Women and SportsNotesHistoryofWomen, Lecture notes for Art. Pennsylvania State University (PA)

Women and SportsNotesHistoryofWomen, Lecture notes for Art. Pennsylvania State University (PA)

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The History of Women in Sports
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Women and Sports (Kinesiology and Women’s studies)

The history of women in sports

History tradition and feminist movement

History Sports tends to be for a male audience Focuses of competitiveness (men's sports are still considered more dramatic/more exciting) Very statistically based When women rebel, women call for men to notice and be aware of them

Tradition Male dominated societies Political ideology (Olympics)

Sports is a recommended activity

Feminist movement For many years exercise was considered unnatural for women (which is

obviously not true) Womans body considered weak

In modern Olympics, women's first time was not a success Governing and power struggles of women's sport

Behavior and social changes and influences Journals magazines other media made for women by women

Class structure issues

Redefining sports for women First competitions were spinning yarn......

Participation was key at first skill level was not important just tried to bond and grow women's sports

Competitiveness was not important “play for plays sake”

What is participation? Being involved in an activity Defined the same way no matter the gender

But can be perceived differently

Theorists Verte sky

1800s reactions to some who exercise males need to control and dominate

Once women went throug menopause, they were no longer useful

Lenskyj Tried to explain why male experts rationalized restriction in

women based on religion or body differences

Cahn Femininity means heterosexual

What is sport? Organized game

Competition Can have spectators

Ancient world sport Can be seen through cave drawings and hieroglyphics

Worship of goddesses Some cultures had more partnerships

When it comes to survival less differences Ancient Greece

Borrow ideas from other cultures No real power in society but some power in family

Sparta Very progress Women were considered bold strong masculine

Head of households much of the time Gender equality based on necessity

Women could own land

THE MIDDLE ages Start of past times like swimming aerobics

Women wanted to be more active

Tuesday 4th

17th-19th century Europe (Britain) Major differences between men and women Women have no economic or political rights Puritan Subdays-no activity Women did get involved in boxing 1768 Bruising peg 1799 spectators to women's boxing Mrs ruff vs Ms. Glass Women were able to win money 40 pounds Success in women's wrestling Margaret Evans wrestled into her 70s Other women's activities Hunting, cockfights, horse racing, co-Ed cricket

17th/18th Century 90% of population was commoners This led to little to no time for recreational activities In Germany- hunts dancing skating Evidence of sports in holland, Venice, and Sweden for women as well

Views on Physical education Locke (1693)- sound mind, sound body, tabla rosa There are no real differences between men and women Equal ability Rousseau(1770)- devote time to PE, excessive, games Promoted activity to all population In Spain during (1790)- attention to better diets and excessive for girls and women

Capt John Smith- viewed that women could work in community, as they were "very strong and of able body and full of agility"

Early American Women (colonial and Victorian ages) Immigrants from Europe Western Pioneers Enslaved black women All of these types of women depend on their bodies for survival Hauling water, chopping wood, tending crops

Middle to Upper Class Women in Early America Desired high social status This meant they needed attachment to a man -no legal rights -no property rights Pale skin was desired, weakness was a sign of success -ability to stay inside and do nothing was regarded in highest standards

-looking for "good wives" - ornamental spectators - only used to bear children preferably males - some women did start to run "ordinaries" and hotels/taverns - recreation only grew from rituals of daily life (based off of necessity)

Native American Women -recognized for strength and endurance - had more rights, closer to equality - had time for recreation -ball games and dances -lacrosse became an intertribal game but women remained spectators -more acceptance of group,participation

1670s-1720s Major shift in recreation -Harvest festivals and gatherings -song and dance, socialization was key to sport at this time -genteel culture -races and spectators to fist fights -spectators to urban entertainment (tightrope)

18th century African American Women - Labrorers -held their own dances games and races -worked to build community within pla ratio s Escape attempts? Possibly considered as sport due to physical activity -interesting statement?

18th century Southern Women Horse racing against men Most common sport at this time women were able to watch and even win money in these competitions -other activities included cards, gambling, paddling, riverboat races, dancing

Eliza Pinckey-SC Slave from SC Documentation of daily life at plantation Heavily broken down schedule of a slaves daily life Time for reading studies of French, hunting,fishing,skating,walking As women became more active there was also more time to educate themselves

Post revolution Fishing, dances,swimming, skating, walking,the advent of gymnastic (barbells in 1810) Capitalist movement broadens economy during industrialization Thoughts at this time women were still considered physically inferior but morally superior Because their bodies weren't involved their morals werent diminished ?

19th Century Women Women had to be involved in daily life Stanton promoted suffrage way before her time Women began negotiating Better health and medicine Live longer and less children The idea that women should become physical educators This way women can teach other women In medical field women are still considered fragile and lacking in health Lacked any real knowledge

Medical knowledge during 1800s Physicians said During menstrual cycle said that it was unhealthy to do any type of activity When pregnant once should be bed ridden for whole 9 months Unless working class, no time to rest All sickness was traced back to ovaries and uterus Very little science or knowledge of how bodies work

Antebellum Beliefs Rural=strenuous life But more activities Pioneer women Run, work, hunt, hike all with men Health reform Changes of views of hygiene and excessive Women need more excessive

Barriers to Physical education Physiology, fashion, social expectations -corsets, long skirts touching the ground, hoop skirts Very difficult to move let alone participate in activity

Women's schools - value and promote daily female excessive and education More prevalent in Northeast

Troy female seminary 1821 Emma hart Willard- daily PE walking ride dance Hartford Female Seminary 1824 Catherine Beecher- vigorous calisthenics Western Frmalr institute 1833-37 Beecher Mount Holyoke 1862 Lewis - new gymnastic Normal Institue Lewis- trained women to teach physical activity

Gymnastics Therapeutic gymnastics Calisthenics based Open air gymnastics More dance German system Rings, balance beam, tight rope Sargent gymnastics Combination of all types plus added strength Many people still believed it was indignities for women to develop muscles and to show athletic prowess

Beliefs in 1850s-WW1 Intellectual education was considered overtaxing to women Loss of energy and reproductive strength due to blood flow to brain Lost strength through evolution Lose energy more quickly. May be true due to. It letting women exercise ( no edurance) Studying- big brains and little bodies Contradictory The idea of being athletic would make women more manly

1860s-1900 Archery,lawn tennis, golf, horseback riding, bowling, boating, canoeing, roller skating, swimming, bicycling, field hockey Lawdy Dawn- helped to change garments for women, didn't like her long dress so she lifted her hemline

Industrialization Women were allowed to be more economically involved Especially during WW1. 26% in workforce Gymnasiums for women too YMCA/YWCA Women could have independence and meaning

Gibson Girl 1880s, 1900s Artist who showed a tall vigorous commanding women On cover of Life magazine Symbol of new woman Active , sports encouraged, freedom of behavior, in workforce The roots of women's suffrage began here

Intro of Women's Collegiate sport Vasser, smith, Welles.ey, Bryan Mawr

Schools with priority in PE 1882 finds college girls to be more healthy 1890s almost all colleges had PE More opportunity to women and sports

1886 Croquet Craze Becomes team sport Co-Ed teams

Bicycling -real changes Mobility, transportation, makes things faster roads are improved Clothing changes Liberated women from corsets and hoop skirt Danger! Bicycle face 1895- considered national past time 1819 velocipedeno pedals 1876 high wheel bike 1880 tricycle - expensive 1890s low wheel bicycle (safety bike) Fight for bloomers and shortened hemlines

Basketball 1821 Springfield, MA start of ball 1892 Sarah Benson Smith introduces to women. It idiocies rules No contact 1960 led to end of modified rules 1896 first Collegtiate game cal vs Stanford 1899 official women's rule book Was very competitive and popular Idea of persistence and team work Female physical educators Normal Institute 1861 Boston normal school of gymnastics 1889 Cambridge 1881 American assoc. for advancement of PE 18856/45 founders were female

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