100 0.070224 4240.7 4872.7 8.0791 0.063183 4238.5 4870.3 8.0289 0.050510 4233.1 4864.5 7.9220 1200 0.075492 4454.2 5133.6 8.2625 0.067938 4452.4 5131.7 8.2126 0.054342 4447.7 5127.0 8.1065 1300 0.080733 4672.9 5399.5 8.4371 0.072667 4671.3 5398.0 8.3874 0.058147 4667.3 5394.1 8.2819

896 | Thermodynamics

cen84959_ap01.qxd 4/27/05 2:59 PM Page 896

TABLE A–6 Superheated water (Concluded)

T v u h s v u h s v u h s °C m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg  K m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg  K m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg  K

P  15.0 MPa (342.16C) P  17.5 MPa (354.67C) P  20.0 MPa (365.75C)

Sat. 0.010341 2455.7 2610.8 5.3108 0.007932 2390.7 2529.5 5.1435 0.005862 2294.8 2412.1 4.9310 350 0.011481 2520.9 2693.1 5.4438 400 0.015671 2740.6 2975.7 5.8819 0.012463 2684.3 2902.4 5.7211 0.009950 2617.9 2816.9 5.5526 450 0.018477 2880.8 3157.9 6.1434 0.015204 2845.4 3111.4 6.0212 0.012721 2807.3 3061.7 5.9043 500 0.020828 2998.4 3310.8 6.3480 0.017385 2972.4 3276.7 6.2424 0.014793 2945.3 3241.2 6.1446 550 0.022945 3106.2 3450.4 6.5230 0.019305 3085.8 3423.6 6.4266 0.016571 3064.7 3396.2 6.3390 600 0.024921 3209.3 3583.1 6.6796 0.021073 3192.5 3561.3 6.5890 0.018185 3175.3 3539.0 6.5075 650 0.026804 3310.1 3712.1 6.8233 0.022742 3295.8 3693.8 6.7366 0.019695 3281.4 3675.3 6.6593 700 0.028621 3409.8 3839.1 6.9573 0.024342 3397.5 3823.5 6.8735 0.021134 3385.1 3807.8 6.7991 800 0.032121 3609.3 4091.1 7.2037 0.027405 3599.7 4079.3 7.1237 0.023870 3590.1 4067.5 7.0531 900 0.035503 3811.2 4343.7 7.4288 0.030348 3803.5 4334.6 7.3511 0.026484 3795.7 4325.4 7.2829

1000 0.038808 4017.1 4599.2 7.6378 0.033215 4010.7 4592.0 7.5616 0.029020 4004.3 4584.7 7.4950 1100 0.042062 4227.7 4858.6 7.8339 0.036029 4222.3 4852.8 7.7588 0.031504 4216.9 4847.0 7.6933 1200 0.045279 4443.1 5122.3 8.0192 0.038806 4438.5 5117.6 7.9449 0.033952 4433.8 5112.9 7.8802 1300 0.048469 4663.3 5390.3 8.1952 0.041556 4659.2 5386.5 8.1215 0.036371 4655.2 5382.7 8.0574

P  25.0 MPa P  30.0 MPa P  35.0 MPa

375 0.001978 1799.9 1849.4 4.0345 0.001792 1738.1 1791.9 3.9313 0.001701 1702.8 1762.4 3.8724 400 0.006005 2428.5 2578.7 5.1400 0.002798 2068.9 2152.8 4.4758 0.002105 1914.9 1988.6 4.2144 425 0.007886 2607.8 2805.0 5.4708 0.005299 2452.9 2611.8 5.1473 0.003434 2253.3 2373.5 4.7751 450 0.009176 2721.2 2950.6 5.6759 0.006737 2618.9 2821.0 5.4422 0.004957 2497.5 2671.0 5.1946 500 0.011143 2887.3 3165.9 5.9643 0.008691 2824.0 3084.8 5.7956 0.006933 2755.3 2997.9 5.6331 550 0.012736 3020.8 3339.2 6.1816 0.010175 2974.5 3279.7 6.0403 0.008348 2925.8 3218.0 5.9093 600 0.014140 3140.0 3493.5 6.3637 0.011445 3103.4 3446.8 6.2373 0.009523 3065.6 3399.0 6.1229 650 0.015430 3251.9 3637.7 6.5243 0.012590 3221.7 3599.4 6.4074 0.010565 3190.9 3560.7 6.3030 700 0.016643 3359.9 3776.0 6.6702 0.013654 3334.3 3743.9 6.5599 0.011523 3308.3 3711.6 6.4623 800 0.018922 3570.7 4043.8 6.9322 0.015628 3551.2 4020.0 6.8301 0.013278 3531.6 3996.3 6.7409 900 0.021075 3780.2 4307.1 7.1668 0.017473 3764.6 4288.8 7.0695 0.014904 3749.0 4270.6 6.9853

1000 0.023150 3991.5 4570.2 7.3821 0.019240 3978.6 4555.8 7.2880 0.016450 3965.8 4541.5 7.2069 1100 0.025172 4206.1 4835.4 7.5825 0.020954 4195.2 4823.9 7.4906 0.017942 4184.4 4812.4 7.4118 1200 0.027157 4424.6 5103.5 7.7710 0.022630 4415.3 5094.2 7.6807 0.019398 4406.1 5085.0 7.6034 1300 0.029115 4647.2 5375.1 7.9494 0.024279 4639.2 5367.6 7.8602 0.020827 4631.2 5360.2 7.7841

P  40.0 MPa P  50.0 MPa P  60.0 MPa

375 0.001641 1677.0 1742.6 3.8290 0.001560 1638.6 1716.6 3.7642 0.001503 1609.7 1699.9 3.7149 400 0.001911 1855.0 1931.4 4.1145 0.001731 1787.8 1874.4 4.0029 0.001633 1745.2 1843.2 3.9317 425 0.002538 2097.5 2199.0 4.5044 0.002009 1960.3 2060.7 4.2746 0.001816 1892.9 2001.8 4.1630 450 0.003692 2364.2 2511.8 4.9449 0.002487 2160.3 2284.7 4.5896 0.002086 2055.1 2180.2 4.4140 500 0.005623 2681.6 2906.5 5.4744 0.003890 2528.1 2722.6 5.1762 0.002952 2393.2 2570.3 4.9356 550 0.006985 2875.1 3154.4 5.7857 0.005118 2769.5 3025.4 5.5563 0.003955 2664.6 2901.9 5.3517 600 0.008089 3026.8 3350.4 6.0170 0.006108 2947.1 3252.6 5.8245 0.004833 2866.8 3156.8 5.6527 650 0.009053 3159.5 3521.6 6.2078 0.006957 3095.6 3443.5 6.0373 0.005591 3031.3 3366.8 5.8867 700 0.009930 3282.0 3679.2 6.3740 0.007717 3228.7 3614.6 6.2179 0.006265 3175.4 3551.3 6.0814 800 0.011521 3511.8 3972.6 6.6613 0.009073 3472.2 3925.8 6.5225 0.007456 3432.6 3880.0 6.4033 900 0.012980 3733.3 4252.5 6.9107 0.010296 3702.0 4216.8 6.7819 0.008519 3670.9 4182.1 6.6725

1000 0.014360 3952.9 4527.3 7.1355 0.011441 3927.4 4499.4 7.0131 0.009504 3902.0 4472.2 6.9099 1100 0.015686 4173.7 4801.1 7.3425 0.012534 4152.2 4778.9 7.2244 0.010439 4130.9 4757.3 7.1255 1200 0.016976 4396.9 5075.9 7.5357 0.013590 4378.6 5058.1 7.4207 0.011339 4360.5 5040.8 7.3248 1300 0.018239 4623.3 5352.8 7.7175 0.014620 4607.5 5338.5 7.6048 0.012213 4591.8 5324.5 7.5111

Appendix 1 | 897

cen84959_ap01.qxd 4/27/05 2:59 PM Page 897

TABLE A–7 Compressed liquid water

T v u h s v u h s v u h s °C m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg  K m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg  K m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg  K

P  5 MPa (263.94C) P  10 MPa (311.00C) P  15 MPa (342.16C)

Sat. 0.0012862 1148.1 1154.5 2.9207 0.0014522 1393.3 1407.9 3.3603 0.0016572 1585.5 1610.3 3.6848 0 0.0009977 0.04 5.03 0.0001 0.0009952 0.12 10.07 0.0003 0.0009928 0.18 15.07 0.0004

20 0.0009996 83.61 88.61 0.2954 0.0009973 83.31 93.28 0.2943 0.0009951 83.01 97.93 0.2932 40 0.0010057 166.92 171.95 0.5705 0.0010035 166.33 176.37 0.5685 0.0010013 165.75 180.77 0.5666 60 0.0010149 250.29 255.36 0.8287 0.0010127 249.43 259.55 0.8260 0.0010105 248.58 263.74 0.8234 80 0.0010267 333.82 338.96 1.0723 0.0010244 332.69 342.94 1.0691 0.0010221 331.59 346.92 1.0659

100 0.0010410 417.65 422.85 1.3034 0.0010385 416.23 426.62 1.2996 0.0010361 414.85 430.39 1.2958 120 0.0010576 501.91 507.19 1.5236 0.0010549 500.18 510.73 1.5191 0.0010522 498.50 514.28 1.5148 140 0.0010769 586.80 592.18 1.7344 0.0010738 584.72 595.45 1.7293 0.0010708 582.69 598.75 1.7243 160 0.0010988 672.55 678.04 1.9374 0.0010954 670.06 681.01 1.9316 0.0010920 667.63 684.01 1.9259 180 0.0011240 759.47 765.09 2.1338 0.0011200 756.48 767.68 2.1271 0.0011160 753.58 770.32 2.1206 200 0.0011531 847.92 853.68 2.3251 0.0011482 844.32 855.80 2.3174 0.0011435 840.84 858.00 2.3100 220 0.0011868 938.39 944.32 2.5127 0.0011809 934.01 945.82 2.5037 0.0011752 929.81 947.43 2.4951 240 0.0012268 1031.6 1037.7 2.6983 0.0012192 1026.2 1038.3 2.6876 0.0012121 1021.0 1039.2 2.6774 260 0.0012755 1128.5 1134.9 2.8841 0.0012653 1121.6 1134.3 2.8710 0.0012560 1115.1 1134.0 2.8586 280 0.0013226 1221.8 1235.0 3.0565 0.0013096 1213.4 1233.0 3.0410 300 0.0013980 1329.4 1343.3 3.2488 0.0013783 1317.6 1338.3 3.2279 320 0.0014733 1431.9 1454.0 3.4263 340 0.0016311 1567.9 1592.4 3.6555

P  20 MPa (365.75C) P  30 MPa P  50 MPa

Sat. 0.0020378 1785.8 1826.6 4.0146 0 0.0009904 0.23 20.03 0.0005 0.0009857 0.29 29.86 0.0003 0.0009767 0.29 49.13 0.0010

20 0.0009929 82.71 102.57 0.2921 0.0009886 82.11 111.77 0.2897 0.0009805 80.93 129.95 0.2845 40 0.0009992 165.17 185.16 0.5646 0.0009951 164.05 193.90 0.5607 0.0009872 161.90 211.25 0.5528 60 0.0010084 247.75 267.92 0.8208 0.0010042 246.14 276.26 0.8156 0.0009962 243.08 292.88 0.8055 80 0.0010199 330.50 350.90 1.0627 0.0010155 328.40 358.86 1.0564 0.0010072 324.42 374.78 1.0442

100 0.0010337 413.50 434.17 1.2920 0.0010290 410.87 441.74 1.2847 0.0010201 405.94 456.94 1.2705 120 0.0010496 496.85 517.84 1.5105 0.0010445 493.66 525.00 1.5020 0.0010349 487.69 539.43 1.4859 140 0.0010679 580.71 602.07 1.7194 0.0010623 576.90 608.76 1.7098 0.0010517 569.77 622.36 1.6916 160 0.0010886 665.28 687.05 1.9203 0.0010823 660.74 693.21 1.9094 0.0010704 652.33 705.85 1.8889 180 0.0011122 750.78 773.02 2.1143 0.0011049 745.40 778.55 2.1020 0.0010914 735.49 790.06 2.0790 200 0.0011390 837.49 860.27 2.3027 0.0011304 831.11 865.02 2.2888 0.0011149 819.45 875.19 2.2628 220 0.0011697 925.77 949.16 2.4867 0.0011595 918.15 952.93 2.4707 0.0011412 904.39 961.45 2.4414 240 0.0012053 1016.1 1040.2 2.6676 0.0011927 1006.9 1042.7 2.6491 0.0011708 990.55 1049.1 2.6156 260 0.0012472 1109.0 1134.0 2.8469 0.0012314 1097.8 1134.7 2.8250 0.0012044 1078.2 1138.4 2.7864 280 0.0012978 1205.6 1231.5 3.0265 0.0012770 1191.5 1229.8 3.0001 0.0012430 1167.7 1229.9 2.9547 300 0.0013611 1307.2 1334.4 3.2091 0.0013322 1288.9 1328.9 3.1761 0.0012879 1259.6 1324.0 3.1218 320 0.0014450 1416.6 1445.5 3.3996 0.0014014 1391.7 1433.7 3.3558 0.0013409 1354.3 1421.4 3.2888 340 0.0015693 1540.2 1571.6 3.6086 0.0014932 1502.4 1547.1 3.5438 0.0014049 1452.9 1523.1 3.4575 360 0.0018248 1703.6 1740.1 3.8787 0.0016276 1626.8 1675.6 3.7499 0.0014848 1556.5 1630.7 3.6301 380 0.0018729 1782.0 1838.2 4.0026 0.0015884 1667.1 1746.5 3.8102

898 | Thermodynamics

cen84959_ap01.qxd 5/10/05 12:30 PM Page 898

Appendix 1 | 899

TABLE A–8 Saturated ice–water vapor

Specific volume, Internal energy, Enthalpy, Entropy, m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg · K

Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Temp., press., ice, vapor, ice, Subl., vapor, ice, Subl., vapor, ice, Subl., vapor, T °C Psat kPa vi vg ui uig ug hi hig hg si sig sg

0.01 0.61169 0.001091 205.99 333.40 2707.9 2374.5 333.40 2833.9 2500.5 1.2202 10.374 9.154 0 0.61115 0.001091 206.17 333.43 2707.9 2374.5 333.43 2833.9 2500.5 1.2204 10.375 9.154

2 0.51772 0.001091 241.62 337.63 2709.4 2371.8 337.63 2834.5 2496.8 1.2358 10.453 9.218 4 0.43748 0.001090 283.84 341.80 2710.8 2369.0 341.80 2835.0 2493.2 1.2513 10.533 9.282 6 0.36873 0.001090 334.27 345.94 2712.2 2366.2 345.93 2835.4 2489.5 1.2667 10.613 9.347 8 0.30998 0.001090 394.66 350.04 2713.5 2363.5 350.04 2835.8 2485.8 1.2821 10.695 9.413

10 0.25990 0.001089 467.17 354.12 2714.8 2360.7 354.12 2836.2 2482.1 1.2976 10.778 9.480 12 0.21732 0.001089 554.47 358.17 2716.1 2357.9 358.17 2836.6 2478.4 1.3130 10.862 9.549 14 0.18121 0.001088 659.88 362.18 2717.3 2355.2 362.18 2836.9 2474.7 1.3284 10.947 9.618 16 0.15068 0.001088 787.51 366.17 2718.6 2352.4 366.17 2837.2 2471.0 1.3439 11.033 9.689 18 0.12492 0.001088 942.51 370.13 2719.7 2349.6 370.13 2837.5 2467.3 1.3593 11.121 9.761 20 0.10326 0.001087 1131.3 374.06 2720.9 2346.8 374.06 2837.7 2463.6 1.3748 11.209 9.835 22 0.08510 0.001087 1362.0 377.95 2722.0 2344.1 377.95 2837.9 2459.9 1.3903 11.300 9.909 24 0.06991 0.001087 1644.7 381.82 2723.1 2341.3 381.82 2838.1 2456.2 1.4057 11.391 9.985 26 0.05725 0.001087 1992.2 385.66 2724.2 2338.5 385.66 2838.2 2452.5 1.4212 11.484 10.063 28 0.04673 0.001086 2421.0 389.47 2725.2 2335.7 389.47 2838.3 2448.8 1.4367 11.578 10.141 30 0.03802 0.001086 2951.7 393.25 2726.2 2332.9 393.25 2838.4 2445.1 1.4521 11.673 10.221 32 0.03082 0.001086 3610.9 397.00 2727.2 2330.2 397.00 2838.4 2441.4 1.4676 11.770 10.303 34 0.02490 0.001085 4432.4 400.72 2728.1 2327.4 400.72 2838.5 2437.7 1.4831 11.869 10.386 36 0.02004 0.001085 5460.1 404.40 2729.0 2324.6 404.40 2838.4 2434.0 1.4986 11.969 10.470 38 0.01608 0.001085 6750.5 408.07 2729.9 2321.8 408.07 2838.4 2430.3 1.5141 12.071 10.557 40 0.01285 0.001084 8376.7 411.70 2730.7 2319.0 411.70 2838.3 2426.6 1.5296 12.174 10.644

cen84959_ap01.qxd 4/27/05 2:59 PM Page 899

900 | Thermodynamics

0

10 0

20 0

30 0

40 0

50 0

60 0

70 0

80 0

90 0

10 00

11 00

12 00

12 00

11 00

10 00

80 0

70 0

60 0

50 0

40 0

30 0

20 0

10 0

0 10

9 8

7 6

5 4

E nt

ro py

, k J/

kg ·

K 3

2 1

0

10 9

8 7

6 5

4 3

2 1

0

90 0

Temperature, °C

28 00

28 00

hh =

2 65

0 kJ

/k g

= 2

65 0

kJ /k

g 26

50 26

50

25 50

25 50

29 00

29 00

30 00

30 00

31 00

31 00

32 00

32 00

33 00

33 00

34 00

34 00

35 00

35 00

36 00

36 00

37 00

37 00

38 00

38 00

39 00

39 00

40 00

40 00

41 00

41 00

42 00

42 00

43 00

43 00

44 00

44 00

45 00

45 00

46 00

46 00

47 00

47 00

48 00

48 00

49 00

49 00

50 00

50 00

h =

5 00

0 kJ

/k g

h =

5 00

0 kJ

/k g

P = 30

000 bar

Den sity

= kg /m3

5500

50 00

300 k g/m3

100 k g/m3

30 kg /m3

10 kg /m3

3 kg/ m3

1 kg/ m3

0.3 k g/m3

0.1 k g/m3

0.03 kg/

m3 Den sity

= 0. 01 k

g/m3

200 00 150

00 10 000 8

000 600

0 500

0

15 00 1

00 0 80

0 60 0 50 0 40 0 35 0 30 0 25 0 20

0 15 0 1

00 8 0 6

0

40

80 %

70 %

60%

50% 40%

30 %

20 %

30 20

15 10

8 6 4 3

2 1.5 1.0

0.8 0.6 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1

5 0.1

0.0 8 0

.06 0.0

4 0 .03

0.0 2 0

.01 5

0.0 08

0.0 06 0.

00 4 0.0

03 0 .00

2

20 00

300 0

400 0

006

002

h = 400 kJ/

kg

008

1000

120 0

140 0

16 00

18

00 20

00 22

00 24

00

h =

26 00

kJ /k

g Q ua

lit y

= 90

%

Q ua

lit y

= 10

%

Sa tu

ra te

d liq

ui d

45 00

40 00

38 00

36 00

34 00

Sa tu

ra ted

va po

r

32 00

32 00

26 00

24 00

20 00

18 00

16 00

14 00

12 00

10 00

h =

22 00

kJ /k

g

30 00

h =

42 00

kJ /k

g

28 00

h =

2 60

0 kJ

/k g

26 50

25 50

29 00

30 00

31 00

32 00

33 00

34 00

35 00

36 00

37 00

38 00

39 00

40 00

41 00

42 00

43 00

44 00

45 00

46 00

47 00

48 00

49 00

50 00

h =

5 00

0 kJ

/k g

28

FI GU

RE A

–9 T-

s di

ag ra

m f

or w

at er

.

C op

yr ig

ht ©

19 84

. F ro

m N

B S/

N R

C S

te am

T ab

le s/

1 by

L es

te r

H aa

r, Jo

hn S

. G al

la gh

er ,a

nd G

eo rg

e S.

K el

l. R

ep ro

du ce

d by

p er

m is

si on

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ed ge

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& F

ra nc

is B

oo ks

,I nc

.

cen84959_ap01.qxd 4/27/05 2:59 PM Page 900

Appendix 1 | 901

E nt

ha lp

y, k

J/ kg

4000

3000

2000

1000

5000

4000

3000

2000

1000 2 3 4 5 6

Entropy, kJ/kg · K

7 8 9 10

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

P =

30 00

0 ba

r

25 00

0

T = 300°C

400°C

500°C

600°C

700°C

800°C 900°C

1000°C

1100°C T = 11

00 °C

20 00

0

15 00

0

10 00

0 80

00 60

00 50

00 40

00 30

00 20

00 15

00 10

00 80

0 60

0 40

0 30

0 20

0 15

0 10

0 80 60

50 30 20 15 10

8 6

5 3 2 1. 5

1. 0

0. 8

98% 96%

94% 92%

88%86%84%82%80%78%76%

0. 6

0. 4

0. 3

0. 2

0. 15

0. 1

0.0 8

0.0 6

0.0 4

0. 05

0. 03

0.0 2 0

.01 5

0.0 1

P = 0.

00 8 b

ar

4

40

50 0

D en

si ty

= 0.

01 kg

/m 3

0. 1

kg /m

3

1 kg

/m 31

0 kg

/m 310 0

kg /m

3D en

si ty

= 10

00 kg

/m 3

Quality = 90%

74%72%70%68%66%64%62%60%58%56%54%52%50%48%46%44%42%40%

5000

FIGURE A-10 Mollier diagram for water.

Copyright © 1984. From NBS/NRC Steam Tables/1 by Lester Haar, John S. Gallagher, and George S. Kell. Reproduced by permission of Routledge/Taylor & Francis Books, Inc.

cen84959_ap01.qxd 4/27/05 2:59 PM Page 901

902 | Thermodynamics

TABLE A–11 Saturated refrigerant-134a—Temperature table

Specific volume, Internal energy, Enthalpy, Entropy, m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg · K

Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Temp., press., liquid, vapor, liquid, Evap., vapor, liquid, Evap., vapor, liquid, Evap., vapor, T °C Psat kPa vf vg uf ufg ug hf hfg hg sf sfg sg

40 51.25 0.0007054 0.36081 0.036 207.40 207.37 0.000 225.86 225.86 0.00000 0.96866 0.96866 38 56.86 0.0007083 0.32732 2.475 206.04 208.51 2.515 224.61 227.12 0.01072 0.95511 0.96584 36 62.95 0.0007112 0.29751 4.992 204.67 209.66 5.037 223.35 228.39 0.02138 0.94176 0.96315 34 69.56 0.0007142 0.27090 7.517 203.29 210.81 7.566 222.09 229.65 0.03199 0.92859 0.96058 32 76.71 0.0007172 0.24711 10.05 201.91 211.96 10.10 220.81 230.91 0.04253 0.91560 0.95813

30 84.43 0.0007203 0.22580 12.59 200.52 213.11 12.65 219.52 232.17 0.05301 0.90278 0.95579 28 92.76 0.0007234 0.20666 15.13 199.12 214.25 15.20 218.22 233.43 0.06344 0.89012 0.95356 26 101.73 0.0007265 0.18946 17.69 197.72 215.40 17.76 216.92 234.68 0.07382 0.87762 0.95144 24 111.37 0.0007297 0.17395 20.25 196.30 216.55 20.33 215.59 235.92 0.08414 0.86527 0.94941 22 121.72 0.0007329 0.15995 22.82 194.88 217.70 22.91 214.26 s237.17 0.09441 0.85307 0.94748

20 132.82 0.0007362 0.14729 25.39 193.45 218.84 25.49 212.91 238.41 0.10463 0.84101 0.94564 18 144.69 0.0007396 0.13583 27.98 192.01 219.98 28.09 211.55 239.64 0.11481 0.82908 0.94389 16 157.38 0.0007430 0.12542 30.57 190.56 221.13 30.69 210.18 240.87 0.12493 0.81729 0.94222 14 170.93 0.0007464 0.11597 33.17 189.09 222.27 33.30 208.79 242.09 0.13501 0.80561 0.94063 12 185.37 0.0007499 0.10736 35.78 187.62 223.40 35.92 207.38 243.30 0.14504 0.79406 0.93911

10 200.74 0.0007535 0.099516 38.40 186.14 224.54 38.55 205.96 244.51 0.15504 0.78263 0.93766 8 217.08 0.0007571 0.092352 41.03 184.64 225.67 41.19 204.52 245.72 0.16498 0.77130 0.93629 6 234.44 0.0007608 0.085802 43.66 183.13 226.80 43.84 203.07 246.91 0.17489 0.76008 0.93497 4 252.85 0.0007646 0.079804 46.31 181.61 227.92 46.50 201.60 248.10 0.18476 0.74896 0.93372 2 272.36 0.0007684 0.074304 48.96 180.08 229.04 49.17 200.11 249.28 0.19459 0.73794 0.93253

0 293.01 0.0007723 0.069255 51.63 178.53 230.16 51.86 198.60 250.45 0.20439 0.72701 0.93139 2 314.84 0.0007763 0.064612 54.30 176.97 231.27 54.55 197.07 251.61 0.21415 0.71616 0.93031 4 337.90 0.0007804 0.060338 56.99 175.39 232.38 57.25 195.51 252.77 0.22387 0.70540 0.92927 6 362.23 0.0007845 0.056398 59.68 173.80 233.48 59.97 193.94 253.91 0.23356 0.69471 0.92828 8 387.88 0.0007887 0.052762 62.39 172.19 234.58 62.69 192.35 255.04 0.24323 0.68410 0.92733

10 414.89 0.0007930 0.049403 65.10 170.56 235.67 65.43 190.73 256.16 0.25286 0.67356 0.92641 12 443.31 0.0007975 0.046295 67.83 168.92 236.75 68.18 189.09 257.27 0.26246 0.66308 0.92554 14 473.19 0.0008020 0.043417 70.57 167.26 237.83 70.95 187.42 258.37 0.27204 0.65266 0.92470 16 504.58 0.0008066 0.040748 73.32 165.58 238.90 73.73 185.73 259.46 0.28159 0.64230 0.92389 18 537.52 0.0008113 0.038271 76.08 163.88 239.96 76.52 184.01 260.53 0.29112 0.63198 0.92310

cen84959_ap01.qxd 4/27/05 2:59 PM Page 902

TABLE A–11 Saturated refrigerant-134a—Temperature table (Continued)

Specific volume, Internal energy, Enthalpy, Entropy, m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg · K

Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Temp., press., liquid, vapor, liquid, Evap., vapor, liquid, Evap., vapor, liquid, Evap., vapor, T °C Psat kPa vf vg uf ufg ug hf hfg hg sf sfg sg

20 572.07 0.0008161 0.035969 78.86 162.16 241.02 79.32 182.27 261.59 0.30063 0.62172 0.92234 22 608.27 0.0008210 0.033828 81.64 160.42 242.06 82.14 180.49 262.64 0.31011 0.61149 0.92160 24 646.18 0.0008261 0.031834 84.44 158.65 243.10 84.98 178.69 263.67 0.31958 0.60130 0.92088 26 685.84 0.0008313 0.029976 87.26 156.87 244.12 87.83 176.85 264.68 0.32903 0.59115 0.92018 28 727.31 0.0008366 0.028242 90.09 155.05 245.14 90.69 174.99 265.68 0.33846 0.58102 0.91948

30 770.64 0.0008421 0.026622 92.93 153.22 246.14 93.58 173.08 266.66 0.34789 0.57091 0.91879 32 815.89 0.0008478 0.025108 95.79 151.35 247.14 96.48 171.14 267.62 0.35730 0.56082 0.91811 34 863.11 0.0008536 0.023691 98.66 149.46 248.12 99.40 169.17 268.57 0.36670 0.55074 0.91743 36 912.35 0.0008595 0.022364 101.55 147.54 249.08 102.33 167.16 269.49 0.37609 0.54066 0.91675 38 963.68 0.0008657 0.021119 104.45 145.58 250.04 105.29 165.10 270.39 0.38548 0.53058 0.91606

40 1017.1 0.0008720 0.019952 107.38 143.60 250.97 108.26 163.00 271.27 0.39486 0.52049 0.91536 42 1072.8 0.0008786 0.018855 110.32 141.58 251.89 111.26 160.86 272.12 0.40425 0.51039 0.91464 44 1130.7 0.0008854 0.017824 113.28 139.52 252.80 114.28 158.67 272.95 0.41363 0.50027 0.91391 46 1191.0 0.0008924 0.016853 116.26 137.42 253.68 117.32 156.43 273.75 0.42302 0.49012 0.91315 48 1253.6 0.0008996 0.015939 119.26 135.29 254.55 120.39 154.14 274.53 0.43242 0.47993 0.91236

52 1386.2 0.0009150 0.014265 125.33 130.88 256.21 126.59 149.39 275.98 0.45126 0.45941 0.91067 56 1529.1 0.0009317 0.012771 131.49 126.28 257.77 132.91 144.38 277.30 0.47018 0.43863 0.90880 60 1682.8 0.0009498 0.011434 137.76 121.46 259.22 139.36 139.10 278.46 0.48920 0.41749 0.90669 65 1891.0 0.0009750 0.009950 145.77 115.05 260.82 147.62 132.02 279.64 0.51320 0.39039 0.90359 70 2118.2 0.0010037 0.008642 154.01 108.14 262.15 156.13 124.32 280.46 0.53755 0.36227 0.89982 75 2365.8 0.0010372 0.007480 162.53 100.60 263.13 164.98 115.85 280.82 0.56241 0.33272 0.89512

80 2635.3 0.0010772 0.006436 171.40 92.23 263.63 174.24 106.35 280.59 0.58800 0.30111 0.88912 85 2928.2 0.0011270 0.005486 180.77 82.67 263.44 184.07 95.44 279.51 0.61473 0.26644 0.88117 90 3246.9 0.0011932 0.004599 190.89 71.29 262.18 194.76 82.35 277.11 0.64336 0.22674 0.87010 95 3594.1 0.0012933 0.003726 202.40 56.47 258.87 207.05 65.21 272.26 0.67578 0.17711 0.85289

100 3975.1 0.0015269 0.002630 218.72 29.19 247.91 224.79 33.58 258.37 0.72217 0.08999 0.81215

Source: Tables A–11 through A–13 are generated using the Engineering Equation Solver (EES) software developed by S. A. Klein and F. L. Alvarado. The routine used in calculations is the R134a, which is based on the fundamental equation of state developed by R. Tillner-Roth and H.D. Baehr, “An International Standard Formulation for the Thermodynamic Properties of 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a) for temperatures from 170 K to 455 K and Pressures up to 70 MPa,” J. Phys. Chem, Ref. Data, Vol. 23, No. 5, 1994. The enthalpy and entropy values of saturated liquid are set to zero at 40°C (and 40°F).

Appendix 1 | 903

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TABLE A–12 Saturated refrigerant-134a—Pressure table

Specific volume, Internal energy, Enthalpy, Entropy, m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg · K

Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Press., temp., liquid, vapor, liquid, Evap., vapor, liquid, Evap., vapor, liquid, Evap., vapor, P kPa Tsat °C vf vg uf ufg ug hf hfg hg sf sfg sg

60 36.95 0.0007098 0.31121 3.798 205.32 209.12 3.841 223.95 227.79 0.01634 0.94807 0.96441 70 33.87 0.0007144 0.26929 7.680 203.20 210.88 7.730 222.00 229.73 0.03267 0.92775 0.96042 80 31.13 0.0007185 0.23753 11.15 201.30 212.46 11.21 220.25 231.46 0.04711 0.90999 0.95710 90 28.65 0.0007223 0.21263 14.31 199.57 213.88 14.37 218.65 233.02 0.06008 0.89419 0.95427

100 26.37 0.0007259 0.19254 17.21 197.98 215.19 17.28 217.16 234.44 0.07188 0.87995 0.95183

120 22.32 0.0007324 0.16212 22.40 195.11 217.51 22.49 214.48 236.97 0.09275 0.85503 0.94779 140 18.77 0.0007383 0.14014 26.98 192.57 219.54 27.08 212.08 239.16 0.11087 0.83368 0.94456 160 15.60 0.0007437 0.12348 31.09 190.27 221.35 31.21 209.90 241.11 0.12693 0.81496 0.94190 180 12.73 0.0007487 0.11041 34.83 188.16 222.99 34.97 207.90 242.86 0.14139 0.79826 0.93965 200 10.09 0.0007533 0.099867 38.28 186.21 224.48 38.43 206.03 244.46 0.15457 0.78316 0.93773

240 5.38 0.0007620 0.083897 44.48 182.67 227.14 44.66 202.62 247.28 0.17794 0.75664 0.93458 280 1.25 0.0007699 0.072352 49.97 179.50 229.46 50.18 199.54 249.72 0.19829 0.73381 0.93210 320 2.46 0.0007772 0.063604 54.92 176.61 231.52 55.16 196.71 251.88 0.21637 0.71369 0.93006 360 5.82 0.0007841 0.056738 59.44 173.94 233.38 59.72 194.08 253.81 0.23270 0.69566 0.92836 400 8.91 0.0007907 0.051201 63.62 171.45 235.07 63.94 191.62 255.55 0.24761 0.67929 0.92691

450 12.46 0.0007985 0.045619 68.45 168.54 237.00 68.81 188.71 257.53 0.26465 0.66069 0.92535 500 15.71 0.0008059 0.041118 72.93 165.82 238.75 73.33 185.98 259.30 0.28023 0.64377 0.92400 550 18.73 0.0008130 0.037408 77.10 163.25 240.35 77.54 183.38 260.92 0.29461 0.62821 0.92282 600 21.55 0.0008199 0.034295 81.02 160.81 241.83 81.51 180.90 262.40 0.30799 0.61378 0.92177 650 24.20 0.0008266 0.031646 84.72 158.48 243.20 85.26 178.51 263.77 0.32051 0.60030 0.92081

700 26.69 0.0008331 0.029361 88.24 156.24 244.48 88.82 176.21 265.03 0.33230 0.58763 0.91994 750 29.06 0.0008395 0.027371 91.59 154.08 245.67 92.22 173.98 266.20 0.34345 0.57567 0.91912 800 31.31 0.0008458 0.025621 94.79 152.00 246.79 95.47 171.82 267.29 0.35404 0.56431 0.91835 850 33.45 0.0008520 0.024069 97.87 149.98 247.85 98.60 169.71 268.31 0.36413 0.55349 0.91762

900 35.51 0.0008580 0.022683 100.83 148.01 248.85 101.61 167.66 269.26 0.37377 0.54315 0.91692 950 37.48 0.0008641 0.021438 103.69 146.10 249.79 104.51 165.64 270.15 0.38301 0.53323 0.91624

1000 39.37 0.0008700 0.020313 106.45 144.23 250.68 107.32 163.67 270.99 0.39189 0.52368 0.91558 1200 46.29 0.0008934 0.016715 116.70 137.11 253.81 117.77 156.10 273.87 0.42441 0.48863 0.91303 1400 52.40 0.0009166 0.014107 125.94 130.43 256.37 127.22 148.90 276.12 0.45315 0.45734 0.91050

1600 57.88 0.0009400 0.012123 134.43 124.04 258.47 135.93 141.93 277.86 0.47911 0.42873 0.90784 1800 62.87 0.0009639 0.010559 142.33 117.83 260.17 144.07 135.11 279.17 0.50294 0.40204 0.90498 2000 67.45 0.0009886 0.009288 149.78 111.73 261.51 151.76 128.33 280.09 0.52509 0.37675 0.90184 2500 77.54 0.0010566 0.006936 166.99 96.47 263.45 169.63 111.16 280.79 0.57531 0.31695 0.89226 3000 86.16 0.0011406 0.005275 183.04 80.22 263.26 186.46 92.63 279.09 0.62118 0.25776 0.87894

904 | Thermodynamics

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TABLE A–13 Superheated refrigerant-134a

T v u h s v u h s v u h s °C m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg  K m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg  K m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg  K

P  0.06 MPa (Tsat  36.95°C) P  0.10 MPa (Tsat  26.37°C) P  0.14 MPa (Tsat  18.77°C)

Sat. 0.31121 209.12 227.79 0.9644 0.19254 215.19 234.44 0.9518 0.14014 219.54 239.16 0.9446 20 0.33608 220.60 240.76 1.0174 0.19841 219.66 239.50 0.9721 10 0.35048 227.55 248.58 1.0477 0.20743 226.75 247.49 1.0030 0.14605 225.91 246.36 0.9724

0 0.36476 234.66 256.54 1.0774 0.21630 233.95 255.58 1.0332 0.15263 233.23 254.60 1.0031 10 0.37893 241.92 264.66 1.1066 0.22506 241.30 263.81 1.0628 0.15908 240.66 262.93 1.0331 20 0.39302 249.35 272.94 1.1353 0.23373 248.79 272.17 1.0918 0.16544 248.22 271.38 1.0624 30 0.40705 256.95 281.37 1.1636 0.24233 256.44 280.68 1.1203 0.17172 255.93 279.97 1.0912 40 0.42102 264.71 289.97 1.1915 0.25088 264.25 289.34 1.1484 0.17794 263.79 288.70 1.1195 50 0.43495 272.64 298.74 1.2191 0.25937 272.22 298.16 1.1762 0.18412 271.79 297.57 1.1474 60 0.44883 280.73 307.66 1.2463 0.26783 280.35 307.13 1.2035 0.19025 279.96 306.59 1.1749 70 0.46269 288.99 316.75 1.2732 0.27626 288.64 316.26 1.2305 0.19635 288.28 315.77 1.2020 80 0.47651 297.41 326.00 1.2997 0.28465 297.08 325.55 1.2572 0.20242 296.75 325.09 1.2288 90 0.49032 306.00 335.42 1.3260 0.29303 305.69 334.99 1.2836 0.20847 305.38 334.57 1.2553

100 0.50410 314.74 344.99 1.3520 0.30138 314.46 344.60 1.3096 0.21449 314.17 344.20 1.2814

P  0.18 MPa (Tsat  12.73°C) P  0.20 MPa (Tsat  10.09°C) P  0.24 MPa (Tsat  5.38°C)

Sat. 0.11041 222.99 242.86 0.9397 0.09987 224.48 244.46 0.9377 0.08390 227.14 247.28 0.9346 10 0.11189 225.02 245.16 0.9484 0.09991 224.55 244.54 0.9380

0 0.11722 232.48 253.58 0.9798 0.10481 232.09 253.05 0.9698 0.08617 231.29 251.97 0.9519 10 0.12240 240.00 262.04 1.0102 0.10955 239.67 261.58 1.0004 0.09026 238.98 260.65 0.9831 20 0.12748 247.64 270.59 1.0399 0.11418 247.35 270.18 1.0303 0.09423 246.74 269.36 1.0134 30 0.13248 255.41 279.25 1.0690 0.11874 255.14 278.89 1.0595 0.09812 254.61 278.16 1.0429 40 0.13741 263.31 288.05 1.0975 0.12322 263.08 287.72 1.0882 0.10193 262.59 287.06 1.0718 50 0.14230 271.36 296.98 1.1256 0.12766 271.15 296.68 1.1163 0.10570 270.71 296.08 1.1001 60 0.14715 279.56 306.05 1.1532 0.13206 279.37 305.78 1.1441 0.10942 278.97 305.23 1.1280 70 0.15196 287.91 315.27 1.1805 0.13641 287.73 315.01 1.1714 0.11310 287.36 314.51 1.1554 80 0.15673 296.42 324.63 1.2074 0.14074 296.25 324.40 1.1983 0.11675 295.91 323.93 1.1825 90 0.16149 305.07 334.14 1.2339 0.14504 304.92 333.93 1.2249 0.12038 304.60 333.49 1.2092

100 0.16622 313.88 343.80 1.2602 0.14933 313.74 343.60 1.2512 0.12398 313.44 343.20 1.2356

P  0.28 MPa (Tsat  1.25°C) P  0.32 MPa (Tsat  2.46°C) P  0.40 MPa (Tsat  8.91°C)

Sat. 0.07235 229.46 249.72 0.9321 0.06360 231.52 251.88 0.9301 0.051201 235.07 255.55 0.9269 0 0.07282 230.44 250.83 0.9362

10 0.07646 238.27 259.68 0.9680 0.06609 237.54 258.69 0.9544 0.051506 235.97 256.58 0.9305 20 0.07997 246.13 268.52 0.9987 0.06925 245.50 267.66 0.9856 0.054213 244.18 265.86 0.9628 30 0.08338 254.06 277.41 1.0285 0.07231 253.50 276.65 1.0157 0.056796 252.36 275.07 0.9937 40 0.08672 262.10 286.38 1.0576 0.07530 261.60 285.70 1.0451 0.059292 260.58 284.30 1.0236 50 0.09000 270.27 295.47 1.0862 0.07823 269.82 294.85 1.0739 0.061724 268.90 293.59 1.0528 60 0.09324 278.56 304.67 1.1142 0.08111 278.15 304.11 1.1021 0.064104 277.32 302.96 1.0814 70 0.09644 286.99 314.00 1.1418 0.08395 286.62 313.48 1.1298 0.066443 285.86 312.44 1.1094 80 0.09961 295.57 323.46 1.1690 0.08675 295.22 322.98 1.1571 0.068747 294.53 322.02 1.1369 90 0.10275 304.29 333.06 1.1958 0.08953 303.97 332.62 1.1840 0.071023 303.32 331.73 1.1640

100 0.10587 313.15 342.80 1.2222 0.09229 312.86 342.39 1.2105 0.073274 312.26 341.57 1.1907 110 0.10897 322.16 352.68 1.2483 0.09503 321.89 352.30 1.2367 0.075504 321.33 351.53 1.2171 120 0.11205 331.32 362.70 1.2742 0.09775 331.07 362.35 1.2626 0.077717 330.55 361.63 1.2431 130 0.11512 340.63 372.87 1.2997 0.10045 340.39 372.54 1.2882 0.079913 339.90 371.87 1.2688 140 0.11818 350.09 383.18 1.3250 0.10314 349.86 382.87 1.3135 0.082096 349.41 382.24 1.2942

Appendix 1 | 905

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TABLE A–13 Superheated refrigerant-134a (Continued)

T v u h s v u h s v u h s °C m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg  K m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg  K m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg  K

P  0.50 MPa (Tsat  15.71°C) P  0.60 MPa (Tsat  21.55°C) P  0.70 MPa (Tsat  26.69°C)

Sat. 0.041118 238.75 259.30 0.9240 0.034295 241.83 262.40 0.9218 0.029361 244.48 265.03 0.9199 20 0.042115 242.40 263.46 0.9383 30 0.044338 250.84 273.01 0.9703 0.035984 249.22 270.81 0.9499 0.029966 247.48 268.45 0.9313 40 0.046456 259.26 282.48 1.0011 0.037865 257.86 280.58 0.9816 0.031696 256.39 278.57 0.9641 50 0.048499 267.72 291.96 1.0309 0.039659 266.48 290.28 1.0121 0.033322 265.20 288.53 0.9954 60 0.050485 276.25 301.50 1.0599 0.041389 275.15 299.98 1.0417 0.034875 274.01 298.42 1.0256 70 0.052427 284.89 311.10 1.0883 0.043069 283.89 309.73 1.0705 0.036373 282.87 308.33 1.0549 80 0.054331 293.64 320.80 1.1162 0.044710 292.73 319.55 1.0987 0.037829 291.80 318.28 1.0835 90 0.056205 302.51 330.61 1.1436 0.046318 301.67 329.46 1.1264 0.039250 300.82 328.29 1.1114

100 0.058053 311.50 340.53 1.1705 0.047900 310.73 339.47 1.1536 0.040642 309.95 338.40 1.1389 110 0.059880 320.63 350.57 1.1971 0.049458 319.91 349.59 1.1803 0.042010 319.19 348.60 1.1658 120 0.061687 329.89 360.73 1.2233 0.050997 329.23 359.82 1.2067 0.043358 328.55 358.90 1.1924 130 0.063479 339.29 371.03 1.2491 0.052519 338.67 370.18 1.2327 0.044688 338.04 369.32 1.2186 140 0.065256 348.83 381.46 1.2747 0.054027 348.25 380.66 1.2584 0.046004 347.66 379.86 1.2444 150 0.067021 358.51 392.02 1.2999 0.055522 357.96 391.27 1.2838 0.047306 357.41 390.52 1.2699 160 0.068775 368.33 402.72 1.3249 0.057006 367.81 402.01 1.3088 0.048597 367.29 401.31 1.2951

P  0.80 MPa (Tsat  31.31°C) P  0.90 MPa (Tsat  35.51°C) P  1.00 MPa (Tsat  39.37°C)

Sat. 0.025621 246.79 267.29 0.9183 0.022683 248.85 269.26 0.9169 0.020313 250.68 270.99 0.9156 40 0.027035 254.82 276.45 0.9480 0.023375 253.13 274.17 0.9327 0.020406 251.30 271.71 0.9179 50 0.028547 263.86 286.69 0.9802 0.024809 262.44 284.77 0.9660 0.021796 260.94 282.74 0.9525 60 0.029973 272.83 296.81 1.0110 0.026146 271.60 295.13 0.9976 0.023068 270.32 293.38 0.9850 70 0.031340 281.81 306.88 1.0408 0.027413 280.72 305.39 1.0280 0.024261 279.59 303.85 1.0160 80 0.032659 290.84 316.97 1.0698 0.028630 289.86 315.63 1.0574 0.025398 288.86 314.25 1.0458 90 0.033941 299.95 327.10 1.0981 0.029806 299.06 325.89 1.0860 0.026492 298.15 324.64 1.0748

100 0.035193 309.15 337.30 1.1258 0.030951 308.34 336.19 1.1140 0.027552 307.51 335.06 1.1031 110 0.036420 318.45 347.59 1.1530 0.032068 317.70 346.56 1.1414 0.028584 316.94 345.53 1.1308 120 0.037625 327.87 357.97 1.1798 0.033164 327.18 357.02 1.1684 0.029592 326.47 356.06 1.1580 130 0.038813 337.40 368.45 1.2061 0.034241 336.76 367.58 1.1949 0.030581 336.11 366.69 1.1846 140 0.039985 347.06 379.05 1.2321 0.035302 346.46 378.23 1.2210 0.031554 345.85 377.40 1.2109 150 0.041143 356.85 389.76 1.2577 0.036349 356.28 389.00 1.2467 0.032512 355.71 388.22 1.2368 160 0.042290 366.76 400.59 1.2830 0.037384 366.23 399.88 1.2721 0.033457 365.70 399.15 1.2623 170 0.043427 376.81 411.55 1.3080 0.038408 376.31 410.88 1.2972 0.034392 375.81 410.20 1.2875 180 0.044554 386.99 422.64 1.3327 0.039423 386.52 422.00 1.3221 0.035317 386.04 421.36 1.3124

P  1.20 MPa (Tsat  46.29°C) P  1.40 MPa (Tsat  52.40°C) P  1.60 MPa (Tsat  57.88°C)

Sat. 0.016715 253.81 273.87 0.9130 0.014107 256.37 276.12 0.9105 0.012123 258.47 277.86 0.9078 50 0.017201 257.63 278.27 0.9267 60 0.018404 267.56 289.64 0.9614 0.015005 264.46 285.47 0.9389 0.012372 260.89 280.69 0.9163 70 0.019502 277.21 300.61 0.9938 0.016060 274.62 297.10 0.9733 0.013430 271.76 293.25 0.9535 80 0.020529 286.75 311.39 1.0248 0.017023 284.51 308.34 1.0056 0.014362 282.09 305.07 0.9875 90 0.021506 296.26 322.07 1.0546 0.017923 294.28 319.37 1.0364 0.015215 292.17 316.52 1.0194

100 0.022442 305.80 332.73 1.0836 0.018778 304.01 330.30 1.0661 0.016014 302.14 327.76 1.0500 110 0.023348 315.38 343.40 1.1118 0.019597 313.76 341.19 1.0949 0.016773 312.07 338.91 1.0795 120 0.024228 325.03 354.11 1.1394 0.020388 323.55 352.09 1.1230 0.017500 322.02 350.02 1.1081 130 0.025086 334.77 364.88 1.1664 0.021155 333.41 363.02 1.1504 0.018201 332.00 361.12 1.1360 140 0.025927 344.61 375.72 1.1930 0.021904 343.34 374.01 1.1773 0.018882 342.05 372.26 1.1632 150 0.026753 354.56 386.66 1.2192 0.022636 353.37 385.07 1.2038 0.019545 352.17 383.44 1.1900 160 0.027566 364.61 397.69 1.2449 0.023355 363.51 396.20 1.2298 0.020194 362.38 394.69 1.2163 170 0.028367 374.78 408.82 1.2703 0.024061 373.75 407.43 1.2554 0.020830 372.69 406.02 1.2421 180 0.029158 385.08 420.07 1.2954 0.024757 384.10 418.76 1.2807 0.021456 383.11 417.44 1.2676

906 | Thermodynamics

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Appendix 1 | 907

20

10

4

1

0.1

0.04

0.02

0.01 100 150 200 250 300 350 400

Enthalpy, kJ/kg

Pr es

su re

, M Pa

450 500 550 600 650 700 750

100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750

0.2

0.4

2

20

10

4

1

0.1

0.04

0.02

0.01

0.2

R-134a

T =

0 T

= 0°°CC

2020

––2020

––4040

––6060

4040

6060

8080

100

15 00

0. 64

0. 1

0. 2 0. 3

0. 4

0. 6

0. 7

0. 8

0. 9

–4 0 –2

0 0 2 0 40 6

0 80 1 00 12

0

14 0

T =

1 60

°C

18 0 20 0

2. 48

2. 64

2. 72s =

2 .5

6 22

0

24 0

26 0

28 0

30 0

sa tu

ra te

d va

po r

X =

0 .5

0. 72

0. 80

0. 88

sa tu

ra te

d liq

ui ds

0. 96

1. 04

1. 12

1. 20

1. 28

1. 36

1. 44

1. 52

1. 60

1. 68

1. 76

1. 84

1. 92

2. 00

2. 08

2. 24

2. 32

2. 40

2. 48

s =

2. 16

k J/

kg K

14 50

14 00

13 50

13 00

12 50

12 00

k g/

m 3

11 50

11 00

10 50

10 00 95

0 90

0 85

0 80 0

70 0

600 500

400 300

160

120

90

70 60 50

40

32

24

16

12

8

6

Densityh = 200 kg/m

3

4

3.2

2.4

1.6

1.2

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.3

T =

0°C

20

–20

–40

–60

40

60

80

60 8 0 10

0

T =

1 60

°C

18 0 20 0

s 2

.1 6

kJ /k

g

Density = 200 kg/

3

0.4

2

FIGURE A–14 P-h diagram for refrigerant-134a.

Note: The reference point used for the chart is different than that used in the R-134a tables. Therefore, problems should be solved using all property data either from the tables or from the chart, but not from both.

Reprinted by permission of American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., Atlanta, GA.

cen84959_ap01.qxd 4/27/05 2:59 PM Page 907

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