20th Century Second part, Apuntes de Historia. ESERP Barcelona
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20th Century Second part, Apuntes de Historia. ESERP Barcelona

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Asignatura: history, Profesor: Laura Laura, Carrera: Publicitat i Relacions Públiques (ESERP), Universidad: ESERP BCN
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TwentiethCenturyPartI (1) (1) 2

Advertising &

Propaganda

1900-1950

AIMS

1. 20th century: wars and crisis.

2. New technological developments: car, radio, film.

3. Rise of propaganda and war advertising.

4. Advertising as a scientific discipline.

5. Posters and billboards.

6. Film, radio and advertising.

AIMS

1. 20th century: wars and crisis.

2. New technological developments: car, radio, film.

3. Rise of propaganda and war advertising.

4. Advertising as a scientific discipline.

5. Posters and billboards.

6. Film, radio and advertising.

Advertising as a Scientific Discipline

Historical Precedents

History of Advertising from the earliest timeswas published in 1874 (19th Century).

•It was written by Henry Sampson.

https://archive.org/details/ahistoryadverti00sampgoog

Why Study Advertising?

• Great success of recruitment of soldiers for WW1 showed that propaganda techniques were very useful.

• Introduction of psychologist in the process of advertising making.

• Due to the vigorous economical situation in the rising 20s (before to the Wall Street collapse), some universities try to implement interdisciplinary programmes devoted to the study of advertising.

• The first University to host an Advertising bachelor was the Northwestern University.

Why Study Advertising?

Walter Dill Scott (1869 - 1955)

• He was a psychologist. He applied psychology to advertising.

• He was president of Northwestern University. • He published in 1908 The Psychology of

Advertising, the first book that suggested that advertisers should include psychologist in their teams: The US army did it for the first time for the WWI Division of Pictorial Publicity. It was an  independent agency  of the government of the United States created to influence  public opinion  to support  US participation in World War I

Walter Dill Scott (1869 - 1955)

“Mental attitude is more important than mental capacity”

Walter D. Scott

Daniel Starch (1883 - 1979)

• He was an American psychologist and marketing researcher. He’s considering one of the pioneers of marketing and consumer research in the early 20th Century.

• Daniel Starch introduced research inside advertising agencies.

• He published in 1923 Principles of Advertising, one of the first major books in Advertising Science.

Albert Lasker 1880-1952

• Was an American businessman who played a major role in shaping modern advertising.

• He made Lord & Thomas Agency the most successfully Agency in the USA by introducing a department of market research.

• He was also a pioneer of electoral campaign: advisor of 1920 electoral campaign for Republican Warren Harding.

Albert Lasker 1880-1952

1920 Presidential election results map. Red denotes states won by Harding/Coolidge, blue denotes those won by Cox/Roosevelt. Numbers indicate the number of electoral votes allotted to each state.

Posters &

Billboards

Posters & Billboards

• More direct and concrete posters, looking for the advertising effectiveness.

• The most important thing is THE PRODUCT.

• Birth of a new profession: advertising poster.

• During the tumultuous inter-war years a new generation of French graphic designers came to fore, among them were the "Fab-Four of French Graphic Design“; Cassandre, Colin, Carlu and Loupot who redefined the French school of graphic design by developing a French constructivism genre that was mainly influenced by cubism.

France

Cassandre (1901-1968), pseudonym of Adolphe Mouron.

• He was born in Ukraine to French parents. He moved to Paris when she was young and he started his career in Paris.

• Applied his avant-garde ideas, especially his predilection for Cubism as well as Surrealism.

• For him, the poster is an “announcing machine”.

France

Cassandre (1901-1968).

Campaign for French Railways (1927)

France

Cassandre (1901-1968).

Dubo, Dubon, Dubonnet (1934)

France

Jean Carlu (1900-1997)

• Was a French graphic designer, specialised in posters.

• From 1919 until 1921 he served as an illustrator. In 1921 he designed his first art deco poster for the film ‘The Kid’ by Charlie Chaplin.

• He was attracted by cubism and by the works of Juan Gris and Albert Gleizes.

• He was one of the first who realised that to fix a trademark in the minds of consumers a process needs to be gone through in which schematic forms and expressive colours are applied. 

• For him, the poster is an “announcing machine”.

France

Jean Carlu (1900-1997).

1927 1926

France

Jean Carlu (1900-1997).

1921

France

Paul Colin (1892-1986).

• He was one of the France's greatest artists and he was a master of Art Deco poster.

• Hi is best known for his poster for La Revue Nègre in 1925.

• Colin designed posters for many other theatres, including The Moulin Rouge.

• He produced posters for festivals and exhibitions, transport and travel companies, the Wiener and Docet Piano Company, the French Loterie Nationale,  and products such as cigarettes and alcohol.

France

Paul Colin (1892-1986).

19381925

France

• Charles Loupot (1892-1962).

• His first posters were created in  in Lausanne, Switzerland. 

•Loupot's talent soon became obvious, and the number of commissions he received after 1918 for fashion and luxury goods makes it clear that his elegant and colorful designs were well sought after.

•By 1923 his reputation had grown and he left Lausanne to work in Paris and became instantly famous thanks to two posters for Voisin Automobiles. 

•He initially used pictorial effects but his style took up elements of cubism and became strictly graphic. From 1947 he was in charge of the corporate image of Saint-Raphaël Apéritif and ran Saint-Raphaël’s advertising studio from 1955.

France

Charles Loupot (1892-1962).

1930 In 1936, Charles Loupot worked for the brand d’apéritif Saint-Raphaël, for which he redesigned the entire brand image

Italy

Leonetto Capiello (1875-1942).

1920 1925

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