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Literatura del s. XIX Laura Monrós Gaspar
Thursday 10:30 – 13:30 (avisar por email)
Exam: 2 parts, test 30%, essay 40% (you can bring notes for the essay)
Group project: 20% how to apply knowledge in a business (4-5 people)
Activities: 10%, 3 workshops (3rd assess) • 1st workshop: practice 26th October
• 2nd workshop: practice 23th November
• 3rd workshop: assess 20th December
• Group Project: 21st December
16 January: exam
To check information about literature: www.victorianweb.org/vs/littime.html
Readings: Jane Eyre, Caste (Robenson, Thomas William)
Introduction In this introduction, we’ll have an overview of the 19th century most important historical landmarks but also chacteristics of this century which are going to provide us more information about the main themes approached by the 19th century author.
a) Industrial revolution
18th century: The industrialization contributed to a new era which is characterized by the rise of new technological inventions such as the steam machine. It brought many things: the exode of many people to the city in order to work in mines or industries CSQ? larger cities with new neighbourhoods so new organization. But also, the railroads allowed the access of the country to new innovations.
⇨ What are the main technological changes?
- The transformation of the countryside between 1760-1830: Many innovations (ex: open-field system) eased and transformed the country lifestyle.
- Technological change since 1700: printing-press, steam machine, etc. For example, the printing press created a new class of reader ‘the middle-class’ reader thanks to the larger amount of book sold, the price of them will decrease and can be easily bought. Also in terms of literature, the technological changes will produce new kind of places and new lightenings.
Introduction – From Romantic to Victorian frame of mind
18th century: industrialization and French revolution influenced the 19th
century literature. The railroads built which allows the countryside to get all the new inovations such as the culture and literature. Novels are published in journals => roman feuilleton.
Influences: Industrialization and French Revolution.
The train involved culture, industry, news (journals, magazines…). Publications were in stockments through journals and magazines.
There were seculating libraries and reading classes. Also theatrical companies.
Industrial Revolution • Large deposits of coal were available for industrial fuel. • Abundant labour supply (mines and factories): New jobs
opportunities, new emplyments, and this means the creation of a new social class. The characters and drama that will be part of the working classes.
• Colonies furnished cheap raw materials and were captive markets.
• Merchants had capital to invest.
• Scientific know-how from the Scientific Revolution of the 17th century: New expertise made in the 19th century inherited from the 18th natural poetry: details and description of nature. Nature in Victorian period = different, nature seen from a scientific point of view.
It provoked new characters, new readers, new places for finding new characters, etc.
Romanticism gave importance to the nature for the 1st time.
Technological change • The English countryside was transformed between 1760 and 1830 -
the open- field system of cultivation gave way to compact farms and enclosed fields.
• Technological Change since 1700.
• The Steam Engine (1762, Matthew Boulton) and Electric Power.
• Railroads and advance in transportation.
Printing press was positive for advance: the novels were cheaper and more people could afford them. Magic tricks became popular because of technology.
To learn about industrialization we can read Hard Times (1854) by Charles Dickens. He critiziced the utilitarism: robots = citizens as an effect of the industrialization.
Changing Social Patterns
• An increase in population and urbanization (by 1850 half of the English people lived in cities).
• Greater supply of food made available by the Agricultural Revolution.
Growth of medical science and public health measures -decreased the death
rate-. • New social classes.
New theatres for people from the countryside were built. The use of drugs became popular. New charactes appeared. Working women suffered problems. People had more time for leisure and it produced new readers and writers.
Changing social patterns: new social class: working class and bourgeoisie. Increase of the population and the cities and this had an influence on the kind of reader that we find in the 19th century. With the increase of the population, working classes need to have new entertaining spaces and building places for plesaures such as theatres in the outskirts. This also created the alcoholism, addiction to different drugs, etc.
We’ll find in melodrama new characters who actually manifest new problems: social problems. In terms of women: working women will suffer new problems. All this is reflected in the literature’s period.
Greater supply of food made available by the Agricultural Revolution and growth of medical science and public search measures = decreased the death rate. We’ll have also new writters which are rebelling from the high class circle and attacking the higher education by doing satiric plays. New Social Classes
• New factory-owning bourgeoise.
• A new working class (men, women and children labouring in the textile mill, pottery work and mines).
• Wages were low, the worked long hours, the working conditions were unpleasant and dangerous.
(El Desollinador como ejemplo)
New social classes: new factory-owning bourgeoisie. A new working class: life = dangerous and work conditions = unpleasant. They had poor conditions and all of this is reflected on the literature.
The French Revolution was basic for the development of literature. It supposed the vindication of the Rights of Women. There were political and social revolutions through Europe.
The french revolution influenced the ideology and the social movements which took place in the 19th century in England . Mary Woolenscraft ‘Vendication of Women rights’” : french revolution influence the rights of women.
• Vote for all men (to ask it for women was still radical).
• Equal electoral districts (similar representation in Parliament).
Abolition of the requirements that Members of Parliament had to be property
owners (they required a salary for the Members of Parliament, because if they were middle class they couldn’t work when investing time in politics).
• Annual general elections (less time for bribery).
• Secret ballot (voto) (to protect the voters).
Reform Act 1832: more rights for voting. There was a rebellion against political privileges of aristocracy. Text: Declaration of Rights of the Citizens.
Social movement which started in the 1838 in Charter and lasted around 1857.
The Reform Act 1832: supposed to give more right for toing for the middle and working classes. There were some riots of the working classes in mostly northern england. They demanded the 60 months of the people of Charter: they put a lot of pressure of the parliament. These demands was send to the houses of Commands. They were supported by the masses. They demanded vote for all men, not for women because it was a radical measure for the 1830’s. Men of chartist movement left aside the universal right of voting to try to get other rights. They wanted to have a better representation in the parliament because more people in some poor neighbourhood but represented equal as the other rich neighbourhood. They required a salary for the members of parliament. Annual general elections which avoid corruption. the secret votes also in order to protect the voters. These demands will be reflected on the social novel.
The Reform Acts II
1867 Reform Act / 1884 3.11, 1885 Redistribution Act / Act of 1918 / Equal Franchise Act 1928.
Charles Darwin, On the Origin of Species, 1859: theory of evolution, crisis of faith. Different way to look at the people of the colonies.
Science in 19th century • During the 19th century the thongs** are recognized as the SCIENCES
formed and acquired the cultural authority.
• Context: French Revolution, Industrial Revolution.
• Sciences became a part of culture itself.
• From “gentlemen and clerical naturalist” to “professional scientist”.
• Formalization of science education and intrnationalization of science.
Example: Anne Veronica (book). Sciences as a discipline, the scientifical knowledge as a cultural authority. Sciences became a part of cutlure itself. We go from a gentleman and clerical naturalist to professional scientist. Experience of formalization of scienced education and internalization of science. Scientific in sense of shaping character: Anne Veronica - Wells : woman, who wants to be a scientist and wants to get education and illustrate the fight between the
typical model of woman (marriage) and an other moidel brought by the 19th century. Literary Periods
Romanticism (1780-1837). • The Victorian Era (1837 when Queen Victoria got the throne-1900
• Giovanni Battista Picanesi (1720-78): romanticism, the prison of the mind.
• Henry Fuseli, The Nightmare 1781: romantic/gothic.
• Goya, El Sueño de la Razón produce Monstruos, 1799.
• Joseph Malord Turner, 1794, Tintern Abbey. • Casper Dawid Friedrich, The Monk by the Sea (1808-10):
Characteristics: Gothic and roman. / State of mind reflected in the landscape: kinda scary and claustraphobic. Superimposition of different plans.
It’s claustrophobic, blank, the inner, the prison of the mind, the haunting of dreams. Idealisation of gothic, feeling of feeling little among nature, feeling of loss, nature is overwhelming, hughness of nature, sublime against the individual, nature is an extension of writer’s mind, remberaze of the past.
• Autobiographical tendency.
• Prison of the mind.(nature as an extension of the mind)
• Faith in the self (identity), narcissism.
• The writer does not objectify nature within a system or ideal but as a reflection of the self in order to make it an example of the self. A challenge, a theatrical gesture or an alienation (isolation, darkness…).
Past and Present. August Leopold Egg (1858): sensation novels about fallen women.
To read: pages 13-18.
Romanticism : - overw. nature of the nature - facing oneself.
Realism, reflection of classes, symbolism, fallen women, marriage (as institution), idealised nature (in contrast with the hostile landscape of industrialized cities). Also reflects idealised friglishness values.
John Constable - The Hay Wain (1821): Rural scene, countryside. Idealized nature which answers to the needs of the time: metropolis >< coutryside. With new technology and urbanized, we want a sort of return to the nature. Idealized values of englishness. Idea of rural past.
“Angel in the house”.
Dante Gabriel Rosetti (1828-1882) his models were “femme fatals” (sexualised) in contrast with the Angel in the house.
Dante Gabriel Rossetti: these women are in opposite with the model of the
victorian woman, they’re all seen as dangerous and represent the contrary of the woman = angels. On the one hand, typical angel of the house illustrated and other hand, these sexualized women depicted in the literature. This depicts the very sexuality of women during the victorian era.
Lawrence Alma-Tadema - The roses of Heliogabalus (1888): Classical reminscences in the 19th century period. There’s a constant look into the past.
- Products of writing produced during the reign of the Victorian Era (1837-1901)
- Social realism : double standards
- Symbolism : realism and sybolism will be together in the lit. of the 19th lit.
- Classical revival : interest for the classics.
- Medievalism : english arthurian legend
THE WOMAN QUESTION
- Doctrines from French Revolution.
- Economic changes from Industrial Revolution.
- Mary Wolfstonecraft: A Vindication of Rights of Woman (response to the declaration of rights of men and citizens).
- Caroline Norton.
The woman question started with the French revolution and sort of social revolution which has been influencing all the other revolutions in Europe. Also the economic changes of the Industrial revolution which allowed women to work. Also social changes which influenced women’s position. The pioneer Mary Wollstonecraft - A Vindication of the right of woman.
Declaration of Rights of Men and Citizen.
Ant 3-6 (?): Related to Chartism (power not only in the high classes). 1st: Only MEN.
Reflections of the Revolution of France (Edmund Blurke) against values of Declarations... (NO citizen had the power to throne the government, conservative).
Wolfstonecraft wrote Vindication of Rights of Man to import French Revolution ideas to English society.
Edmund Burke - Reflexion on the Revolution of France: reaction against the
values of the Rights of Men and Citizens. Claimed that no citizens had to overthrone the power. He was a liberal thinker but when he wrote that, he was on the side of the conservatists. Responding to his ideas, MW wrote a text ‘Vindication of the Rights of men’ : import ideas of french revolution to England. Part of a whole movement.
- Rights by law.
- Rights by nature.
Prescriptive right: right by law >< MW would follow universal rights. MW will claim equal education for men and women = novelty for her period.
Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792)
(Education equally provided by the state).
1798 (William Godwin) Wolfstonecraft's husband.
- Radical for the time, but not for us. Family is rooted in her ideas (mothers had to be well educated to five good education to children).
- Women are slaves because get power in illicit ways.
- Let the opportunity to be equal as men.
Female Utopias: equality in rights between men and women.
1798: William Godwin husband of MW: liberal thinker. In the 18th century: they were both known for the scandalous life they had together but not on their career. MW want to have the most educated mothers in order to educate daughters and sons.
Spheres (middle and upper class)
- Public sphere (Ocupation outside in society: men).
- Private sphere (household: women): domestic duties, education, conduct books... (femenine).
- “Angel in the House” by Coventry Patmore in a poem. What a proper woman should do.
- Fallen Women/Femme Fatal (strong minded). Spheres: there are 2 spheres: the public and private spheres. The public spheres are reserved to the men and private space to women. The cont of the angle of the house was iniciated by Coventry Patmore in ‘The angel in the house’: book about what a proper woman should do in the 19th century. In the lit., we’ll see that women won’t always fit the norms.
Working classes (working women). - Lower rates than men. - No access to education.
- Physical abuse (by law).
For the working classes; working women => receiving lower rates than men. They would not have access to the education and suffer physical abuses.
“Coverture”: “femme covert”, women were property of husband by marriage (objetc), so they hadn't properties, money... until 1870. “Married Women's Property Act”, they would be the owner of their own earnings and heritages (attached by legal situation of husband).
1857 “Marriage and Divorce Act”: Middle classes couldn't get divorce because was very expensive. Amended after.
- 1866: “Petition for Women's suffrage”.
- 1863: 1st experimental exams (not access) in Cambridge Local Examination Syndicate.
- 1870: Local lectures ADAPTED to Cambridge.
- 1858-73: Women doctors. (Elizabeth Blackwell).
The concept of coverture (def. by W. Blackstone): by law women were property of the husband. Women had no legal rights in terms of property, for example. Married women had no access to the inherited estate,etc. This only ended in 1870 with the Married Women property act => every married woman could be the owner of the money they’ve had and all the money they’ve inherited by their family. The concept of coverture = imortant to define characters in the literature.
“Strong-minded women”: Women having qualities or behaviour regarded as masculine, opposed legal restrictions (+ related with public sphere).
The concept of Strong-minded woman => chiefly depreciative term. Qualities and behaviour of a woman considered as masculine characteristic, usually found for men. They were opposed to the legal restrictions of women. “New Woman” (inclusion of women to high education): different from previous generations that rejects traditional roles (wife, mother...) advocates with independence of women equality with men (19th C): +1860s.
- “The Parliamentary Female” picture.
The concept of new woman: woman who’s considered as a woman different from the previous generations. Don’t follow the traditional role of the
women. Strong-minded woman = previous stage and the new woman, is a more political concept in the late 19th. Women don’t only look like a man, they advocate for independance and women for independance from men.
1848: 1st Seneca Falls Convention.
- 1st Convention of the Rights of Women in USA.
- Bloomerism (1850s): new woman that want to free herself and live like men. Trousers were invented by Amelia Bloomer (influenced by turkish trousers that were worn in Seneca Falls Convention).
1848: first Seneca Falls Convention: first convention for rights of women that took place in the USA. There’s a text which was made after this convention. During convention, first woman in trousers => called blommers invented by Amelia Bloomers and was a movement which was a physical claim of women who didn’t want to keep up with the struggle of being a woman (petticoat, corset, etc).
“Fallen Woman”: Woman who has lost chastity, honour, standing or who has become morally degenerate or a prostitute (important in sensation fiction, aside from society).
Concept of the fallen woman: woman who has lost her chastity and honour. She has become morally degenerate. Very important for the sensation fiction. “Femme Fatale”: Attractive and seductive woman (rise to downfall of anyone who becomes vividly with her). Ex: Salome.
Concept of femme fatale: attractive and seducive woman one who’s likely to cause the downfall of men knowing her. => Salomé by Oscar Wilde.
Angel in the House (poem by Coventry Patmore).
1854, 1862 + successful Realistic portrait of British Middle Classes based in her wife Emily.
(Passive role, submitted, caring of domestic duties, children and husband).
“Man must be pleased and woman's pleasure is pleasing man”.
Sexuality: important issue in Victorian period.
Constant look over past (Classic and medieval). Talking about problems of the present. Writing during reign of Queen Victoria (1837-1901).
- Social realism.
- Double standards.
- Sexuality (femme fatale...)
- Classical revival (Greece/Rome). -
Sensation fiction – Medievalism. Angel in the house: narrative poem written by Coventry Patmore. Realistic portrayal of the british middle-classes. Poem inspired by his wife. 1854: first publication of the poem. Angel in the house is caring for domestic duties in the house. Dutiful and loving wife.
1836: when troubles happened. Caroline Norton: Beautiful woman, perfect hostess, and she married with a man older than her. The man (George Norton) had problems with alcohol, wrath... (familiar problems).
*** Busca info de Lord Melbourne.
Norton's came in bankrupt and Caroline began to be acquainted with powerful.
They had two children in Scotland and her children died.
1836: Court problem w/husband. Caroline Norton => beautiful woman in the 19th, married George Norton much older than she was. Violent marriage because he liked drinking. Wanted to have an angel in the house, she wasn’t rebellious so was an angel in the house. Lord Melbourne, weak prime minister in the beginning of the 19th and became very close friend with Caroline to the point that Caroline and Melbourne => accused of adultery. They had 2 kids and in the whole process, took children to Scotland: forbidden to see mom and after started fierce active revolution for women’s right.
She produced literature about her personal situation and marriage and this produced “The Infants Custody Bill”, that protected children and women separated and divorced (if there's a separation not caused by adultery, mothers will have the custody of their children under seven, 1839).
1839: Talford Law, was MP and friend w/ Caroline and devise the Infant’s Custody Bill which protected married women and children.
1847: “Ten Hours Act”: limited to ten a day for women and young (Factory novels).
King's College London granted certification for high education to governesses, and teachers of Ladies(?). 1848: Queen's College for Women to teach “female knowledge” (serving...)
1848: 1st Woman's Rights Convention in Seneca Falls (Bloomerism/Amelia Bloomer.
1848: Bedford College for education of women.
1851: Petition of Female Suffrage presented in House of Lords by Earl of Carlisle, related with Bloomerism. 1850: North London Collegiale School (Frances May Buss). Model of education of women (Arts/Humanities). Advocate for access to women to universities.