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RECAP Lecture 7

FA of **EVEN EVEN, **FA corresponding to finite
languages(using both methods), Transition
graphs.

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Recap Definition of TG continued …

**Definition: **A Transition graph (TG), is a
collection of the followings
1)Finite number of states, at least one of which

is start state and some (maybe none) final states.

2)Finite set of input letters (Σ) from which input strings are formed.

3)Finite set of transitions that show how to go from one state to another based on reading specified substrings of input letters, possibly even the null string (Λ).

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Note

It is to be noted that in TG there may exist more than one paths for certain string, while there may not exist any path for certain string as well. If there exists at least one path for a certain string, starting from initial state and ending in a final state, the string is supposed to be accepted by the TG, otherwise the string is supposed to be rejected. Obviously collection of accepted strings is the language accepted by the TG.

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Example

Consider the Language L , defined over
Σ = {a, b} of **all strings including Λ.** The
language L may be accepted by the following
TG

The language L may also be accepted by the

following TG

a,b

+ Λ

a,b

**-
**

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Example Continued …

TG1

TG2

a,b

±

a,b

+

±

a,b

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Example

Consider the following TGs

**-
**

**-**

a,b

**-**

a,b

a,b

TG3

TG2

TG1

1

1

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Example Continued …

It may be observed that in the first TG, no transition has been shown. Hence this TG does not accept any string, defined over any alphabet. In TG2 there are transitions for a and b at initial state but there is no transition at state 1. This TG still does not accept any string. In TG3 there are transitions at both initial state and state 1, but it does not accept any string.

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Example Continued …

Thus none of TG1, TG2 and TG3 accepts any string, i.e. these TGs accept empty language. It may be noted that TG1 and TG2 are TGs but not FA, while TG3 is both TG and FA as well.

It may be noted that every FA is a TG as well, but the converse may not be true, i.e. every TG may not be an FA.

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Example

Consider the language L of strings, defined over
Σ={a, b}, **starting with b. **The language L
may be expressed by RE b(a + b)* , may be
accepted by the following TG

b ––

+

a,b

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Example

Consider the language L of strings, defined over
Σ={a, b}, **not****ending in b. **The language L
may be expressed by RE Λ + (a + b)*a , may be
accepted by the following TG

a ––

+

a,b

+

Λ

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Task solution …

Using the technique discussed by Martin, build an FA accepting the following language

L = {w {a,b}*: length(w) 2 and second letter of w, from right is a}.

**Solution:**The language L may be expressed
by the regular expression
(a+b)*(aa+ab)

This language may be accepted by the following FA

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Task continued … a

a

b

a

b

Λ

a

b a

a

a

b

b

b

b

a b

ab

ba

bb

aa

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Task solution …

Using the technique discussed by Martin, build an FA accepting the following language

L = {w {a,b}*: w neither ends in **ab **norin**
ba**}.
**Solution:**The language L may be expressed by

the regular expression Λ + a + b + (a+b)*(aa+bb)

This language may be accepted by the following FA

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Task continued … a

a

b

a

a

b

a

a

b

b

b

b

a b

ab

ba

b

a

Λ

bb

aa

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TASK

Build a TG accepting the language of strings,
defined over Σ={a, b}, **ending in b. **

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Example

Consider the Language L of strings,
defined over Σ = {a, b}, **containing
double a.
**

The language L may be expressed by the following regular expression

(a+b)* (aa) (a+b)*. This language may be accepted by the following TG

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Example Continued …

b,a

1**- **2+

b,a

aa

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Example

Consider the language L of strings, defined over
Σ={a, b}, **having double a or double b**.

The language L can be expressed by RE (a+b)* (aa + bb) (a+b)*.

The above language may also be expressed by the following TGs.

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a

b

a

b

a,b

––

+

x

y

a,b

Example continued …

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OR

aa,bb

a,b a,b

+ **-
**

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OR

aa

a,b a,b

2+ 1-

bb

a,b a,b

4+ 3-

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Note

In the above TG if the states are not labeled then it may not be considered to be a single TG

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Summing Up

**TG definition, Examples:accepting all
strings, accepting none, starting with b,
not ending in b, containing aa, containing
aa or bb
**

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