Línea temporal historia EEUU, Apuntes de Filología Inglesa. Universidad de Salamanca (USAL)

Línea temporal historia EEUU, Apuntes de Filología Inglesa. Universidad de Salamanca (USAL)

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Asignatura: Estudios Culturales de EEUU, Profesor: Ana Mª Manzanares, Carrera: Filología Inglesa, Universidad: USAL
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U.S. History (Significant events)

• Vikings: settlements in America

• 1492: Columbus (discovery of America, Bahamas)

• Colonial Period

• 1585: Roanoke (1st British colony; lost)

• 1600: Protestant Reformation of England

• 1607: 1st British settlement, Jamestown (Virginia)

• 1620: the Pilgrims (first English Puritans) were transported from Plymouth to the New World in the ship Mayflower

• Plymouth Colony: separatists, Pilgrims (poor and uneducated)

• 1621: Thanksgiving (celebration in Plymouth Colony because of a good harvest)

• 1630: the flagship Arbella transports Puritan emigrants from England to Salem (Massachusetts)

• Massachusetts Bay Colony: purify the Church of England, predestination, God’s providence

• Puritans and pilgrims avoided religion persecution (because their religion was persecuted or prohibited)

• Slave trade (transportation by slave traders of enslaved African people, mainly from Africa to the Americas, and then their sale there)

• Indentured servitude: employee (indenturee) within a system of unfree labor who is bound by a signed or forced contract (indenture) to work for a particular employer for a fixed time

• 1692 - 1693: Salem witch trials (prosecutions of people accused of witchcraft in colonial Massachusetts)

• 1763 - 1789: Rev. of the 13 colonies

• 1770: Boston as the main American discontent focus against the British empire

• 1773: Boston Tea Party

• 1775 - 1783: Independence War

• 1776: U.S. Declaration of Independence (accepted in 1783)

• 1787: U.S. Constitution (from monarchy to democracy, last king: George III)

• 1789 - 1797: First president of the US: George Washington

• Industrial Revolution: deep changes (transports, production, materialism, technology), cities = corruption, greed, poverty, dehumanization, disease…

• 1803: U.S. buys Louisiana from France

• Europe fighting Napoleon

• War of 1812 (-1815): US vs UK (restricted commerce with France, forced recruitment of Americans for the Royal Navy and British military support for native’s revolutions)

• Underground Railroad: network of secret routes and safe houses established in the United States used by African-American slaves to escape into free states and Canada with the aid of abolitionists and allies who were sympathetic to their cause.

• 1820: The Temperance Movement (social movement against the consumption of alcoholic beverages)

• 1823: Monroe Doctrine (John Quincy Adams, U.S. policy of opposing European colonialism in the Americas)

• 1830: The Indian Removal Act (law that authorized the president to negotiate with southern Indian tribes for their removal to federal territory west of the Mississippi River in exchange for their lands)

• 1840: The Abolitionist Movement (end of slavery)

• 1848: Women’s Rights; The Seneca Falls Convention; the U.S. wins a big part of Mexico’s territory (extension of the frontier until the Pacific Ocean)

• Education, Factory & Workplace Reforms: extensive national network of railways (settlement of the western territories)

• Laissez Faire: business should not be regulated because the law of nature would ensure succeed for the “fittest” and inevitable failure for everyone else

• 1861-1865: Civil War (hard won sense of unity, election of Abraham Lincoln, slavery debates, economic independence between states and demographic evolution)

• 1867: Alaska is bought from Russia

• 1870 - 1900: Gilded Age, era in which writers try to point out that beneath the surface lay corruption, poverty, crime and great disparities in wealth between the rich and the poor

• 1893: The Significance of the Frontier in American History, by Frederick Jackson Turner

• 1898: the U.S. wins Spain in the Spanish War and it obtains the west of the continent, Cuba, Philippines, Puerto Rico and Guam. In the same year the territories of Samoa and Hawaii were anexionned to the growing country

• 1914-1918: World War, US was a small, young, agricultural ex-colony transformed into a huge, modern and industrial nation, this war weakened the optimism and confident idealism

• 1917 - 1918: the U.S. confirms its position as the primary economic power

• Explosive industrial growth: prosperity

• Rapid growth of cities: fed by immigrants and farm and village people from the countryside

• Demographic growth: problems of urbanization (poor and overcrowded housing, unsanitary conditions, low pay, difficult working conditions; immigrant ghettos, middle class suburbs, exclusive neighborhoods for the rich)

• True woman; conception of women and their duties characterized by the “cult of true womanhood” that hold that women were designed exclusively for the roles of wife and mother and were expected to cultivate piety, purity, submissiveness and domestic in all their relations

• New woman: The New Woman represented a young American girl who was formally educated, physically strong, independent in spirit and participated in sports

• 1929: Wall Street Crash, initiation of the Great Depression (slowdown of economic activity)

• 1923: Franklin D. Roosevelt is elected president and starts his politic of the New Deal to fight the economic depression (federal programs that included support for farmers, the unemployed, youth

and the elderly as well as new constraints and safeguards on the banking industry and changes to the monetary system)

• 1941: Attack on Pearl Harbor (Japan - Hawaii); USA entries into the World War II

• 1945: Creation of the UN (United Nations) in New York

• 1947: Cold War (US vs Soviet Union)

• 1948: The Marshall Plan (an American initiative to aid Western Europe, in which the United States gave economic assistance to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of World War II. The goals of the United States were to rebuild war-torn regions, remove trade barriers, modernize industry, make Europe prosperous once more, and prevent the spread of Communism)

• 1954: The United States Supreme Court (the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional)

• 1954: Martin Luther King leads the civil rights movement

• 1954–1968: African-American civil rights movement (their aim was to legalize racial segregation and discrimination laws in the United States and secured the legal recognition and federal protection of the citizenship rights enumerated in the United States Constitution and federal law)

• 1963: King delivers his speech I Have a Dream

• 1965: Malcolm X (African-American Muslim minister and human rights activist) delivers his speech The Ballot or the Bullet

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