API 650 12 edition Addendum 2, Otro de Hidráulica. Universidad de Buenos Aires
nehomar-montevideo
nehomar-montevideo4 de septiembre de 2017

API 650 12 edition Addendum 2, Otro de Hidráulica. Universidad de Buenos Aires

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Date: January 2016 To: Purchasers of API Standard 650, Welded Tanks for Oil Storage, Twelfth Edition Re: Addendum 2

This package contains Addendum 2 of API Standard 650, Welded Tanks for Oil Storage, Twelfth Edition. This package consists of the pages that have changed since Addendum 1 September 2014. Included pages incorporate Errata 2.

To update your copy of API Standard 650, replace, delete, or add the following pages as indicated:

Part of Book Changed Old Pages to be Replaced New Pages

Cover front and back covers front and back covers

Front Matter iii + blank iii + blank vii to xiii + blank vii to xiii + blank

Section 1 1-1–1-5 + blank 1-1–1-4

Section 2 2-1–2-2 2-1–2-2

Section 3 3-1–3-5 + blank 3-1–3-5 + blank

Section 4 4-1–4-18 4-1–4-18

Section 5 5-1–5-4 5-1–5-4 5-7–5-12 5-7–5-12 5-15–5-16 5-15–5-16 5-19–5-20 5-19–5-20 5-27–5-38 5-27–5-38 5-45–5-48 5-45–5-48 5-51–5-102 5-51–5-108

Section 6 6-1–6-2 6-1–6-2

Section 7 7-1–7-11 + blank 7-1–7-13 + blank

Section 8 8-1–8-4 8-1–8-4 8-7–8-8 8-7–8-8

Section 10 10-1–10-2 10-1–10-2

Page 2 Annex A A-1–A-2 A-1–A-2 A-7–A-8 A-7–A-8

Annex AL AL-13–AL-14 AL-13–AL-14 AL-23–AL-25 + blank AL-23–AL-26

Annex B B-5–B-6 B-5–B-6

Annex C C-1–C-6 C-1–C-6

Annex D D-3–D-4 D-3–D-4

Annex E E-5–E-6 E-5–E-6 E-25–E-28 E-25–E-28

Annex EC EC-13–EC-14 EC-13–EC-14

Annex F F-1–F-7 + blank F-1–F-9 + blank

Annex G G-5–G-10 G-5–G-10

Annex H H-11–H-12 H-11–H-12

Annex I I-9–I-10 I-9–I-10

Annex J J-1–J-5 + blank J-1–J-5 + blank

Annex L L-3–L-12 L-3–L-12 L-17–L-22 L-17–L-22 L-25–L-30 L-25–L-30

Annex M M-1–M-6 M-1–M-6

Annex O O-1–O-4 O-1–O-4

Annex P P-15–P-16 P-15–P-16 P-23–P-25 + blank P-23–P-25 + blank

Annex R (new) n/a R-1–R-2

Annex S S-7–S-8 S-7–S-8 S-11–S-12 S-11–S-12

Annex SC SC-1–SC-2 SC-1–SC-2

Annex T T-1–T-4 T-1–T-4

Annex U U-1–U-4 U-1–U-4

Page 3 Annex V V-1–V-12 V-1–V-12 V-19–V-24 V-19–V-24

Annex W W-1–W-2 W-1–W-2

Annex X X-1–X-13 + blank X-1–X-13 + blank The parts of the text, tables, and figures that contain Addendum 2 changes are indicated by a vertical bar and a small “15” in the margin.

Welded Tanks for Oil Storage

API STANDARD 650 TWELFTH EDITION, MARCH 2013

ADDENDUM 1, SEPTEMBER 2014 ADDENDUM 2, JANUARY 2016 ERRATA 1, JULY 2013 ERRATA 2, DECEMBER 2014

Special Notes

API publications necessarily address problems of a general nature. With respect to particular circumstances, local, state, and federal laws and regulations should be reviewed.

Neither API nor any of API's employees, subcontractors, consultants, committees, or other assignees make any warranty or representation, either express or implied, with respect to the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of the information contained herein, or assume any liability or responsibility for any use, or the results of such use, of any information or process disclosed in this publication. Neither API nor any of API's employees, subcontractors, consultants, or other assignees represent that use of this publication would not infringe upon privately owned rights.

API publications may be used by anyone desiring to do so. Every effort has been made by the Institute to assure the accuracy and reliability of the data contained in them; however, the Institute makes no representation, warranty, or guarantee in connection with this publication and hereby expressly disclaims any liability or responsibility for loss or damage resulting from its use or for the violation of any authorities having jurisdiction with which this publication may conflict.

API publications are published to facilitate the broad availability of proven, sound engineering and operating practices. These publications are not intended to obviate the need for applying sound engineering judgment regarding when and where these publications should be utilized. The formulation and publication of API publications is not intended in any way to inhibit anyone from using any other practices.

Any manufacturer marking equipment or materials in conformance with the marking requirements of an API standard is solely responsible for complying with all the applicable requirements of that standard. API does not represent, warrant, or guarantee that such products do in fact conform to the applicable API standard.

API is not undertaking to meet the duties of employers, manufacturers, or suppliers to warn and properly train and equip their employees, and others exposed, concerning health and safety risks and precautions, nor undertaking their obligations to comply with authorities having jurisdiction.

All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced, translated, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission from the publisher. Contact the

Publisher, API Publishing Services, 1220 L Street, NW, Washington, DC 20005.

Copyright © 2016 American Petroleum Institute

Notice

Instructions for Submitting a Proposed Revision to this Standard Under Continuous Maintenance

The American Petroleum Institute maintains this standard under continuous maintenance procedures. These procedures establish a documented program for regular publication of addenda or revisions, including timely and documented consensus action on requests for revisions to any part of the standard. See Annex D for additional information. Proposed revisions shall be submitted to the Director, Standards Department, American Petroleum Institute, 1220 L Street, NW, Washington, D.C. 20005-4070, standards@api.org.

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1 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-1 1.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-1 1.2 Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-3 1.3 Responsibilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-4 1.4 Documentation Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-4 1.5 Formulas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-4

2 Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-1

3 Terms and Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-1

4 Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-1 4.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-1 4.2 Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-2 4.3 Sheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-9 4.4 Structural Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-9 4.5 Piping and Forgings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-14 4.6 Flanges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-17 4.7 Bolting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-17 4.8 Welding Electrodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-17 4.9 Gaskets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-18

5 Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-1 5.1 Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-1 5.2 Design Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-9 5.3 Special Considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-12 5.4 Bottom Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-14 5.5 Annular Bottom Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-15 5.6 Shell Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-17 5.7 Shell Openings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-27 5.8 Shell Attachments and Tank Appurtenances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-67 5.9 Top and Intermediate Stiffening Rings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-80 5.10 Roofs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-91 5.11 Wind Load on Tanks (Overturning Stability) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-98 5.12 Tank Anchorage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-100 5.13 Downward Reactions on Foundations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-107

6 Fabrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-1 6.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-1 6.2 Shop Inspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-2

7 Erection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-1 7.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-1 7.2 Details of Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-1 7.3 Examination, Inspection, and Repairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-5 7.4 Repairs to Welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-11 7.5 Dimensional Tolerances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-11

8 Methods of Examining Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-1 8.1 Radiographic Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-1 8.2 Magnetic Particle Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-5 8.3 Ultrasonic Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-5 8.4 Liquid Penetrant Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-5

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8.5 Visual Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-6 8.6 Vacuum Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-7

9 Welding Procedure and Welder Qualifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-1 9.1 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-1 9.2 Qualification of Welding Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-1 9.3 Qualification of Welders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-2 9.4 Identification of Welded Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-3

10 Marking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10-1 10.1 Nameplates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10-1 10.2 Division of Responsibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10-3 10.3 Certification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10-3 Annex A (normative) Optional Design Basis for Small Tanks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-1 Annex AL (normative) Aluminum Storage Tanks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AL-1 Annex B (informative) Recommendations for Design and Construction of Foundations for

Aboveground Oil Storage Tanks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-1 Annex C (normative) External Floating Roofs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-1 Annex D (informative) Inquiries and Suggestions for Change. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-1 Annex E (normative) Seismic Design of Storage Tanks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-1 Annex EC (informative) Commentary on Annex E. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EC-1 Annex F (normative) Design of Tanks for Small Internal Pressures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .F-1 Annex G (normative) Structurally-Supported Aluminum Dome Roofs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-1 Annex H (normative) Internal Floating Roofs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-1 Annex I (normative) Undertank Leak Detection and Subgrade Protection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I-1 Annex J (normative) Shop-Assembled Storage Tanks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .J-1 Annex K (informative) Sample Applications of the Variable-Design-Point Method to Determine

Shell-Plate Thickness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . K-1 Annex L (normative) API Standard 650 Storage Tank Data Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .L-1 Annex M (normative) Requirements for Tanks Operating at Elevated Temperatures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M-1 Annex N (normative) Use of New Materials That Are Not Identified . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . N-1 Annex O (normative) Under-Bottom Connections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O-1 Annex P (normative) Allowable External Loads on Tank Shell Openings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P-1 Annex R (informative) References for Tanks in Non-petroleum Product Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R-1 Annex S (normative) Austenitic Stainless Steel Storage Tanks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S-1 Annex SC (normative) Stainless and Carbon Steel Mixed Materials Storage Tanks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SC-1 Annex T (informative) NDE Requirements Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .T-1 Annex U (normative) Ultrasonic Examination in Lieu of Radiography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . U-1 Annex V (normative) Design of Storage Tanks for External Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V-1 Annex W (normative) Commercial and Documentation Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . W-1 Annex X (normative) Duplex Stainless Steel Storage Tanks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X-1 Annex Y (normative) API Monogram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Y-1

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Figures 4.1a Minimum Permissible Design Metal Temperature for Materials Used in Tank Shells

without Impact Testing (SI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-7 4.1b Minimum Permissible Design Metal Temperature for Materials Used in Tank Shells

without Impact Testing (USC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-8 4.2 Isothermal Lines of Lowest One-Day Mean Temperatures (°F) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-10 4.3 Governing Thickness for Impact Test Determination of Shell Nozzle and Manhole Materials . . . . . .4-16 5.1 Typical Vertical Shell Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-3 5.2 Typical Horizontal Shell Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-4 5.3a Typical Roof and Bottom Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-5 5.3b Method for Preparing Lap-welded Bottom Plates under Tank Shell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-6 5.3c Detail of Double Fillet-groove Weld for Annular Bottom Plates with a Nominal Thickness

Greater than 13 mm (1/2 in.). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-6 5.3d Spacing of Three-Plate Welds at Annular Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-7 5.4 Storage Tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-13 5.5 Drip Ring (Suggested Detail) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-14 5.6 Minimum Weld Requirements for Openings in Shells According to 5.7.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-28 5.7a Shell Manhole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-34 5.7b Details of Shell Manholes and Nozzles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-35 5.8 Shell Nozzles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-36 5.9 Minimum Spacing of Welds and Extent of Related Radiographic Examination. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-50 5.10 Shell Nozzle Flanges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-52 5.11 Area Coefficient for Determining Minimum Reinforcement of Flush-type Cleanout Fittings . . . . . . .5-54 5.12 Flush-Type Cleanout Fittings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-55 5.13 Flush-type Cleanout Fitting Supports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-56 5.14 Flush-type Shell Connection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-63 5.15 Rotation of Shell Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-66 5.16 Roof Manholes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-70 5.17 Rectangular Roof Openings with Flanged Covers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-74 5.18 Rectangular Roof Openings with Hinged Cover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-75 5.19 Flanged Roof Nozzles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-76 5.20 Threaded Roof Nozzles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-76 5.21 Drawoff Sump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-76 5.22 Scaffold Cable Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-77 5.23 Grounding Lug . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-81 5.24 Typical Stiffening-ring Sections for Tank Shells. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-84 5.25 Stairway Opening through Stiffening Ring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-87 5.26 Some Acceptable Column Base Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-95 5.27 Overturning Check for Unanchored Tanks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-98 5.28 Typical Anchor Chair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-104 5.29 Typical Anchor Strap Welded Attachment (for Carbon Steel Tank) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-105 5.30 Typical Hold-Down Strap Configuration (for Carbon Steel Tank). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-106 5.31 Butt Weld Joint with Back-up Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-107 6.1 Shaping of Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-2 8.1 Radiographic Requirements for Tank Shells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-2 10.1 Manufacturer’s Nameplate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10-1 10.2 Manufacturer’s Certification Letter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10-3 AL.1 Cover Plate Thickness for Shell Manholes and Cleanout Fittings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AL-13 AL.2 Flange Plate Thickness for Shell Manholes and Cleanout Fittings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AL-14 AL.3 Bottom Reinforcing Plate Thickness for Cleanout Fittings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AL-15 AL.4 Stresses in Roof Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AL-18 B.1 Example of Foundation with Concrete Ringwall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-4

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B.2 Example of Foundation with Crushed Stone Ringwall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-5 E.1 Coefficient Ci . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-13 EC.1 Maximum Earthquake Response Spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EC-4 EC.2 Earthquake Response Spectrum Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EC-4 EC.3 Site Specific Response Spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EC-5 EC.4 Deterministic Lower Limit on MCE Response Spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EC-5 EC.5 Relationship of Probabilistic and Deterministic Response Spectra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EC-6 EC.6 Sloshing Factor, Ks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EC-7 EC.7 Design Response Spectra for Ground-Supported Liquid Storage Tanks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EC-8 EC.8 Effective Weight of Liquid Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EC-10 EC.9 Center of Action of Effective Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EC-10 EC.10 Overturning Moment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EC-12 F.1 Annex F Decision Tree. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .F-2 F.2 Permissible Details of Compression Rings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .F-3 G.1 Data Sheet for a Structurally-Supported Aluminum Dome Added to an Existing Tank. . . . . . . . . . . . G-2 G.2 Typical Roof Nozzle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-9 I.1 Concrete Ringwall with Undertank Lead Detection at the Tank Perimeter

(Typical Arrangement) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I-2 I.2 Crushed Stone Ringwall with Undertank Leak Detection at the Tank Perimeter

(Typical Arrangement) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I-3 I.3 Earthen Foundation with Undertank Leak Detection at the Tank Perimeter

(Typical Arrangement) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I-3 I.4 Double Steel Bottom with Leak Detection at the Tank Perimeter (Typical Arrangement) . . . . . . . . . . . I-3 I.5 Double Steel Bottom with Leak Detection at the Tank Perimeter (Typical Arrangement) . . . . . . . . . . . I-5 I.6 Reinforced Concrete Slab with Leak Detection at the Perimeter (Typical Arrangement) . . . . . . . . . . . I-5 I.7 Reinforced Concrete Slab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I-6 I.8 Typical Drawoff Sump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I-7 I.9 Center Sump for Downward-Sloped Bottom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I-7 I.10 Typical Leak Detection Wells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I-8 I.11 Tanks Supported by Grillage Members (General Arrangement). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I-9 O.1 Example of Under-Bottom Connection with Concrete Ringwall Foundation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O-3 O.2 Example of Under-Bottom Connection with Concrete Ringwall Foundation and Improved

Tank Bottom and Shell Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O-4 O.3 Example of Under-Bottom Connection with Earth-Type Foundation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O-5 P.1 Nomenclature for Piping Loads and Deformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P-4 P.2a Stiffness Coefficient for Radial Load: Reinforcement on Shell (L/2a = 1.0) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P-6 P.2b Stiffness Coefficient for Longitudinal Moment: Reinforcement on Shell (L/2a = 1.0) . . . . . . . . . . . . . P-6 P.2c Stiffness Coefficient for Circumferential Moment: Reinforcement on Shell (L/2a = 1.0) . . . . . . . . . . . P-7 P.2d Stiffness Coefficient for Radial Load: Reinforcement on Shell (L/2a = 1.5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P-7 P.2e Stiffness Coefficient for Longitudinal Moment: Reinforcement on Shell (L/2a = 1.5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . P-8 P.2f Stiffness Coefficient for Circumferential Moment: Reinforcement on Shell (L/2a = 1.5) . . . . . . . . . . . P-8 P.2g Stiffness Coefficient for Radial Load: Reinforcement in Nozzle Neck Only (L/2a = 1.0) . . . . . . . . . . . P-9 P.2h Stiffness Coefficient for Longitudinal Moment: Reinforcement in Nozzle Neck Only

(L/2a = 1.0) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P-9 P.2i Stiffness Coefficient for Circumferential Moment: Reinforcement in Nozzle Neck Only

(L/2a = 1.0) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P-10 P.2j Stiffness Coefficient for Radial Load: Reinforcement in Nozzle Neck Only (L/2a = 1.5) . . . . . . . . . . P-10 P.2k Stiffness Coefficient for Longitudinal Moment: Reinforcement in Nozzle Neck Only

(L/2a = 1.5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .P-11 P.2l Stiffness Coefficient for Circumferential Moment: Reinforcement in Nozzle Neck Only

(L/2a = 1.5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .P-11

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P.3a Construction of Nomogram for b1, b2, c1, c2 Boundary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P-12 P.3b Construction of Nomogram for b1, c3 Boundary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P-12 P.4a Obtaining Coefficients YF and YL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P-13 P.4b Obtaining Coefficient YC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P-14 P.5a Determination of Allowable Loads from Nomogram: FR and ML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P-15 P.5b Determination of Allowable Loads from Nomogram: FR and MC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P-15 P.6 Low-Type Nozzle with Reinforcement on Shell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P-16 P.7 Allowable-Load Nomograms for Sample Problem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P-21 V.1a Dimensions for Self-Supporting Cone Roof . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .V-6 V.1b Dimensions for Self-Supporting Dome Roof . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .V-9

Tables 1.1 Deleted 4.1 Maximum Permissible Alloy Content. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-5 4.2 Acceptable Grades of Plate Material Produced to National Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-5 4.3a Linear Equations for Figure 4.1a (SI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-9 4.3b Linear Equations for Figure 4.1b (USC). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-9 4.4a Material Groups (SI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-11 4.4b Material Groups (USC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-12 4.5a Minimum Impact Test Requirements for Plates (SI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-13 4.5b Minimum Impact Test Requirements for Plates (USC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-13 5.1a Annular Bottom-Plate Thicknesses (tb) (SI). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-16 5.1b Annular Bottom-Plate Thicknesses (tb) (USC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-16 5.2a Permissible Plate Materials and Allowable Stresses (SI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-18 5.2b Permissible Plate Materials and Allowable Stresses (USC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-20 5.3a Thickness of Shell Manhole Cover Plate and Bolting Flange (SI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-29 5.3b Thickness of Shell Manhole Cover Plate and Bolting Flange (USC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-29 5.4a Dimensions for Shell Manhole Neck Thickness (SI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-30 5.4b Dimensions for Shell Manhole Neck Thickness (USC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-31 5.5a Dimensions for Bolt Circle Diameter Db and Cover Plate Diameter Db for Shell Manholes (SI) . . . . .5-32 5.5b Dimensions for Bolt Circle Diameter Db and Cover Plate Diameter Db for Shell Manholes (USC) . . .5-33 5.6a Dimensions for Shell Nozzles (SI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-37 5.6b Dimensions for Shell Nozzles (USC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-39 5.7a Dimensions for Shell Nozzles: Pipe, Plate, and Welding Schedules (SI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-40 5.7b Dimensions for Shell Nozzles: Pipe, Plate, and Welding Schedules (USC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-42 5.8a Dimensions for Shell Nozzle Flanges (SI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-43 5.8b Dimensions for Shell Nozzle Flanges (USC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-44 5.9a Dimensions for Flush-Type Cleanout Fittings (SI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-45 5.9b Dimensions for Flush-Type Cleanout Fittings (USC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-45 5.10a Minimum Thickness of Cover Plate, Bolting Flange, and Bottom Reinforcing Plate

for Flush-Type Cleanout Fittings (SI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-46 5.10b Minimum Thickness of Cover Plate, Bolting Flange, and Bottom Reinforcing Plate

for Flush-Type Cleanout Fittings (USC). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-46 5.11a Thicknesses and Heights of Shell Reinforcing Plates for Flush-Type Cleanout Fittings (SI) . . . . . . .5-47 5.11b Thicknesses and Heights of Shell Reinforcing Plates for Flush-Type Cleanout Fittings (USC). . . . .5-47 5.12a Dimensions for Flush-Type Shell Connections (SI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-58 5.12b Dimensions for Flush-Type Shell Connections (USC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-59 5.13a Dimensions for Roof Manholes (SI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-69 5.13b Dimensions for Roof Manholes (USC). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-69 5.14a Dimensions for Flanged Roof Nozzles (SI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-72 5.14b Dimensions for Flanged Roof Nozzles (USC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-72 5.15a Dimensions for Threaded Roof Nozzles (SI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-73

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5.15b Dimensions for Threaded Roof Nozzles (USC). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-73 5.16a Dimensions for Drawoff Sumps (SI). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-77 5.16b Dimensions for Drawoff Sumps (USC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-77 5.17 Requirements for Platforms and Walkways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-76 5.18 Requirements for Stairways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-79 5.19a Rise, Run, and Angle Relationships for Stairways (SI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-79 5.19b Rise, Run, and Angle Relationships for Stairways (USC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-80 5.20a Section Moduli (cm3) of Stiffening-Ring Sections on Tank Shells (SI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-85 5.20b Section Moduli (in.3) of Stiffening-Ring Sections on Tank Shells (USC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-86 5.21a Uplift Loads (SI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-101 5.21b Uplift Loads (USC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-102 5.22 Unfactored (Working Stress) Downward Reactions on Foundations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-108 7.1a Minimum Preheat Temperatures (SI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-2 7.1b Minimum Preheat Temperatures (USC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-2 A.1a Typical Sizes and Corresponding Nominal Capacities (m3) for Tanks with 1800-mm

Courses (SI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-2 A.1b Typical Sizes and Corresponding Nominal Capacities (Barrels) for Tanks with 72-in.

Courses (USC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-3 A.2a Shell-Plate Thicknesses (mm) for Typical Sizes of Tanks with 1800-mm Courses (SI) . . . . . . . . . . . . A-4 A.2b Shell-Plate Thicknesses (in.) for Typical Sizes of Tanks with 72-in. Courses (USC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-5 A.3a Typical Sizes and Corresponding Nominal Capacities (m3) for Tanks with 2400-mm

Courses (SI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-6 A.3b Typical Sizes and Corresponding Nominal Capacities (Barrels) for Tanks with 96-in.

Courses (USC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-7 A.4a Shell-Plate Thicknesses (mm) for Typical Sizes of Tanks with 2400-mm Courses (SI) . . . . . . . . . . . . A-8 A.4b Shell-Plate Thicknesses (in.) for Typical Sizes of Tanks with 96-in. Courses (USC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-9 AL.1 Material Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AL-4 AL.2 Joint Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AL-4 AL.3a Minimum Mechanical Properties (SI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AL-5 AL.3b Minimum Mechanical Properties (USC). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AL-6 AL.4a Annular Bottom Plate Thickness (SI). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AL-8 AL.4b Annular Bottom Plate Thickness (USC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AL-9 AL.5a Minimum Shell Thickness (SI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AL-9 AL.5b Minimum Shell Thickness (USC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AL-9 AL.4b Annular Bottom Plate Thickness (USC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AL-9 AL.6a Allowable Tensile Stresses for Tank Shell (for Design and Test) (SI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AL-11 AL.6b Allowable Tensile Stresses for Tank Shell (for Design and Test) (USC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AL-12 AL.7a Allowable Stresses for Roof Plates (SI). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AL-17 AL.7b Allowable Stresses for Roof Plates (USC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AL-17 AL.8a Compressive Moduli of Elasticity E (MPa) at Temperature (°C) (SI). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AL-19 AL.8b Compressive Moduli of Elasticity E (ksi) at Temperature (°F) (USC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AL-19 AL.9a Shell Nozzle Welding Schedule (SI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AL-20 AL.9b Shell Nozzle Welding Schedule (USC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AL-21 E.1 Value of Fa as a Function of Site Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-9 E.2 Value of Fv as a Function of Site Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-9 E.3 Site Classification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-12 E.4 Response Modification Factors for ASD Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-15 E.5 Importance Factor (I ) and Seismic Use Group Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-16 E.6 Anchorage Ratio Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-22 E.7 Minimum Required Freeboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-26 E.8 Design Displacements for Piping Attachments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-27 G.1a Bolts and Fasteners (SI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-4

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G.1b Bolts and Fasteners (USC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-5 J.1a Minimum Roof Depths for Shop-Assembled Dome-Roof Tanks (SI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .J-2 J.1b Minimum Roof Depths for Shop-Assembled Dome-Roof Tanks (USC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .J-3 K.1a Shell-Plate Thicknesses Based on the Variable-Design-Point Method Using 2400-mm

Courses and an Allowable Stress of 159 MPa for the Test Condition (SI). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . K-11 K.1b Shell-Plate Thicknesses Based on the Variable-Design-Point Method Using 96-in.

Courses and an Allowable Stress of 23,000 lbf/in.2 for the Test Condition (USC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . K-12 K.2a Shell-Plate Thicknesses Based on the Variable-Design-Point Method Using 2400-mm

Courses and an Allowable Stress of 208 MPa for the Test Condition (SI). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . K-13 K.2b Shell-Plate Thicknesses Based on the Variable-Design-Point Method Using 96-in.

Courses and an Allowable Stress of 30,000 lbf/in.2 for the Test Condition (USC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . K-14 K.3a Shell-Plate Thicknesses Based on the Variable-Design-Point Method Using 2400-mm

Courses and an Allowable Stress of 236 MPa for the Test Condition (SI). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . K-15 K.3b Shell-Plate Thicknesses Based on the Variable-Design-Point Method Using 96-in.

Courses and an Allowable Stress of 34,300 lbf/in.2 for the Test Condition (USC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . K-16 L.1 Index of Decisions or Actions Which may be Required of the Tank Purchaser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .L-28 M.1a Yield Strength Reduction Factors (SI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M-3 M.1b Yield Strength Reduction Factors (USC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M-3 M.2a Modulus of Elasticity at the Maximum Design Temperature (SI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M-6 M.2b Modulus of Elasticity at the Maximum Design Temperature (USC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M-7 O.1a Dimensions of Under-Bottom Connections (SI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O-2 O.1b Dimensions of Under-Bottom Connections (USC). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O-2 P.1a Modulus of Elasticity and Thermal Expansion Coefficient at the Design Temperature (SI) . . . . . . . . P-3 P.1b Modulus of Elasticity and Thermal Expansion Coefficient at the Design Temperature (USC) . . . . . . P-3 S.1a ASTM Materials for Stainless Steel Components (SI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S-2 S.1b ASTM Materials for Stainless Steel Components (USC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S-3 S.2a Allowable Stresses for Tank Shells (SI). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S-8 S.2b Allowable Stresses for Tank Shells (USC). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S-8 S.3a Allowable Stresses for Plate Ring Flanges (SI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S-9 S.3b Allowable Stresses for Plate Ring Flanges (USC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S-9 S.4 Joint Efficiencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S-10 S.5a Yield Strength Values in MPa (SI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S-10 S.5b Yield Strength Values in psi (USC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S-10 S.6a Modulus of Elasticity at the Maximum Design Temperature (SI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .S-11 S.6b Modulus of Elasticity at the Maximum Design Temperature (USC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .S-11 U.1a Flaw Acceptance Criteria for UT Indications May be Used for All Materials (SI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . U-5 U.1b Flaw Acceptance Criteria for UT Indications May be Used for All Materials (USC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . U-6 X.1 ASTM Materials for Duplex Stainless Steel Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X-2 X.2a Allowable Stresses for Tank Shells (SI). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X-5 X.2b Allowable Stresses for Tank Shells (USC). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X-6 X.3 Joint Efficiencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X-6 X.4a Yield Strength Values in MPa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X-8 X.4b Yield Strength Values in PSI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X-8 X.5a Modulus of Elasticity at the Maximum Design Temperature (SI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X-9 X.5b Modulus of Elasticity at the Maximum Design Temperature (USC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X-9 X.6a Hot Forming Temperatures (SI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X-10 X.6b Hot Forming Temperatures (USC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X-10

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Welded Tanks for Oil Storage

SECTION 1—SCOPE

1.1 General

1.1.1 This standard establishes minimum requirements for material, design, fabrication, erection, and inspection for vertical, cylindrical, aboveground, closed- and open-top, welded storage tanks in various sizes and capacities for internal pressures approximating atmospheric pressure (internal pressures not exceeding the weight of the roof plates), but a higher internal pressure is permitted when additional requirements are met (see 1.1.13). This standard applies only to tanks whose entire bottom is uniformly supported and to tanks in non-refrigerated service that have a maximum design temperature of 93 °C (200 °F) or less (see 1.1.20).

1.1.2 This standard provides industry with tanks of adequate safety and reasonable economy for use in the storage of petroleum, petroleum products, and other liquid products. This standard does not present or establish a fixed series of allowable tank sizes; instead, it is intended to permit the Purchaser to select whatever size tank may best meet his or her needs. This standard is intended to help Purchasers and Manufacturers in ordering, fabricating, and erecting tanks; it is not intended to prohibit Purchasers and Manufacturers from purchasing or fabricating tanks that meet specifications other than those contained in this standard.

NOTE A bullet (•) at the beginning of a paragraph indicates that there is an expressed decision or action required of the Purchaser. The Purchaser’s responsibility is not limited to these decisions or actions alone. When such decisions and actions are taken, they are to be specified in documents such as requisitions, change orders, data sheets, and drawings.

1.1.3 This standard has requirements given in two alternate systems of units. The Manufacturer shall comply with either:

1) all of the requirements given in this standard in SI units; or

2) all of the requirements given in this standard in US Customary units.

The selection of which set of requirements (SI or US Customary) to apply shall be a matter of mutual agreement between the Manufacturer and Purchaser and indicated on the Data Sheet, Page 1.

1.1.4 All tanks and appurtenances shall comply with the Data Sheet and all attachments.

1.1.5 Field-erected tanks shall be furnished completely erected, inspected, and ready for service connections, unless specified otherwise. Shop-fabricated tanks shall be furnished inspected and ready for installation.

1.1.6 The annexes of this standard provide a number of design options requiring decisions by the Purchaser, standard requirements, recommendations, and information that supplements the basic standard. Except for Annex L, an Annex becomes a requirement only when the Purchaser specifies an option covered by that Annex or specifies the entire Annex. The designation “Normative” shall be understood to mean mandatory. The designation “informative” shall be understood to mean non-mandatory (i.e. informational data, recommendations, suggestions, commentary, samples, and examples).

The contents of the annexes to this standard are either “normative” or “informative.”

“Normative” is further divided into the following.

— Always required (L).

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1-2 API STANDARD 650

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— Required if specified by the Purchaser (A, E, J, Y, U, W).

— Required if special materials are specified by the Purchaser (AL, N, S, SC, X).

— Required if pressure, vacuum, and high temperature are specified by the Purchaser (F, V, M).

— Required if special components or methods of design or construction are specified by the Purchaser (C, G, H, I, O, P).

All other annexes are “informative” (B, D, EC, K, R, T).

Table 1.1 deleted

1.1.7 Annex A provides alternative simplified design requirements for tanks where the stressed components, such as shell plates and reinforcing plates, are limited to a maximum nominal thickness of 12.5 mm (1/2 in.), including any corrosion allowance, and whose design metal temperature exceeds the minimums stated in the Annex.

1.1.8 Annex AL provides requirements for aluminum tanks.

1.1.9 Annex B provides recommendations for the design and construction of foundations for flat-bottom oil storage tanks.

1.1.10 Annex C provides minimum requirements for pontoon-type and double-deck-type external floating roofs.

1.1.11 Annex D provides requirements for submission of technical inquiries regarding this standard.

1.1.12 Annex E provides minimum requirements for tanks subject to seismic loading. An alternative or supplemental design may be mutually agreed upon by the Manufacturer and the Purchaser.

1.1.13 Annex F provides requirements for the design of tanks subject to a small internal pressure.

1.1.14 Annex G provides requirements for aluminum dome roofs.

1.1.15 Annex H provides minimum requirements that apply to an internal floating roof in a tank with a fixed roof at the top of the tank shell.

1.1.16 Annex I provides acceptable construction details that may be specified by the Purchaser for design and construction of tank and foundation systems that provide leak detection and subgrade protection in the event of tank bottom leakage, and provides for tanks supported by grillage.

1.1.17 Annex J provides requirements covering the complete shop assembly of tanks that do not exceed 6 m (20 ft) in diameter.

1.1.18 Annex K provides a sample application of the variable-design-point method to determine shell-plate thicknesses.

1.1.19 Annex L provides the Data Sheet and the Data Sheet instructions for listing required information to be used by the Purchaser and the Manufacturer. The use of the Data Sheet is mandatory, unless waived by the Purchaser.

1.1.20 Annex M provides requirements for tanks with a maximum design temperature exceeding 93 °C (200 °F) but not exceeding 260 °C (500 °F).

WELDED TANKS FOR OIL STORAGE 1-3

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1.1.21 Annex N provides requirements for the use of new or unused plate and pipe materials that are not completely identified as complying with any listed specification for use in accordance with this standard.

1.1.22 Annex O provides requirements and recommendations for the design and construction of under-bottom connections for storage tanks.

1.1.23 Annex P provides requirements for design of shell openings that conform to Table 5.6a and Table 5.6b that are subject to external piping loads. An alternative or supplemental design may be agreed upon by the Purchaser or Manufacturer.

1.1.24 Annex R provides references to various industry documents and publications that provide additional guidance for both specific design and material selection considerations to reduce or prevent accelerated corrosion mechanisms from damaging a tank in non-petroleum product service.

1.1.25 Annex S provides requirements for stainless steel tanks.

1.1.26 Annex SC provides requirements for mixed material tanks using stainless steel (including austenitic and duplex) and carbon steel in the same tank for shell rings, bottom plates, roof structure, and other parts of a tank requiring high corrosion resistance.

1.1.27 Annex T summarizes the requirements for examination by method of examination and the reference sections within the standard. The acceptance standards, inspector qualifications, and procedure requirements are also provided. This Annex is not intended to be used alone to determine the examination requirements within this standard. The specific requirements listed within each applicable section shall be followed in all cases.

1.1.28 Annex U provides requirements covering the substitution of ultrasonic examination in lieu of radiographic examination.

1.1.29 Annex V provides additional requirements for tanks that are designed for external pressure (vacuum) loading greater than 0.25 kPa (1 in. water).

1.1.30 Annex W provides recommendations covering commercial and documentation issues. Alternative or supplemental requirements may be mutually agreed upon by the Manufacturer and the Purchaser.

1.1.31 Annex X provides requirements for duplex stainless steel tanks.

1.1.32 Annex Y provides requirements for API Licensees wishing to mark their products with the API Monogram.

1.2 Limitations

The rules of this standard are not applicable beyond the following limits of piping connected internally or externally to the roof, shell, or bottom of tanks constructed according to this standard:

a) The face of the first flange in bolted flanged connections, unless covers or blinds are provided as permitted in this standard.

b) The first sealing surface for proprietary connections or fittings.

c) The first threaded joint on the pipe in a threaded connection to the tank shell.

1-4 API STANDARD 650

d) The first circumferential joint in welding-end pipe connections if not welded to a flange.

1.3 Responsibilities

1.3.1 The Manufacturer is responsible for complying with all provisions of this standard. Inspection by the Purchaser’s inspector does not negate the Manufacturer’s obligation to provide quality control and inspection necessary to ensure such compliance. The Manufacturer shall also communicate specified requirements to relevant subcontractors or suppliers working at the request of the Manufacturer.

1.3.2 The Purchaser shall specify on the Data Sheet, Line 23, the applicable jurisdictional regulations and owner requirements that may affect the design and construction of the tank and those that are intended to limit the evaporation or release of liquid contents from the tank. Which regulations/requirements, if any, apply depend on many factors such as the business unit the tank is assigned to, the vapor pressure of the liquids stored in the tank, the components of the liquid stored in the tank, the geographic location of the tank, the date of construction of the tank, the capacity of the tank, and other considerations. These rules may affect questions such as 1) which tanks require floating roofs and the nature of their construction; 2) the types and details of seals used in the floating roof annular rim space and at openings in the roof, 3) details of tank vents, and 4) requirements regarding release prevention barriers.

1.3.3 The Purchaser shall provide any jurisdictional site permits that may be required to erect the tank(s), including permits for disposal of the hydro-test water. The Manufacturer shall provide all other permits that may be required to complete or transport the tank.

1.3.4 The Purchaser retains the right to provide personnel to observe all shop and job site work within the scope of the contracted work (including testing and inspection). Such individuals shall be afforded full and free access for these purposes, subject to safety and schedule constraints.

1.3.5 In this standard, language indicating that the Purchaser accepts, agrees, reviews, or approves a Manufacturer’s design, work process, manufacturing action, etc., shall not limit or relieve the Manufacturer’s responsibility to conform to specified design codes, project specifications and drawings, and professional workmanship.

1.3.6 The Manufacturer shall advise the Purchaser of any identified conflicts between this standard and any Purchaser-referenced document and request clarification.

1.3.7 In this standard, language indicating that any particular issue is subject to agreement between the Purchaser and the Manufacturer shall be interpreted to require any such agreement to be documented in writing.

1.4 Documentation Requirements

See Annex W and the Data Sheet for the requirements covering the various documents to be developed for the tank.

1.5 Formulas

Where units are not defined in formulas in this standard, use consistent units (for example, in., in.2, in.3, lbf/in.2).

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SECTION 2—NORMATIVE REFERENCES

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

API Recommended Practice 582, Welding Guidelines for the Chemical, Oil and Gas Industries

API Standard 620, Design and Construction of Large, Welded, Low-Pressure Storage Tanks

API Recommended Practice 651, Cathodic Protection of Aboveground Petroleum Storage Tanks

API Recommended Practice 652, Lining of Aboveground Petroleum Storage Tank Bottoms

API Publication 937, Evaluation of the Design Criteria for Storage Tanks with Frangible Roofs

API Publication 937-A, Study to Establish Relations for the Relative Strength of API 650 Cone Roof, Roof-to-Shell, and Shell-to-Bottom Joints

API Standard 2000, Venting Atmospheric and Low-Pressure Storage Tanks: Non-refrigerated and Refrigerated

API Recommended Practice 2003, Protection Against Ignitions Arising Out of Static, Lightning, and Stray Currents

API Publication 2026, Safe Access/Egress Involving Floating Roofs of Storage Tanks in Petroleum Service

API Standard 2350, Overfill Protection for Storage Tanks in Petroleum Facilities

API Specification 5L, Specification for Line Pipe

API Manual of Petroleum Measurements Standards (MPMS)

Chapter 2.2A, Measurement and Calibration of Upright Cylindrical Tanks by the Manual Tank Strapping Method

Chapter 19, Evaporative Loss Measurement

AAI 1, Aluminum Design Manual

AAI, Aluminum Standards and Data

AAI, Specifications for Aluminum Sheet Metal Work in Building Construction

ACI 318 2, Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete (ANSI/ACI 318)

ACI 350, Environmental Engineering Concrete Structures

AISC 3, Manual of Steel Construction

AISI T-192 4, Steel Plate Engineering Data, Volume 1 & 2 (Revised Edition – 2011) published jointly by the Steel Market Development Institute and Steel Plate Fabricators Association

ANSI/AISC 360 5, Specification for Structural Steel Buildings

1 Aluminum Association Inc., 1525 Wilson Blvd, Suite 600, Arlington, Virginia 22209, www.aluminum.org 2 American Concrete Institute, P.O. Box 9094, Farmington Hills, Michigan 48333, www.aci-int.org. 3 American Institute of Steel Construction, One East Wacker Drive, Suite 700, Chicago, Illinois 60601, www.aisc.org. 4 American Iron and Steel Institute, 1540 Connecticut Avenue, NW, Suite 705, Washington, DC 20036, www.steel.org. 5 American National Standards Institute, 25 West 43rd Street, 4th Floor, New York, New York 10036, www.ansi.org.

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2-2 API STANDARD 650

ASCE Standard 7-05 6, Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures

ASCE Standard 7-10, Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures

ASMEB1.20.1 7, Pipe Threads, General Purpose (Inch) (ANSI/ASME B1.20.1)

ASME B16.1, Cast Iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings (ANSI/ASME B16.1)

ASME B16.5, Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings (ANSI/ASME B16.5)

ASME B16.21, Nonmetallic Flat Gaskets for Pipe Flanges

ASME B16.47, Large Diameter Steel Flanges: NPS 26 Through NPS 60 (ANSI/ASME B16.47)

ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section V, “Nondestructive Examination;” Section VIII, “Pressure Vessels,” Division 1; and Section IX, “Welding and Brazing Qualifications”

ASNT CP-189 8, Standard for Qualification and Certification of Nondestructive Testing Personnel

ASNT RP SNT-TC-1A, Personnel Qualification and Certification in Nondestructive Testing

ASTM A6M/A6 9, General Requirements for Rolled Steel Plates, Shapes, Sheet Piling, and Bars for Structural Use

ASTM A20M/A20, General Requirements for Steel Plates for Pressure Vessels

ASTM A27M/A27, Steel Castings, Carbon, for General Application

ASTM A36M/A36, Structural Steel

ASTM A53, Pipe, Steel, Black and Hot-Dipped, Zinc-Coated Welded and Seamless

ASTM A105M/A105, Forgings, Carbon Steel, for Piping Components

ASTM A106, Seamless Carbon Steel Pipe for High-Temperature Service

ASTM A131M/A131, Structural Steel for Ships

ASTM A181M/A181, Forgings, Carbon Steel, for General-Purpose Piping

ASTM A182M/A182, Forged or Rolled Alloy-Steel Pipe Flanges, Forged Fittings, and Valves and Parts for High- Temperature Service

ASTM A193M/A193, Alloy-Steel and Stainless Steel Bolting Materials for High-Temperature Service

ASTM A194M/A194, Carbon and Alloy Steel Nuts for Bolts for High-Pressure and High-Temperature Service

ASTM A213M/A213, Seamless Ferritic and Austenitic Alloy-Steel Boiler, Superheater, and Heat-Exchanger Tubes

ASTM A216M/A216, Standard Specifications for Steel Castings for High-Temperature Service

6 American Society of Civil Engineers, 1801 Alexander Bell Dr., Reston, Virginia 20191, www.asce.org. 7 ASME International, 3 Park Avenue, New York, New York 10016-5990, www.asme.org. 8 American Society for Nondestructive Testing, 1711 Arlingate Lane, P.O. Box 28518, Columbus, Ohio 43228, www.asnt.org. 9 ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania 19428, www.astm.org.

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SECTION 3—TERMS AND DEFINITIONS

For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

3.1 centerline-stacked The mid-thickness centerlines of plates in all shell courses coincide.

3.2 coating A term that includes protective materials applied to or bonded to tank surfaces, including paint, protective metals (e.g. galvanizing or cadmium plating), adhered plastic or polyolefin materials. Coatings are used for atmospheric, immersion, or vapor-space service.

3.3 contract The commercial instrument, including all attachments, used to procure a tank.

3.4 corroded thickness A design condition equal to the nominal thickness less any specified corrosion allowance.

3.5 corrosion allowance Any additional thickness specified by the Purchaser for corrosion during the tank service life. Refer to 5.3.2.

3.6 design metal temperature The lowest temperature considered in the design, which, unless experience or special local conditions justify another assumption, shall be assumed to be 8 °C (15 °F) above the lowest one-day mean ambient temperature of the locality where the tank is to be installed. Isothermal lines of lowest one-day mean temperature are shown in Figure 4.2. The temperatures are not related to refrigerated-tank temperatures (see 1.1.1).

3.7 design specific gravity The maximum specific gravity of the stored liquid(s) at designated temperatures. The greatest value of all products when tanks are to be designed for multiple products.

3.8 design thickness The thickness necessary to satisfy tension and compression strength requirements by this standard or, in the absence of such expressions, by good and acceptable engineering practice for specified design conditions, without regard to construction limitations or corrosion allowances.

3.9 double-deck floating roof The entire roof is constructed of closed-top flotation compartments.

3.10 examiner A person who performs Nondestructive Examinations (NDE) and is qualified and certified as required in Section 8 for the NDE method performed.

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3-2 API STANDARD 650

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3.11 floating suction line Internal piping assembly that allows operator to withdraw product from the upper levels of the tank.

3.12 flush-stacked on the inside The inside surfaces of plates in all shell courses coincide.

3.13 inlet diffusers Internal fill line piping with impingement plate, baffles, slots, or lateral openings. Diffusers limit splashing and misting of product, prevent product impingement on internal components, and disperse gases introduced into the tank.

3.14 insert plate A steel plate that replaces part of a shell plate, with a nominal thickness that is equivalent to, or no more than 3 mm (1/8 in.) greater than the nominal thickness of the adjoining material. When an insert plate is equal to the full height of a shell ring, it is considered to be a shell plate.

3.15 inspector A representative of an organization who ensures compliance with this standard and is responsible for various quality control and assurance functions, as outlined in this standard.

3.16 liner A protective material used as a barrier but not adhered, nor bonded, to the protected surface. Typically used (1) inside a tank to protect steel, (2) under a tank for leak detection (as a “release prevention barrier”), (3) in a dike yard, or (4) on the dikes as secondary containment. Common examples are sheeting made from lead, rubber, plastic, polyolefin, or geosynthetic clay (bentonite). A liner is not a coating.

3.17 lining An internal coating that consists of an applied liquid material which dries and adheres to the substrate, or a sheet material that is bonded to the substrate. It is designed for immersion service or vapor-space service. A lining can be reinforced or unreinforced.

3.18 mandatory Required sections of the standard become mandatory if the standard has been adopted by a Legal Jurisdiction or if the Purchaser and the Manufacturer choose to make reference to this standard on the nameplate or in the Manufacturer’s certification.

3.19 Manufacturer The party having the primary responsibility to construct the tank (see 1.3 and 10.2).

3.20 maximum design temperature The highest temperature considered in the design, equal to or greater than the highest expected operating temperature during the service life of the tank.

WELDED TANKS FOR OIL STORAGE 3-3

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3.21 minimum design specific gravity for floating roof design The lowest specific gravity of the stored liquid(s) at designated temperatures. The lowest value of all products when tanks are to be designed for multiple products.

3.22 nominal thickness The ordered thickness of the material. This thickness includes any corrosion allowance and is used for determination of PWHT requirements, weld spacing, minimum and maximum thickness limitations, etc.

NOTE The thickness used in the final structure is the nominal thickness plus or minus any tolerance allowed by this standard.

3.23 Purchaser The owner or the owner’s designated agent, such as an engineering contractor.

3.24 Purchaser’s option A choice to be selected by the Purchaser and indicated on the Data Sheet. When the Purchaser specifies an option covered by an Annex, the Annex then becomes a requirement.

3.25 recommendation The criteria provide a good acceptable design and may be used at the option of the Purchaser and the Manufacturer.

3.26 requirement The criteria must be used unless the Purchaser and the Manufacturer agree upon a more stringent alternative design.

3.27 single-deck pontoon floating roof The outer periphery of the roof consists of closed-top pontoon compartments, with the inner section of the roof constructed of a single deck without flotation means.

3.28 thickened insert plate A steel plate that replaces part of a shell plate, with a nominal thickness that is greater than the nominal thickness of the adjoining material by more than 3 mm (1/8 in.).

3.29 Welding Terms The terms defined in 3.29.1 through 3.29.21 are commonly used welding terms mentioned in this standard. See 5.1.5.2 for descriptions of fusion-welded joints.

3.29.1 automatic welding Welding with equipment which performs the welding operation without adjustment of the controls by a welding operator. The equipment may or may not perform the loading and unloading of the work.

3.29.2 backing The material—metal, weld metal, carbon, granular flux, and so forth—that backs up the joint during welding to facilitate obtaining a sound weld at the root.

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