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SUBJECT COMPLEMENT: Cs The little boy is handsome He is seven years old/The swimming pool is very deep He must be Susan’s little brother He was a baby
Syntactic Features I’m rather tired I’m feeling rather tiredShe is my daughter They are my daughters Mary isn’t herself today Peter and Mary make a good couple
Realisations of the Subject Complement Adjective Phrases Noun Phrases Prepositional Phrases Adverb Phrases Finite Clauses Non-finite Clauses
OBJECT COMPLEMENT: Co
Syntactic Features We found the new secretary very helpful. Circumstances have made the brothers enemies You haven’t made the sleeves the same length
Realisations of the Object Complement Adjective Phrases Noun Phrases Prepositional Phrases Finite Clauses Non-finite Clauses
MAJOR PATTERNS OF COMPLEMENTATIONIntransitive S P
Kim & Tom arrived It was raining
Monotransitive S P Od I bought a car Peter saw the accident
S P Oprep You can rely on Tom Max glanced at his watch DitransitiveS P Oi Od
Mary told them the truth Tom gave Mary a ring I bought Peter an umbrella Complex-S P Od Co Transitive
Tom made Susan angry He called her an angel They left the room in a mess/untidy
Copula S P Cs Mary was unhappy Peter is a very good husband The children are in a good mood/happy
Enclose the clause constituents in square brackets and name their function. Then indicate which pattern the clause has.
S Subject Od Direct Object P Predicate Oi Indirect Object P Predicator Oprep Prepositional Object Cs Subject Complement A Adjunct Co Object Complement Ex: [S We] [P [P made] [Od him] [Co president]] Complex-transitive.
1. The little girl looked sad
2. The voters elected Mary president
3. Ray told the children a story
4. George is in the garden
5. The birds are singing in the garden
6. The dog found a bone
7. Sue seems unhappy
8. That man is a teacher
9. The man in the next room was snoring heavily
10. Jenny hit him
11. Sally showed her friends the pictures
12. The children glanced at the pictures
13. The porter called George an idiot
14. The porter called George a taxi
15. He smiled
16. The answer seems clear
17. The medicine made her ill
Adjuncts, Disjuncts & Conjuncts Adjuncts - A Syntactic & Semantic Features The bells rang all day long Tom hired a car at Oxford The weather is rather unpredictable in these parts Hastily she hid the letter She hid the letter hastily She hastily hid the letter It was raining extremely hard / on the Continent / last nightIn the summer we often make our ice cream Manner: These flowers are growing very easilyPlace: She lives here Time: He arrived very earlyFrequency (indefinite): I usually arrive very early (definite): They pay me monthlyDuration: We met her at your wedding very briefly Instrument: She opened the envelope with a penknifePurpose: I called John for a quick coffeeReason: Going to USA is cheap at the moment because of the exchange rate Realisations of the Adjunct Prepositional Phrases Adverb Phrases Noun Phrases Finite clauses Non-finite clauses Disjuncts - D Unfortunately the cat killed the mouseThe cat unfortunately killed the mouse The cat killed the mouse unfortunately Personally, I think it is a waste of time From my point of view, it is a waste of time Adverbs: unfortunately, frankly Prepositional Phrases: in fact, in reality, Non-finite clauses: to be frank, to tell the truth Finite clauses: if I may be frank with you
Identify Adjuncts A, Conjuncts C & Disjuncts D in the following sentences:
Ex: [D Happily] there wasn’t much mess.
1. The children ran away happily
2. He frankly doesn’t care
3. He frankly told us all the truth
4. He purposely crashed the car
5. He spoke clearly
6. We have to be careful, though
7. They divided the cake equally
8. The baby cried extremely loudly
9. He understands everything clearly
10. Clearly he understands everything
11. He understands everything, clearly
12. Frankly, she hates babies
13. Unfortunately, Ken snores very loudly
14. I try to be nice to him, however.
15. Briefly, that is all I can say at the moment.
16. I could speak to him very briefly
17. In spite of that, he decided to stay
18. Quite incredibly, he possesses a large fortune
19. Seriously, you should work hard
20. Queen Victoria died in 1901
21. Thankfully, there is a parking area near their house.
22. Nervously, he untied the parcel.
23. Each summer we spend a few days in Madrid.