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Consumer psychology and practical applications for classroom
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Division Two Nominations, from page 6 Nomination Format Cover Sheet A cover sheet should accompany the nominator’s documentation. This sheet

should include: 1. Nominee’s name, address, and telephone number. 2. Category of award for which this person is nominated. 3. Nominator’s name, address, and telephone number. 4. The name and address of who (Department Head, Dean, President, etc.)

and/or what officer and organization (local, state, or regional psychologi- cal association, etc.) should be informed if the nominee wins the Society for the Teaching of Psychology Teaching Award.

Materials to be Submitted 5. Educational history of the nominee: degrees, granting institutions,

year(s) granted, major and minor fields. 6. Nominee’s professional work history. 7. Professional and honorary organizations in which the nominee holds

membership. 8. Letters of recommendation from at least three (but not more than five)

persons, each of whom can speak to the qualifications of the nominee in light of the criteria.

9. Narrative: A maximum of two pages (double-spaced) of documentation per criterion highlighting the nominee’s achievements with respect to one or more of the criteria listed above.

10. Optional: Items 1-9 are the primary pieces of information to be exam- ined by the Awards committee. However, nominators may submit addi- tional materials in support of the narrative portion of the nomination. Optional items might include teacher ratings, teaching devices, syllabi, student papers, or newspaper articles.

*These items may simply be highlighted on the nominee’s curriculum vitae if one is available.

Send materials to: James Freeman, Ph.D., Chair, The Society for the Teaching of Psychology Teaching Awards Committee, Department of Psy- chology, Denison University, Granville, OH 43023. Dr. Freeman can also be reached at (614) 587-6673 or via email at freeman@denison.edu.

Additional information will be published in the January-February issue of PTN. Please contact Dr. Freeman with any questions regarding the appli- cation process.

Psychology Teacher Network Education Directorate American Psychological Association 750 First Street, NE Washington, DC 20002-4242

Nonprofit US Postage Paid Washington, DC Permit No. 6348

Psychology Teacher Network is published by the Education Directorate of The American Psychological Association. Sub- scriptions are free to High School Teacher Affiliates of the APA and APA Members and $15 a year for all others. Address edito- rial correspondence to Psychology Teacher Network, Education Directorate, APA, 750 First St., N.E., Washington, DC 20002-4242. Address inquiries regarding membership or affiliation to the Membership Office, APA, at the same address.

Senior Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Julie R. Goldstein TOPSS Editorial Board . . . . . . . . . .Nancy Grippo, Alan Feldman APA’s Pre-College and

Undergraduate Officer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Peter Petrossian

*

* *

Sixty exceptional undergraduate students spent a week immersed in scientific psychology this sum- mer, courtesy of the APA Science Directorate. The Summer Science Institute (SSI) participants were treated to enthusiastic and com- pelling presentations by some of the country’s most distinguished teachers and researchers.

The SSI students — all rising sophomores and juniors — were selected in a highly rigorous com- petition. More than 350 individu- als applied for the 60 positions. Those chosen represented a range of colleges and universities from all over the country, from Ivy League institutions to small state-assisted

colleges. Many of the students were National Merit Scholars or had been winners in various sci- ence competitions.

Ludy T. Benjamin, Jr., PhD, Professor of Psychology at Texas A&M University, served as the SSI leader. The faculty included: Linda Bartoshuk, PhD, Yale Uni- versity; Douglas Bernstein, PhD, University of Illinois; Diana Cor- dova, PhD, Yale University; Arthur Glenberg, PhD, University of Wis- consin; Alan Marlatt, PhD, Uni- versity of Washington; Jack Na- tion, PhD, Texas A&M University; Sharon Nelson-LeGall, PhD, Uni- versity of Pittsburgh; Michael Sayette, PhD, University of Pitts-

burgh; and Robert Sternberg, PhD, Yale University. In addition to faculty presentations and inter- active learning experiences, APA scheduled tours of several labora- tories at the National Institutes of Health, hosted a panel about graduate study in psychology, and arranged tours of the monuments and museums in Washington. The SSI was held at the University of Maryland at College Park.

The students gave the SSI program an enthusiastic “thumbs up!” on the evaluation forms, cit- ing particularly the quality of the instruction, the respectful manner in which they were treated by fac- ulty and staff, and the cama- raderie with their fellow students.

The Science Directorate plans to hold another SSI in Summer 1997. The Directorate asks Psy- chology Teacher Network readers to think of their current and for- mer students who are presently college freshmen and sophomores, and suggest the SSI to them. Sev- eral of the students we selected in 1996 learned of the program from their former high school teachers. Interested individuals may obtain information and application mate- rials from the APA Science Direc- torate, 750 1st Street, NE, Wash- ington, DC 20002-4242; (202) 336-6000. All application materi- als are due no later than January 31, 1997, so please alert potential candidates by late November.

November-December 1996•Volume 6•Issue 5

APA EDUCATION DIRECTORATE

Summer Institute Urges Pursuit of Science By Virginia Holt, Assistant Executive Director, APA Science Directorate

For Teachers of Introductory Psychology

Inside: Briefing . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Community Colleges: Issues of Access with Quality. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1996 Division Two Teaching Awards . . . . .

Dear Doctor. . . . . . . . . .

APF Student Research Awards . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . .

News from TOPSS . . . . .

Announcements . . . . . .

PTN PSYCHOLOGY TEACHER NETWORK

2

4

8 9

10 11 12 13 14

PHOTO A 79%

Connie Pankrantz and Angela Romeo at the Summer Science Institute counting the number of papillae on a section of the tongue.

2 Psychology Teacher Network November-December 1996

BRIEFING

The recently adopted vision statement of the Society for Consumer Psychol- ogy (Division 23 of APA) states as part of its purpose that it will “...facilitate the generation and dissemination of new psychological knowledge related to consumption...”. The study of con- sumer behavior includes the states and processes involved when individuals select, purchase, use, or dispose of products, services, ideas, or experi- ences to satisfy needs and desires (Solomon, 1996). Consumer psycholo- gists view consumption as including the antecedents leading up to con- sumption, consumption behavior itself, and the consequences of consumption. Consider the following example:

A young women finishes a hard workout at the gym. On the way home she stops by a convenience store with the intent to purchase her favorite sports drink. How- ever, she also purchases a bag of potato chips and a small pack- age of cookies. As she drive home, she devours the bag of chips and the drink, but saves the cookies to eat later.

Why does the young woman choose a convenience store when the supermarket might have the same products for 20% less cost? Why did she purchase two items she had not in- tended to purchase when she entered the store? Why did she save one for later consumption? What did she do with the potato chip wrapper and the plastic sports drink bottle after she fin- ished consuming the contents? Did she recycle them or did they find their way to the trash to ultimately find a new home in a landfill? At a minimum, each of these behaviors suggest a pos- sible set of motives to be uncovered. However, underlying these behaviors and motives are other psychological processes including memory schemas, attitudes, beliefs, affective states, and decision processes, just to mention a few that are of fundamental interest to the consumer psychologist.

Was our young woman influ-

enced by a special in-store promotion for the potato chips? Did the packag- ing of the cookies catch her attention? How did she develop a loyalty to her favorite sports drink? Did advertising employing famous sports celebrities influence her? Did the combination of the chips and sports drink satisfy her needs? What had she expected to gain from the purchase? How will the non- consumable packaging material be disposed of after consumption? All of these questions can be explored from a relatively simple consumption sce- nario. Given the fact that individuals spend a significant portion of their lives consuming, the study of con- sumer behavior provides a vast num- ber of phenomenon to examine.

The Roots of Consumer Psychology The first evidence of an orga-

nized psychological study of the con- sumer probably dates back to the turn of the century. Several esteemed psy- chologists from prestigious academic institutions in the U.S. began employ- ing advertising stimuli to study psy- chological phenomena. An article enti- tled “On The Psychology of Advertis- ing: Psychological Studies.” (Gale, 1900) was published by the Univer- sity of Minnesota. By the second decade of the twentieth century, a sig- nificant body of research literature began to appear in respected psycho- logical journals. H.L. Hollingsworth’s classic study examining people’s per- ceptual judgments of print advertise- ments displayed on cardboard posters was published in the Psychological Review in 1911. E.K. Strong Jr. fol- lowed with articles entitled “Applica- tion of the ‘Order of Merit Method’ to Advertising” (Psychological Review, 1911) and “Psychological Methods as Applied to Advertising” (Journal of Educational Psychology, 1913). By 1917, enough studies were compiled to inspire several books on the topic. Chapters covered topics to include human desires, strength of appeals, attention, repetition, comprehension, color perception, and memory and as- sociation. Many of these topics are still

heavily investigated today. By 1920, psychological theories were being ap- plied to personal selling as well.

The 1920’s also revealed the early works of academic psychologists who would become famous for their transitions to business and industry and their establishment of market re- search companies. For example, after enduring a highly visible academic scandal, John B. Watson, the father of American classical conditioning and a former APA president, took his ideas about conditioning to Madison Avenue where the J. Walter Thompson adver- tising agency paid him a small for- tune. Daniel Starch authored Princi- ples of Advertising in 1923 and went on to develop the first commercial test of memory for magazine advertise- ments. George Gallup, later to become famous for his social and political polling, began his career examining brand selection.

World War II saw an interest on the part of military psychologists re- garding the influence of propaganda on both our soldiers as well as the enemy. This effort would lead Carl Hovland and his colleagues at Yale to found the Attitude Change and Com- munications Research Project in the early 1950’s. Hovland identified four determinants of persuasion: message, target, source, and medium. These four determinants were to drive ex- ploration of consumer attitudes for decades to come. Also appearing in the 1950’s, Ernest Dichter at the University of Michigan established an annual survey to monitor consumer motivation.

In the early 1960’s a group of psychologists primarily working in marketing research positions, estab- lished Division 23 (Consumer Psy- chology) of APA. Their primary desire was to share with each other the latest ways to measure consumer responses to marketing stimuli. However, as the organization grew, a broader view of the consumer emerged. Also con- tributing to this broader view of the consumer was the establishment of the Association for Consumer Re-

Consumer Psychology By David W. Schumann, Ph.D., University of Tennessee

Dr. Schumann is an Associate Professor of Mar- keting and Chair of the De- partment of Marketing, Lo- gistics and Transportation at the University of Ten- nessee. He is a social psy- chologist and a fellow of APA (Division 23 - Consumer Psychology). Dr. Schu- mann’s research interests focus on attitude formation and persuasion as takes place within the context of marketing communication (e.g., advertising, promotion, and personal selling). His articles have appeared in both marketing and social psychology journals and he is presently co-editing a book entitled “Advertising and the Internet.”

Psychology Teacher Network November-December 3

search in 1968. A new journal entitled the Journal of Consumer Research was founded in 1973 and was sponsored by twelve different professional groups representing several different scientific disciplines including both social and consumer psychology. In the late 1980’s a new journal was founded and sponsored by the Society for Consumer Psychology, entitled the Journal of Consumer Psychology.

Today, research into consumer psychology has sophisticated new measurement tools at its disposal. “People meters” that measure specific in-home television commercial view- ing can produce information about an individual that can be tied directly to the person’s in-store purchase behav- ior, collected via computer scanning at the checkout counter. New computer technologies can produce graphic simulations that provide information on consumer choice without ever hav- ing to step foot in a supermarket. Moreover, new qualitative research methods allow consumer researchers the ability to directly link product fea- tures with one or more specific bene- fits sought, and further link those benefits to one or more basic desired end states. This indepth research al- lows us a more detailed look at the notion of customer value, and how delivery of that value leads to cus- tomer satisfaction.

Today’s Study of Consumer Psychology

With the formation of profes- sional associations and the subsequent sponsorship of academic journals, has come an explosion of research in con- sumer psychology. As an applied dis- cipline, consumer psychology has bor- rowed theories from numerous psy- chological disciplines to include social and personality psychology, develop- mental psychology, educational psy- chology, industrial psychology, and cognitive psychology. The two most highly researched areas in consumer psychology include the continuance of traditional advertising effects research dating back to the early 1900’s, and the more recent interest in consumer information processing. The former is characterized by studies examining Hovland’s determinants of persuasion applied to the advertising context:

source effects (e.g., celebrity effective- ness, gender of the source), message appeal (e.g., the use of humor, the ef- fect of repeated advertising, message strength, background music), audi- ence factors (e.g. intelligence, person- ality factors), and the medium em- ployed to convey the message (e.g., audio vs. visual). By attempting to measure what people are thinking as they view advertising, researchers have begun to better understand the mental process underlying consumer evaluation and choice behavior.

Of all the areas of investigation in consumer psychology, understand- ing how the consumer processes infor- mation has dominated a great deal of recent research effort. Many variables thought to influence information pro- cessing have been examined including an individual’s familiarity with a product, his/her product expertise, the format of the presentation, types of inferences, graphic representation, consideration set composition, adver- tising retrieval cues, mental represen- tations, and priming effects, just to mention a scant few. One of the newer and more interesting topics in consumer psychology is the impact that one’s affective state has on con- sumption behavior. Regulating one’s mood through consumption activity has become a “hot” topic in consumer research. Treating oneself to an ice cream cone after a hard day at work, going shopping as a way of alleviating boredom, or having a drink to calm one’s nerves are all example of ways consumption is used to manage our affective states. Understanding the antecedents and consequences of such a phenomenon will shed light on how marketers can reinforce a good mood, how advertisers can evoke a positive emotional reaction to a commercial message, and in the case of deviant consumption behaviors, how recogni- tion of antecedents might provide in- sights that can curb such behavior.

As the last sentence infers, con- sumer psychology is also interested in generating knowledge that can con- tribute to the betterment of society. Understanding abnormal and/or de- viant consumption behavior, identify- ing what might cause a consumer to make an inappropriate choice result- ing from exposure to a deceptive ad,

and seeking methods to encourage re- sponsible disposal of non-consumable product materials are but a few of the topics studied by consumer psycholo- gists interested in promoting responsi- ble consumption activities.

Practical Applications for Classroom Use

There are several ways that this material can be incorporated into the introductory psychology curriculum. It is important for students to be- come critical thinkers. They should be encouraged to become aware of the ways that marketers try to influ- ence consumers (e.g. through adver- tising or pricing strategies). One ac- tivity might be to show an advertise- ment from a magazine or from television and have students discuss the marketing strategy employed. Additionally, students should be given opportunities for direct contact with companies. The more they understand about business, the better consumers they will be. Students could be taken on a tour of a local factory or plant or students could conduct natural observation projects by watching consumers’ be- haviors at stores.

In closing, while much of the above discussion has focused on topics of consumer psychology research, knowledge about the discipline of con- sumer psychology is disseminated throughout the educational process. Students in high school are often ex- posed to consumer issues in home eco- nomics, psychology, or business courses. College students, both under- graduate and graduate, are exposed to courses in “consumer behavior” usually taught in the marketing, retailing, or advertising disciplines. Periodicals such as Consumer Digest and Consumer Re- ports provide consumers with impor- tant information that is processed psy- chologically, and contributes to a base of knowledge which may be applied to many types of consumer decisions. All in all, consumption is a important part of our lives, which makes it a fascinat- ing behavior to study.

...the study of consumer behavior

provides a vast number of

phenomenon to examine.

4 Psychology Teacher Network November-December 1996

Community Colleges: Issues of Access with Quality By Martha M. Ellis, Ph.D., Collin County Community College, Plano, TX

As I walk into the classroom to begin another semester of an introduction to psychology course, I am met with diverse, inquisitive faces. During the first class session I find out that the students range in age from 15 (a prod- uct of home schooling) to 72 years of age (retired CEO), have education backgrounds that include every- thing from a GED to a masters degree, and have di- verse racial and cultural backgrounds. When asking students why they registered for psychology, they re-

port such reasons as: a required course for the applied graphics design technology degree, majoring in psychology to become a clinical psychologist, transferring to Texas A&M, family member is diagnosed with a mental illness, and upon return- ing to school after twenty years this course sounded interesting. A fairly typi- cal community college class. The joy of teaching in a community college is the diversity of the students. The challenge of teaching in a community college is the diversity of the students.

Community colleges were born of democratic idealism. Harry Truman envi-

sioned the community college as the institution that should reach into every community in America, not just in terms of providing the first two years of a baccalau- reate education, but also of providing post-secondary technical education, acceptable reentry for people who had left school, and a personal enrichment component (Delco, 1988). With the Higher Education Act of 1965, a distinctive American phenomenon then known as the “junior college” began a transformation into the “com- prehensive community college”. Today, there are 1,471 two-year colleges, constituting 41% of all institutions of higher education in the United States (Boyer, 1994). Annually, forty-nine percent of all first-time college freshmen are enrolled in a community college with 45% of all undergraduates being enrolled at a community college (American Association of Community Colleges, 1996). Approximately 56% of all ethnic minorities who attend college begin at a community college (American Association of Community Colleges, 1996). Thirty- eight percent of all community college students come from the highest quartile of their high school graduat- ing class while 9% are from the lowest quartile (Adel- man, 1992). Lower and middle socioeconomic groups are by far the majority represented in com- munity colleges. Psychology is consistently the sec- ond highest major selected by community college students (business is first) and introduction to psy- chology is the course most likely to be chosen by

community college students, second only to English composition (U.S. Department of Education, 1992).

We can easily attest to the success of access in the community college psychology classroom by the numbers and diverse composition of the student population. How can the quality of the psychology curriculum be measured?

Being founded upon open door admissions policies and academic quality, community colleges are commit- ted to opportunity with excellence. Faculty at commu- nity colleges perform their roles in a context of balanc- ing open access with academic quality. With the variety of student goals and the diversity of students’ back- grounds, the debate centers on what is more important for the student: an understanding of scientific psychol- ogy or the practical application of its content. The an- swer is that both must be included in the course. The question then arises as how to maintain integrity of the scientific psychology curriculum while incorporating application in 16 short weeks. At my college we have expanded the introduction of psychology to a four con- tact hour course so that three hours are devoted to dis- cussing scientific psychology theory and one hour is devoted to experiencing scientific psychology and methods of inquiry. Some examples of curricula in this additional hour include designing and conduct- ing an experiment, computer simulations including some on the World Wide Web, analyzing a journal ar- ticle, applying motivation theory to television com- mercials, analyzing emotions in art, music and music videos, assessing short term memory, and some op- tions for personal career and personality exploration. The entire psychology curriculum has shifted from teacher to learner centrality by providing students with multiple opportunities to actively engage in their learning and demonstrate their skills.

Ascertaining the quality of community college psychology courses is fairly easy for transfer stu- dents. Community college faculty work closely with university faculty to verify that textbooks and learn- ing objectives are comparable. They also review and author textbooks, manuals, and test banks. By tracking student university records after transfer, the success of the student in the discipline can be studied. Tracking research compares community college transfer students with native university stu- dents. National studies indicate that students who receive an Associate of Arts degree do as well acade- mically at the transfer institution as native students (Pascarella & Terenzini, 1995). Students from com- munity colleges go on to become Ph.D.’s in psychol- ogy from some of the most prestigious universities,

The joy of teaching in a community

college is the diversity of the

students. The challenge...

is the diversity of the students.

Psychology Teacher Network November-December 1996 5

become founders of companies, and even presiden- tial candidates.

The quality of the psychology course is also mea- sured by employers of students in technical programs. Invariably advisory committees from the allied health professions, telecommunications industry, semiconduc- tor manufacturing industry, and public service profes- sions tell faculty that they require employees to have communication, problem solving, and interpersonal skills as well as the ability to work in teams. They look to psychology to provide components of these skills and therefore recommend that at least one course be re- quired in the technical degree plan. The application of psychological principles, critical thinking skills, writing and cooperative learning experiences are therefore in- corporated into the introductory course.

Most importantly the quality of the psychology course is measured by the impact on the individual student’s life. The quality of an education lies in the mastery of content, skills and in the enhancement of the individual. For many people in transition - the re- turning mother, the single parent, the ESL student - psychology is the first academic college course they try. Their impression of higher education, their hopes for a better quality of life, and the confidence they have in their abilities to perform in post-secondary education rest with this course. Not all students will make an A in the class, in fact not everyone will pass the class, but everyone has an equal opportunity to learn psychology and to be treated with respect. Each one of these stu- dents has something unique to bring to the classroom. As a faculty member it is imperative to incorporate di- versity curriculum throughout the introductory psy- chology course, not simply as an intermittent add-on (Ellis, 1992). This is a challenge for most faculty who remember during their own college career that diver- sity was absent from the curriculum — even the rat was white and male. Instructional approaches that tap students’ prior experiences and highlight the diversity of students can capitalize on students’ strengths. The diversity paradigm I have incorporated synthesizes two models: a socio-political perspective, stating that di- verse populations should be viewed in the larger socio- political context with the focus on empowering and de- veloping networks in the community, and a multicul- tural perspective emphasizing the understanding of how differing cultural values interact. All cultures have value; we can learn from each other that all cultures have value and can help promote cognitive flexibility. Cultural differences are not personality deficits. The principles for the approach are equality, dignity, and community — we all have ethnic origin; all people de- serve respect; and we are a cultural mosaic in a global community starting in this classroom on this campus.

Coming full circle, I return to the integrity of the curriculum. Students learn more effectively when ex-

pectations for learning are placed at high but attain- able levels. When students are expected to take risks and perform at high levels, they make greater efforts to succeed if the learning climate and faculty member supports students (Chickering & Gamson, 1987). For freshmen the support includes structure and guidance on how to learn psychology and the incorporation of experiential activities that allow students time for dis- covery about the discipline. I am certain many of you have heard that faculty need to change from being “a sage on the stage to a guide on the side”. I think a bet- ter analogy would be a sage on the side. I affirm the concept of active learning and have published several research studies on the benefits of this approach (Ewing, 1991). We must never forget, however, that active learning is both a “hands on” and “minds on” learning process. Students must have a basic under- standing of the content of the discipline of psychology and understand the methodology of the scientific disci- pline. Watering down the curriculum is a disservice not only to the many gifted students in the class but also to the students who are facing challenges. These two components, diversity and sound curriculum, show the utmost respect for all students.

When I look into each of these students’ faces on that first day of class, I remember former students re- turning to tell me of specific exercises, topics, or discus- sions that changed their lives. Some of these students have gone on to become Ph.D.’s in psychology and some have never taken another course. After one course in psychology will they remember every theory we dis- cussed — probably not. Students will know, however, that psychology is a scientific discipline seeking to un- derstand the mind and behavior in order to improve the quality of life for all individuals regardless of socioe- conomic status, race, ethnicity, age, sex, disability, or sexual orientation.

REFERENCES Adelman, C. (1992). The way we are: The community

college as American thermometer. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.

American Association of Community Colleges (1995). Community College Facts. Washington, DC: the author.

Boyer, E.L. (1994). A classification of institutions of higher education, 1994 edition. Princeton, NJ: The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.

Chickering, A.W. & Gamson, Z.F. (1987). Seven principles for good practice in undergraduate education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Delco, W. (1988). Formula for student success. The Third Annual Harry S. Truman Lecture at American Associa tion of Community Colleges, Washington, DC.

Ellis, M.M. (1992). Understanding gender through diversity. Diversity: A Journal of Multicultural Issues 1, 1, 71-81.

Ewing, M.M. (1991). Involvement in learning: Psychology. Community College Journal of Research and Practice 15, 3, 327-338.

National Center for Education Statistics (1992). Students in Postsecondary Education. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.

Pascarella, E.T. & Terenzini, P.T. (1995). Cognitive outcomes of community college freshman. Change.

6 Psychology Teacher Network November-December 1996

The APA Presidential Task Force on Adolescent Girls: Strengths and Stresses has requested assistance from the membership of TOPSS to gather information for a broad research project. The Task Force’s objective is to build a knowledge base on the cur- rent status of adolescent girls in today’s society. To accomplish this goal, the Task Force has enlisted the aid of TOPSS to reach adolescents and their parents so that specific topics of concern can be identified and addressed. The questions submitted to the Task Force will be used to develop a proposed trade book targeted to two audiences: adolescent girls and their parents. The proposed book would be organized in a question and answer format and would address the questions most frequently asked by each of the target groups.

The following mission statement is in place: The mission of the APA Presidential Task Force on Adolescent Girls: Strengths and Stresses is to integrate current knowl-

edge regarding adolescent girls in order to identify strengths, challenges, and choices of adolescent girls today. The Task Force will also identify gaps and inconsistencies in research, education, practice, and public policy. In this endeavor, the Task Force is committed to the inclusion of the voices and lives of a range of adolescent girls in terms of age, racial and ethnic diversity, socio-economic status, geographic area, and sexual orientation. The Task Force will work to raise public and professional con- sciousness in regard to adolescent girls with a particular focus on those who impact their lives including parents, educators, health care professionals and policy makers. Through its activities, the Task Force will chart directions into the new frontiers of the next century through a critical examination of the policy issues, current knowledge, and research approaches to under- standing adolescent girls.

Please ask your students to write answers to the following questions. To ensure the anonymity of the students, please ask them not to include their names with their responses. You have our permission and encouragement to translate these questions for non-English speaking students.

1. If you had an hour or two alone with a psychologist or counselor who has lots of experience working with people your age, what six questions would you ask?

2. Are you ❏ female or ❏ male? 3. How old are you?__________

TEACHERS: Because we want to ensure that we have diverse representation in the responses we receive, it would be helpful to us to know more about your students. Please fill in the following information and return it with your students’ answers:

• What is the racial/ethnic composition of your school? ❏ Mostly African American ❏ Mostly Asian American ❏ Mostly Hispanic ❏ Mostly Native American ❏ Mostly White ❏ Very mixed ❏ Other (Describe): ________________________________________

• How would you describe the area your school is in? ❏ Urban ❏ Suburban ❏ Small town ❏ Rural

• In general, how would you describe the social or economic background of your school’s students?

APA Task Force on Adolescent Girls

Division Two 1997 Teaching Awards Nominations The Society for the Teaching of Psychology (Division Two) of the American Psychological Association announces its 1997 program of awards for outstanding teachers of psychology. Teaching awards of $500 and a plaque are bestowed for out- standing performance in each of four environments:

1. Four-year Colleges or Universities (Robert S. Daniel Award)

2. Two-year Colleges 3. High Schools (Moffett Memorial Teaching Award) 4. Graduate Student

(McKeachie Early Career Teaching Award)

Criteria Nominations will be judged on the following criteria, al-

though nominees will not be expected to have achieved recognition in all areas:

1.Demonstrated influence in interesting students in the field of psychology.

2.Development of effective teaching methods, courses, and/or teaching materials.

3.Outstanding performance as a classroom teacher. 4.Concerns with professional identity as a teacher

of psychology.

Nonimations are to be sent with all supporting documents to the Chairperson of the Awards Committee and must have a first-class postmark not later than February 1, 1997.

See Division Two Nominations, on back cover

Thank you for an- swering these questions. Please return this form and your students’ writ- ten responses to:

Kelly Kennai, APA Executive Office, 750 First St., NE, Washington, DC 20002-4242.

Psychology Teacher Network November-December 1996 7

There are many ways to use desktop com- puters as part of a beginning research course; my approach is but one. This paper begins with a description of our lab and how we obtained the hardware and software, followed by a dis- cussion of the learning objectives and computer lab exercises designed to achieve those objec- tives. I end with suggestions for those planning a similar computer lab.

The lab has 23 work-stations, each with a 486-75 mhz PC connected to a file server and the Internet. Each work station has seating for two students to work together. Printing is han- dled through a single, high capacity printer (HP 4Si laser). The stations are placed along the perimeter of the room, adjacent to one another. Twenty-five desks are in the room’s center. While students sit at the desks, the instructor can use overhead projection equipment (a high- resolution display panel) to prepare them for the day’s lab activity. After the orientation, students disperse to the work-stations and begin the lab.

A room and computer hardware and furni- ture are the necessary first steps for an effective learning lab. The remaining, essential ingredi- ents are the software and the instructional sup- port materials. Support materials help students effectively learn from the software. I use the course learning objectives to guide the process of selecting software and developing a lab manual for the individual lab activities. We originally envisioned the lab as a place to have students participate in various psychology experiments, especially since the computer can simulate a va- riety of experimental apparati. But after review- ing the course objectives, I realized the lab could support many additional learning objectives. Besides gaining the experience of participating in experiments, students can learn to use impor- tant tools available to the social scientist (e.g., the word processor to make tables, the statistical package to produce graphs and calculate statis- tics). The table, to the right, summerizes the learning objectives and corresponding lab com- ponents designed to achieve the objectives.

Is the lab a success? Well, students do at- tend and complete the exercises. The extent to which computer-based teaching helps students learn isn't clear; experimental psychologists are

only beginning to conduct systematic, well-de- signed studies to answer this question. I can say, however, that about 40% of the students in the methods course typically choose the lab to pre- pare their final research projects. During the final weeks of the course, these students come in to produce tables, graphs, and posters, and use SPSS to compute their statistics, making use of skills acquired in the lab portion of the course.

Before ending, I have three suggestions for those about to implement a computer lab for teaching introductory research methods. When looking for funding for your lab, look into the National Science Foundation’s matching grant program. We obtained a grant from the National Science Foundation’s Instrumentation & Labora- tory Improvement (ILI) program to help pur- chase the hardware and software. The NSF wishes to promote effective teaching of scientific attitude and methodology. Commnity colleges can be quite competitive in the ILI grant proce- dure, especially because community colleges serve a large, diverse group of students, many of whom take introductory research courses.

Unless you enjoy being inundated with questions from confused, frustrated students during each lab activity, write a lab manual to provide students with the needed structure. Our lab manual introduces each weekly lab ac- tivity, provides a step-by-step guide for doing the exercise, and ends with a lab report. Stu- dents submit completed lab reports to earn lab credit. Profits from the lab manual, sold through the college book store, helps pay for software upgrades.

Finally, a word about software packages offering “canned” psychology experiments. By themselves, these packages may not be very ef- fective. Much of the documentation is too ad- vanced for introductory research students. When I tried one of these packages, many stu- dents would race through the assigned experi- ment, and complete the lab report without re- ally understanding the purpose and significance of the experiment; nor did they care. I’ve over- come this problem by assigning additional re- sponsibilities to learning groups. A 5-person group will, for example, read and study the doc-

See Computer Lab, page 14

Integrating a Computer Lab into the Introductory Research Methods Course By Jerry Rudmann, Ph.D., Irvine Valley Community College, Irvine CA, President Elect of Psi Beta

LAB LEARNING OBJECTIVES AND LAB COMPONENTS TO ACHIEVE OBJECTIVES

By the end of the course, the student will be able to... 1. Demonstrate a beginning knowl-

edge of a statistical package. Software: SPSS for Windows (base module) I.Introduction to SPSS, SPSS tutorials. II. Make a chart using SPSS. III.Use SPSS to import and prepare survey data for analysis. IV.Use SPSS to survey data: make cross-tabulation tables, compute t, f, and r.

2a. Explain the terms “main effect” and “interaction” when shown the results of a 2 x 2 factorial experi- ment. Software: Conduit Tutorial Package I.Complete tutorial and answer ques- tions at end of lesson in lab manual.

2b. Demonstrate, when shown data from a 2 x 2 factorial experiment, the ability to identify main effects and an interaction. Software: Conduit Experiments in Cognition and Perception I.Complete the “feature detection” lab.

3. State at least three features which enhance the power of a research design. Software: Conduit Tutorial Package I. Complete “power” tutorial and an- swer questions at end of lesson in lab manual.

4. Analyze and report research data using APA style format. Software: MS Word, Powerpoint, SPSS, Conduit Experiments in Cogni- tion and Perception I. Working in small groups, students administer pc-based experiments, col- lect and analyze class data. II. Groups use Word and Powerpoint to prepare and present results of experi- ments in APA style, prepare oral pre- sentations and posters for the class.

8 Psychology Teacher Network November-December 1996

The Society for the Teaching of Psychology-Division Two of APA-celebrated the 17th year of its annual Teaching Awards Program at the August convention of the Ameri- can Psychological Association in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The 1996 winners received a plaque and a check for $500. Recognition for outstanding teaching was given in each of the following categories: (a) Robert S. Daniel Award (4-year college or university professor), (b) Moffett Memorial Award (high school teacher), (c) McKeachie Early Career (graduate student). No award was given this year for the Two-Year College category.

4-Year College and University The winner of the Robert S. Daniel Award for out-

standing teaching in the 4-Year College or University cate- gory is Barbara Nodine, Ph.D. of Beaver College, Glen- side, Pennsylvania. Dr. Nodine teaches primarily in the area of cognitive psychology.

Nationally and on her own campus, Dr. Nodine has led the effort for the writing- across-the-curriculum initia- tive. She is the co-author of a book, called, “Thinking, Rea- soning, and Writing,” and she gave the G. Stanley Hall Lec-

ture on “Writing to Learn” in 1994. Dr. Nodine has been actively involved in several na-

tional and regional organizations devoted to improving the teaching of psychology. In APA, she demonstrated leadership as Division Two President, Council Represen- tative, News Editor and Consulting Editor of Teaching of Psychology. In addition, she was President of the Council of Teachers of Psychology.

The positive impact she has had on numerous stu- dents in her over 25 years of teaching is revealed by the comments on her evaluations. For example, one student wrote, “During my senior year Dr. Nodine supported and guided me through the two most complex academic activities I had ever attempted: a senior thesis and the design and teaching of an honors colloquium. As if her support of my research was not enough, Dr. Nodine’s support made it possible for me to be the first student in the history of the College to design and teach an Honors Colloquium.”

Dr. Nodine has already won awards in recognition of her excellence in teaching and achievement in psychology. She has been elected to several honorary societies; these

include Psi Chi, Phi Kappa Psi, Sigma Xi, American Men and Women of Science, Distinguished Women in America. She was also elected to be a Fellow of the American Psy- chological Association.

As a leader in several organizations devoted to the teaching of psychology, as the author of a number of works on writing, as a curriculum consultant for many colleges, and as an associate journal editor, Dr. Nodine has truly had a national impact on the quality of teaching in general and the teaching of psychology in particular, for which she is recognized with this award.

High School The 1996 winner of the Moffett Memorial Teaching

Award for outstanding teaching at the secondary level is Nancy Grippo, of Henry M. Gunn High School, Palo Alto, California. Besides Psychology, and Advanced Placement (AP) Psychology, she has also taught Introduction to the So- cial Sciences, U.S. History, and American Government.

When she began teaching in 1961, psychology was rarely offered in high school. Consequently, Ms. Grippo began by teaching a one-se- mester experimental course, the purpose of which was to introduce the social sciences in general; however, her inten- tion was to develop a course that emphasized the scientific study of psychology. Some years later, her school board authorized her to develop a pilot course to present mater- ial similar to that offered in a college introductory psychology course. As a result of her early experiences and her expertise, Ms. Grippo became one of the leaders in the Advanced Placement program in psychology.

Her effectiveness as an AP Psychology teacher is demonstrated by the astounding fact that all of her 59 students (through 1995) have earned scores high enough to earn credit for the introductory psychology course at most colleges and universities. Moreover, this year 63 of her students took the exam, reflecting the tremendous growth in the program.

Ms. Grippo has been active in strengthening her own skills as well as that of the high school program in psy- chology. From 1993-1995, she served as a master teacher for the National Science Foundation Institute for Teachers of Advanced Placement Psychology. Additionally,

See Award Winners, on next page

1996 Division Two Teaching Award Winners By James Freeman, Ph.D., Denison University

Nancy Grippo

Barbara Nodine, Ph.D.

PHOTO F 75%

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DEAR DOCTOR

Psychology Teacher Network November-December 1996 9

Q: Please define alcoholism. “Alcoholism” is the common

term for alcohol dependence and is characterized by a cluster of symp- toms. Behavioral symptoms include neglecting important social, occupa- tional, or recreational activities be- cause of drinking; trying repeatedly and unsuccessfully to reduce drinking; and continuing to drink despite know- ing that physical or psychosocial problems are caused or made worse by drinking. Physiological symptoms include marked tolerance (needing greatly increased amounts of alcohol to achieve intoxication) and with- drawal (unpleasant and sometimes dangerous symptoms occurring within a few hours of cessation of drinking). Alcohol problems fall on a continuum, with most people experiencing no problems, some having only occa- sional mild problems (e.g., a mild hangover), less having more serious problems (e.g., missing classes to drink or driving while intoxicated), and 15%-35% experiencing serious signs of physiological dependence.

Q: What risk factors are associated with alcoholism and which treat-

ments are most effective in ame- liorating it?

Genetic, cognitive, behavioral, and sociocultural factors all contribute to the risk for alcoholism. Genetic re- search shows that men with an alco- holic biological parent are approxi- mately four times more likely to de- velop alcoholism than men without an alcoholic biological parent. This in- creased risk occurs even if the men were raised from infancy by nonalco- holic adoptive parents. Genetic studies are less consistent regarding women’s risk. Additional risk factors include having positive alcohol expectancies (believing that alcohol will make one more sociable, attractive, etc.); using alcohol as one’s main strategy for cop- ing with stress; and learning from fam- ily or friends that heavy drinking is ac- ceptable and expected.

The most effective treatment for alcohol problems depends on how ex- tensive an individual’s problems are. For people who don’t show signs of physiological dependence, research shows that brief treatments designed to help them control their drinking are ef- fective. Despite the ample scientific ev- idence supporting such treatments,

they are rarely available in the U.S., where only abstinence-oriented treat- ments are considered acceptable. Other effective treatments include skills train- ing (teaching alcoholics alternative ways to cope with their problems) and community reinforcement (restructur- ing an alcoholic’s environment to rein- force sobriety and extinguish drinking). Drug treatments such as Antabuse (disulfiram) and Revia (naltrexone) have also been shown to aid in alcohol treatment. Many people report success with Alcoholic Anonymous, but there are few controlled studies of AA.

Q: Which drug is the most harmful to society today?

The cost to society of alcohol mis- use is higher than that of all illegal drugs combined. Alcohol causes over 80,000 premature deaths per year, and alcohol-related car accidents are the leading cause of death among teenagers and young adults. However, America’s most lethal drug is nicotine. Approximately 390,000 deaths per year are attributable to smoking (25% of deaths from all causes), and smok- ing-related illness accounts for about 20% of all U.S. healthcare costs.

A panel of noted clinical, ex- perimental and academic psychologists has graciously agreed to reply in this col- umn to questions submitted by teachers and students. We invite you to send your questions to:

DEAR DOCTOR, PTN, Education Directorate, 750 First Street, NE, Washington, DC 20002-4242

Perilou Goddard, Ph.D. Northern Kentucky University

Award Winners, from previous page in 1992, ‘93, and ‘94, Ms. Grippo served as the director for an Institute for Advanced Placement Psychology Teachers at Stanford University. She is active in APA as the Chair-Elect of TOPSS.

Those who know Ms. Grippo professionally rave pas- sionately about her positive impact as a teacher. One dis- tinguished psychologist wrote, “Nancy Grippo has made a powerful impression on me as someone from whom I would want my child to learn psychology, as a teacher I would want to present psychology to the public on behalf of our profession, as a colleague whose imaginative in- volvement in psychology would be a model for many of my university colleagues.”

In recognition of her outstanding contribution to the teaching of students and teachers, leadership in the AP Psychology program and in Teachers of Psychology in Secondary Schools (TOPSS), and for her deep compas- sion, commitment, and inspiration to psychology in gen- eral, Nancy Grippo is presented with this award.

McKeachie Early Career Award For excellence in teaching as a graduate student, the

recipient of the 1996 McKeachie Early Career Award is Earl M. Williams, of the University of California, Los

Angeles (UCLA). Mr. Williams expects to complete the re- quirements for his Ph.D. in Developmental Psychology in

1996. He has served as a teaching assistant at UCLA in a total of seven different courses. Mr. Williams was also selected this year for UCLA’s Collegium of University Teaching Fellows, giving him and ten other advanced grad- uate students the opportunity to independently develop and lead an undergraduate semi- nar. His seminar on “Evolu- tion, Psychology, and Cogni-

tive Science” addressed a topic that had never been taught at UCLA.

Mr. Williams has had a significant impact in several areas of undergraduate and graduate education. He was the first teaching assistant for the new undergraduate de- velopmental psychology lab course. With the faculty in- structor, he was the co-developer of the laboratory and created innovative child observation projects. As the in- structor of his Collegium course, he incorporated tech-

See Award Winners, page 13

Earl M. Williams

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10 Psychology Teacher Network November-December 1996

APF and TOPSS Announce Winners of the 1996 Excellence in High School Student Research Awards By Alan Feldman, TOPSS Member-at-Large, Perth Amboy High School, Perth Amboy, NJ

TOPSS reviewers invited Westinghouse Talent Search semifinalists whose research projects were in the domain of psychology to submit their papers to the TOPSS/APF Student Research Competition. Of the 59 eligible applicants, 44 submitted their papers. The papers were read and evaluated by three expe- rienced psychology teachers and a total of $5,000 was awarded to the four winners. The winners and a brief summary of their research follows. The papers will be published in a forthcoming issue of The Whitman Journal.

The first place winner was Juliette Taska of Lawrence High School in Cedarhurst, New York. Her

paper, The Paradoxical Effects of Diet Commer- cials on Adolescent Di- eters examined the effects of diet commercials on the eating behavior of young women. She found that seeing pictures or advertisements of attrac- tive slender young women actually disin- hibits adolescents’ eating and causes binging. It appears that the adver-

tisements convey that glamorous physiques are be- yond attainment with the result that these young women often give up and eat.

Second place goes to Flora Zhang of La Guardia High School of Music and Art in New York, for her paper, Do Conceptual Properties of Words Affect Ges-

turing. This research ex- amined the natural spon- taneous motion of the hands that accompanies speech. It looked at the idea that hand gestures are related to speech pro- duction rather than com- munication functions. It was determined that a relationship exists be- tween certain categories of words and the preva- lence of accompanying

hand gestures. Common English words were rated on three scales: abstract/concrete; spatial/non-spatial; and active/passive. Nineteen subjects were videotaped as they defined the words and their proportion of hand gesturing for each word was coded and recorded. The results indicate that spatiality and con-

creteness are the most reliable predictors of gesturing. This is evidence for the importance of gesturing in speech production.

The third place winner is Andre Michael Bishay of the Bronx High School of Science in New

York, for his paper enti- tled Teacher Motivation and Job Satisfaction: Employing the Experi- ence Sampling Method. Twelve teachers were studied using the expe- rience sampling method where they were ran- domly beeped to report their experiences five times a day for five days. They also completed de- tailed surveys about their

work experience. Job satisfaction and motivation cor- related with longevity of teaching, gender, age, subject and other factors. Some of the interesting findings were that women reported overall less job satisfaction; mathematics and science teachers reported higher job satisfaction than teachers of other subjects; the more responsibilities the teacher had, the more satisfaction they reported; and the longer a person is teaching, the greater the reported satisfaction. Longevity is corre- lated with a reduction in reported stress.

Fourth place was awarded to Susan Shaw of Villa Park High School in Villa Park, California, for her paper, Directional Perception in the Human Au- ditory System. This paper examined the effects of

hearing aids on auditory directional perception. It was found that exten- sions to the ear canal that bypass funneling and baffling significantly decrease the accuracy of directional perception. The accuracy of percep- tion is increased when the artificial canals are non-horizontal. The nor- mal slope of the ear canal is a cue for the dif-

ferentiation of direction. The auricles and slant of the ear were separately investigated for their role in au- ditory directional perception.

TOPSS and the American Psychological Founda- tion congratulate all of the students who submitted papers for their outstanding research.

Juliette Taska

Flora Zhang Susan Shaw

Andre Michael Bishay

PHOTO B

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Psychology Teacher Network November-December 1996 11

REVIEW

Why Psychology?

“Don’t judge a book by it’s cover” is an old adage that certainly applies to the text Why Psychology? by Adrian Furn- ham and David Oakley of the University College London. The cover, a monkey/human face with a jester’s hat, doesn’t seem to draw serious attention to psychology as a proven science. Once the reader looks past the cover, however, you will find a good review of what psy- chology is all about. The book is de- signed for the person who is interested in studying psychology and wants to know more about what this subject entails.

Strengths. Chapter 1 (Com- mon-Sense Views and Misconceptions About Psychology) is perhaps the best part of the book. This chapter dis- cusses common sense vs. the impor- tance of psychology (via research methodology) by reviewing the com- monly-asked questions: “Is psychology a science?” and “Is science the same as common sense?” The value of re- search to confirm or deny common sense evaluations and the dangers of relying too much on common sense are reviewed. The authors summarize by saying “It could be argued that psy- chology is, in part, the scientific study of common sense.” Psychology is also compared to astrology and graphology.

Given that a major goal of the book is to interest individuals in pursu- ing a more in-depth study of psychol- ogy, the quizzes provided in Chapter 1 involve the reader directly in the process of evaluating common sense vs. a more scientific explanation for expe- riences and observations. Test 1 (Be- liefs About Human Nature) takes a look at superstitions, common beliefs and actual fact; Test 2 (Common Sense) compares common sense beliefs to fact. Test 3 (Knowledge About Psy- chology) consists of 65 multiple choice questions that provide an overview of the topics covered in a typical psychol- ogy course. This chapter alone is worth the purchase of the book.

Chapter 2 (Background and His- tory of Psychology) reviews different

approaches in the study of psychology (e.g., behavioral, cognitive, etc.) by using a case example. This is very helpful in that the reader can more easily see the diversity of psychological perspectives and how they can be ap- plied. This chapter also discusses the emergence of psychology as a science and separate discipline.

Chapter 3 (Major Research Meth- ods in Psychology) provides a good re- view of research methodology such as laboratory studies, the survey method, and field studies. An important part of this chapter is the inclusion of advan- tages/disadvantages sections for each method studied.

Chapter 4 (What Goes On In Psy- chology?) describes the application of psychology in educational settings and provides a good review of the topics covered in a basic psychology course. In addition, reviews of significant re- search studies that provoke the reader’s interest are provided (e.g., conformity and obedience studies of Asch, Mil- gram, and Zimbardo, cognitive disso- nance, etc.). Other studies of interest include the use of hypnosis to recall events/conversations that occurred while a person was under anesthesia, and the relationship of dissociative identity disorder (multiple personality disorder) to self-hypnosis.

All chapters provide excellent, concise definitions of terms.

General Limitations. In most of the chapters, research studies are often mentioned with no citation of the source. Chapter 2 skirts around the issue of giving a definition of psychol- ogy. The authors state, “Unfortu- nately, although they are not difficult to find, rather different definitions of psychology exist and it is not certain how useful they are.”

In addition, although Chapter 2 does review the basic differences be- tween psychiatry and psychology, it would be helpful to elaborate more on the differences as well as recent hap- penings (e.g., in the U.S., psychologists

are working toward gaining prescrip- tion and hospital admission privileges, which until now have been in the sole domain of medical doctors, e.g., psy- chiatrists).

Another concern is the description of schizophrenia in Chapter 5. One of the major misconceptions of schizophre- nia is that the person has a “split person- ality” (i.e., personality disorder such as dissociative identity disorder). On page 103, schizophrenia is stated to be “the splitting of the personality from reality...” A more accurate description of schizo- phrenia as a brain disease is needed.

Limitations for use of the text in the U.S. The statistics about ca- reers in psychology as well as college de- gree programs reviewed in Chapters 1 and 6 describe the British system and are not relevant to students in U.S. edu- cational systems. (For example, a bach- elor program appears to be three years in Britain compared to four years in the U.S.). In addition, statistics in Chapter 5 with regard to mental illness pertain to the United Kingdom; no comparison was made for incidence in the U.S.

In several chapters, the terminol- ogy is contrary to that used in the U.S. An example is the description in Chapter 4 of multiple personality disorder. In the DSM-IV, this disorder is now referred to as dissociative identity disorder. Chap- ter 5 also states that there are four types of mental illness: neuroses, psychoses, psychosomatic and personality disor- ders. The term neuroses is no longer used as a category in the DSM-IV or general psychology texts in the U.S.

Summary. As mentioned previ- ously, the major value of the book lies in Chapter 1 and is alone worth the purchase and use of the book. The other chapters give a good overview of psychological perspectives and research methodology. Information pertaining to degree programs, statistics, and some terminology are not relevant to the U.S.; the reader should be made aware of the differences as they pertain to the study of psychology in the U.S.

Authors: Adrian Furnham & David Oakley Publisher: UCL Press Limited, University College London,

Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT Available from: Taylor & Francis Publishing Group,

1900 Frost Road, Suite 101, Bristol, PA

Phone: (215) 785-5800 Date: 1995 Price: $14.95 Reviewed by: Brenda Rohren, Southeast Community

College & College of St. Mary, Lincoln NE

12 Psychology Teacher Network November-December 1996

ACTIVITY

Inquiries, Demonstrations, Experiments and Activities

Concept:

Materials:

Instructions:

Discussion:

Discussing Ethical Issues in Psychological Research By Harold Herzog, Ph.D., Western Carolina University

Psychologists commonly confront ethical issues related to the treatment of participants in research projects. Federal law mandates that behavioral and biomedical research be reviewed by either an Institutional Review Board (IRB) in the case of research with human subjects or an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) if the research involves animal subjects. This exercise is to heighten student awareness of ethical issues posed by psychological research by having groups of students assume the role of an IRB or IACUC. The students are charged with discussing the costs, benefits, and ethical issues raised by hypothetical research proposals and deciding whether to approve or reject the research.

Each group of students is given a proposal to evaluate. The proposals should be kept to two or three paragraphs and should be specific and reasonably realistic. Here are some samples.

1. Your committee is the State University IRB. Dr. Jones is interested in the effect of stress on performance on the Mc- Cord Intelligence Test. She feels that the test, which is very widely used in public schools, gives misleadingly low scores to kids under stress. She wants to divide her subjects (college students) into two groups of 20 each. All subjects will take a bogus pretest and will be given their “results.” The experimental group will be told that they failed the test and that it is surprising that they were able to do well enough in high school to get into college. The control group will be told that they passed the test with flying colors. All of the students will then be given the real McCord IQ test. Dr. Jones’ hypothesis is that the experimental group will not do as well on the IQ test as the control group. At the end of the experiment, all students will be debriefed and told that the pretest was not real and explained the true purpose of the study. What issues are raised by this study? Approve or reject?

2. Your group is the IACUC at State University. Professor King is a psychobiologist working on transplantation of brain tissue, a new and exciting research area at the cutting edge of biopsychology. Previous studies have shown that neural tis- sue can be removed from the brains of monkey fetuses and implanted into the brains of monkeys that have suffered brain damage. Dr. King wants to conduct an experiment in which he will transplant neural tissue from monkey embryos into the entorhinal cortex, an area which appears to be associated with Alzheimer’s disease.

The experiment will involve 20 adult rhesus monkeys as subjects and 20 pregnant females whose embryos will be used to supply the neural tissue. First, all the subject monkeys will be subjected to ablation surgery. This procedure will in- volve anesthetizing the animals, opening their skulls, and making lesions in the entorhinal cortex. Three months later, the experimental group consisting of 10 of the animals will be given transplant surgery. The pregnant females will be operated on and their embryos removed. Neural tissue taken from the embryos will be immediately implanted into the area of the brain damage in the experimental subjects. The 10 control animals will be subjected to sham surgery. All of the monkeys will then be allowed to recover for 2 months. Finally, the animals will be given a learning task to test the hypothesis that the animals having brain grafts will show better memories than the control group.

According to Dr. King, this research is in the exploratory stages and can only be done using animals. He feels that this research will be a significant step toward developing a treatment for the devastating memory loss that afflicts Alzheimer’s victims. What issues are raised by this study? Approve or reject?

Divide the class into groups of between five and seven students. Appoint one student in each group to be leader and give them the proposal to read aloud to the group. Students should be instructed to attend only to the ethics of the proposal not to technical details such as the appropriateness of the control groups or random selection of subjects. Inform them that the purpose of the exercise is to elicit discussion on ethical issues and that they should not simply take a straw poll as soon as they read the proposal. In addition, they should try to reach a consensus.

The discussion leader should take notes on the major points raised by the committee and record the final decision. After the committees have made their decisions, have the class regroup. Each group leader should briefly describe the pro- posal that they evaluated, their decision and their reasoning.

This technique can be modified to elicit discussion on a wide variety of controversial issues in psychology besides the ethics of research (e.g., involuntary institutionalization, homosexuality, confidentiality, etc).

Additional references: Herzog, H.A. (1990). Discussing animal rights and animal research in the classroom. Teaching of Psychology, 17, 90-94. Bolt, M. (1995). Instructors resource manual for David Myer’s Psychology (4th Ed, 1995). Chapter 1: Introducing Psychology.

Psychology Teacher Network is looking for good ideas, activities and experiments to share with our readers. Please submit any activities to Psychology Teacher Network, Education Directorate.

Psychology Teacher Network November-December 1996 13

NEWS FROM TOPSS

TOPSS is currently accepting sub- missions for the fifth annual essay contest. Cash awards as well as a choice of psychology literature will be presented to the first, second and third place winners. Several honor- able mention winners will be selected as well. The contest is a great oppor-

tunity for students to learn and think about the impact of psychology out- side of the class curriculum. The postmark must be no later than Saturday, February 15, 1997.

One package containing three copies of each essay should be sent to: TOPSS Essay Contest, c/o Peter

Petrossian, Education Directorate, American Psychological Association, 750 First Street, NE, Washington, DC 20002. For more information please see the September/October issue of Psychology Teacher Network or contact the Education Direc- torate, APA, (202) 336-6076.

The Executive Board of TOPSS recently met for their semi- annual conference in Washington, DC. It is an exciting time to be a part of this vital and dynamic organization. Great strides were made to keep the goals progressing and to initi- ate future programs to continue the momentum previously established.

An important program for TOPSS is the unit plan ini- tiative. These units plans receive high approval ratings from our membership. You should receive the newest edition on “Learning” by the end of 1996. The companion unit on “Memory” is soon to follow in early 1997. This program will continue with additional units throughout the next years. If you do not have a complete set, you will be able to purchase missing publications in the future.

The student recognition program was an outstanding success. The spring mass mailing included recognition cer- tificates for outstanding students with letters for principals and superintendents and a sample news release for local newspapers. A number of teachers participated in this im- portant recognition program and reported their winners to

the Education Directorate for publication. The initiative to establish a national standards docu-

ment is progressing. After in-depth research and collabora- tion, a draft was presented to several APA committees to seek their recommendation and approval. After further revisions, the membership of TOPSS will receive a draft so that com- ments can be gathered from the field. This is an important undertaking that will have far reaching implications.

Great strides are being made to organize psychology teachers of all levels on a state and regional basis. The na- tionwide network is important to set the operation of TOPSS in motion, but it will take great efforts on more localized lev- els to reach all members. State coordinators have been de- termined in most states. New locale specific workshops, teacher trainings, membership drives and student programs are planned. Look for exciting news from state coordinators in the near future. If your state is lacking a coordinator, why not volunteer? The outlook for TOPSS is busy and bright. Do not forget to “pencil” in your membership renewal for 1997. You will want to be part of our future.

Reminder: Teachers of Psychology in Secondary Schools Fifth Annual Essay Contest

Post the enclosed flier and encour- age your students to participate!

TOPSS Executive Board Sets Initiatives By Margaret Davidson,TOPSS Chair

Award Winners, from page 9 niques from the study of learning and memory to encourage better writing, collaborative learning, and problem solving.

Numerous students have testified to Mr. Williams having been a particularly outstanding Teaching Assis- tant. Professors for whom he has served as a teaching assistant concur with the positive feedback of the stu- dents. One wrote, “Earl was open and inviting to stu- dents. Not only did he tell them he would help them but he clearly told them in such a way that they believed him; he was constantly meeting with students after class, encouraging, teaching, and giving feedback.”

For designing his own course and playing an influ- ential role in the structure and implementation of addi- tional courses, for development of a variety of innova- tive teaching techniques, and for making a significant and positive difference in the lives of students, Earl

Williams is presented with this award.

Division Two Committees. Award subcommittee members who reviewed the nominations were: Robert S. Daniel Award (4-year college/university category)—Drew Appleby (Chair), Richard Griggs, and Mitchell M. Handelsman; 2- year college category— Margaret Bly (Chair), JoAnn Bran- nock, and Virginia Nichols Quinn; Moffett Memorial Award (high school category)— Randal Ernst (Chair), Alan Feld- man, and Laura Lincoln Maitland; McKeachie Early Career Category— Mary Kite (Chair), Steven Meyers, and Maria Lynn. The Chair of the Teaching Awards Committee was James Freeman, and the Associate Chair was Mary Kite. In- formation on the 1997 Teaching Awards Program can be ob- tained from Dr. James Freeman, Department of Psychology, Denison University, Granville, OH 43023 (or via electronic mail: freeman@denison.edu).

14 Psychology Teacher Network November-December 1996

ANNOUNCEMENTS

Conferences for Teachers of Psychology Nineteenth Annual National Institute on the Teaching of Psychology Contact: Doug Bernstein, Ph.D. (217) 333-4731

Tradewinds Hotel St. Petersburg Beach, FL January 2-5, 1997

Ninth Annual Southeastern Conference on the Teaching of Psychology Contact: William Hill, Ph.D. (770) 423-6225

fax (770) 423-6432 email:BHILL@KSCMAIL.KENNESAW.EDU Department of Psychology Kennesaw State University Marietta, Georgia February 28-March 1, 1997

The featured speakers are Dr. Maureen Hester and Dr. Drew Appleby. The registration fee for the conference is $95.00 which covers all meals during the conference.

Fourth Annual Midwest Institute for Teachers of Psychology Contacts: David Shavalia, Ph.D. or Patricia Puccio, Ph.D.

(630) 942-2187 or (630) 942-2325 fax (630) 858-5424 Department of Psychology

College of DuPage Glen Ellyn, IL 60137 February 28-March 1, 1997

Fee: $90 covers conference registration and meals for both days; hotel accommodations available at a reduced rate.

Tenth Annual Conference on Undergraduate Teaching of Psychology Contact: Dr. Gene Indenbaum (516) 420-2725

fax: (516) 420-2452 email: indenbea@snyfarva.cc.farmingdale.edu Nevele Country Club Ellenville, New York March 19-21, 1997

This year’s theme is “Maintaining and Enhancing Excellence in a Climate of Restricted or Declining Resources”. The tentative keynote speaker is Dr. David Myers.

Lewis M. Terman Western Regional Teaching Conference Contact: Mary Allen (805) 664-2366

Preceeds Western Psychological Association Meeting Seattle, Washington April 23, 1997

All conferences are de- signed to encourage acade- mic linkages between psy- chology faculty at the grad- uate, four-year, two-year, and high school levels. These conferences provide participants an opportunity to discuss issues and share ideas relating to their profes- sion. The format consists of invited addresses, concurrent sessions, and participant poster sessions.

Computer Lab, from page 7 umentation which accompanies the experiment, meet with me to clarify any areas of confusion, “run” the rest of the class through the experiment, collect and analyze the class data, and use Powerpoint to present the study to the class. The class presentation allows me to point out im- portant features of the experiment’s design (e.g., repeated measures vs. independent groups, a 2 x 2 x 3 factorial, the use of deception, and so on). Using this procedure, the “canned” experiment comes to life and helps promote a deeper understanding of the principles of research design.

Software used in Irvine Valley’s Social Science Computing Laboratory

Fazio, R. & Backler, M. Topics in Research Methods: Power. Conduit Software, Univ. of Iowa.

Fazio, R. & Backler, M. Topics in Research Methods: Main Effects and Interactions. Conduit Software, Univ. of Iowa.

Keenan, J. Computer Lab in Memory and Cognition. Conduit Software, Univ. of Iowa. Word for Windows, Microsoft.

Levy, M., & Randell, S. Laboratory in Cognition and Percep- tion. Conduit Software. Univ. of Iowa.

PowerPoint for Windows, Microsoft. SPSS for Windows, SPSS,Inc.

For additional available software see: Stoloff, M.L. & Couch, J.L. (1992). Computer use in Psycho-

logy: A directory of software (3rd Ed.) Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

APA’s Traveling Psychology Exhibit entitled PSYCHOLOGY: Understanding Ourselves, Under- standing Each Other, is now at The Health Museum of Cleveland and will be there through January 15, 1997. Seventeen components of this impressive hands-on exhibit, called PSYCHOLOGY: It’s More Than You Think! are on display at the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and will be there for at least 2 years. This display includes exhibits on child development, attention, test- ing, reaction time, language and communication, cooperation and competition, and brain research. AAAS’s address is 1200 New York Avenue, NW, Washington, DC. Teachers can bring school groups, but they need to contact Jerry Bell at (202) 326-6670 in order to schedule a time to come.

Psychology Teacher Network November-December 1996 15

ANNOUNCEMENTS

As recommended by APA’s Board of Educational Affairs, a total of $2,500.00 has been set aside for block-grant allocation to APA members sponsoring teaching conferences. The money is to be used to offset travel expenses and/or regis- tration fees of selected conference participants. Participants receiving these stipends will be se- lected by the Director of the teaching confer- ence on the basis of financial need.

Any conference whose primary intent is to advance the teaching of psychology at the sec- ondary, 2-year, or 4-year college/university level is eligible for a block-grant. Priority will be given to conferences attempting to reach all three of the populations listed above.

Grants of $500.00 must be requested by the individual(s) directing the teaching conference. Requests must be made to the BEA by an APA Member in good standing. Panel 2 of BEA, upon

receipt of the applications, will make funding recommendations to the full BEA.

Grants will be available for the 1997 fiscal year. The application deadline for a 1997 block- grant is January 31. Beginning with the 1998 ad- ministration of the block grants program, the annual deadline for receipt of applications will be November 30. Applicants should send a writ- ten request applying for the block grants di- rectly to the Education Directorate of the Amer- ican Psychological Association and will need to submit a conference brochure/announcement as a part of the application.

Block-grant recipients will be required to submit a form detailing the use of the grant money. Conferences may be allotted more than one $500.00 block-grant if fewer than five ac- ceptable applications are received by the BEA in a given year.

Middle States Regional Office Suite 410, 3440 Market Street Philadelphia, PA 19104-3338 (215) 387-7600

For experienced teachers November 16, 1996 Fairport High School, Fairport, NY

December 13, 1996 Pace University, New York City, NY

For introductory teachers November 16, 1996 Delaware County Christian School, Newtown Square, PA

February 8, 1997 Catonsville High School, Baltimore, MD

Western Regional Office Suite 480, 2099 Gateway Place San Jose, CA 95110-1017 (408) 452-1400

December 7, 1996 Fresno High School, Fresno, CA February 1, 1997 Aragon High School, San Mateo, CA

March 15, 1997 U.C. Irvine, Irvine, CA

November 23, 1996 Cherry Creek High School, Englewood, CO

February 15, 1997 Willamette University, Salem, OR

Midwest Regional Office APP, 1800 Sherman Avenue #401 Evanston, IL 60201 (708) 866-6082. The registration fee is $60 per person. Registrations must be postmarked 14 days prior to the conference to avoid a late registration fee.

November 17 University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN

February 27 Augustana College, Rock Island, IL March 15 Triton Community College, River Grove, IL

March 20 Calvin College, Grand Rapids, MI

March 28 University of Missouri, Columbia, MO

April 4 Avila College, Kansas City, MO

April 16 Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL

April 23 University of Wisconsin, Eau Claire, WI

Advanced Placement Workshops The College Board, via its regional offices, is sponsoring one-day conferences on the psychology Advanced Placement course. For more information or to register, call or write your local College Board office. All workshops are subject to cancellation due to inadequate registration.

Block Grants: A Proposal for Financial Support of Faculty at Teaching Conferences

Please help us to make sure that you continue receiving Psychology Teacher Network and other APA materials. If you have recently moved or are planning a move, don’t forget to notify PTN of the change of address so that delivery will not be interrupted. The address for PTN can be found on the back cover of the newsletter.

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