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Ardizzon Alvise 5°A
JAMES JOYCE & “ULYSSES”
James Joyce was born in Dublin in 1882. He contributed to the modernist avant-garde, and is regarded as one of the most influential and important authors of the twentieth century. Joyce had begun his education at Clongowes Wood College, a Jesuit boarding school, in 1888 but had to leave in 1892 when his father could no longer pay the fees. Joyce then studied at home and briefly at the Christian Brothers O'Connel School in Dublin, before he was offered a place in the Jesuits' Dublin school, Belvedere College, in 1893. In 1898 He going on to University College Dublin and in 1902, after graduating, He went to Pari sto study medicine but He soon dedicated himself to writing poems and prose sketches and developing his distinctive aesthetic teories. Then in 1904, He met Nora Barnacle and persuaded her to leave Ireland and go to Europe with him. Joyce and Nora went into self-imposed exile, moving first to Zurich in Switzerland, where he had supposedly acquired a post to teach English at the Berlitz Language School through an agent in England. It turned out that the agent had been swindled; the director of the school sent Joyce on to Trieste, which was then part of Austria- Hungary (until World War I). He remained in Trieste for most of the next ten years. One of his students in Trieste was Italo Svevo: they met in 1907 and became lasting friends and mutual critics. He was a Catholic of Jewish origin and most of the details about the Jewish faith in Ulysses came from Svevo's responses to queries from Joyce. At the out break of World War I Joyce and his family fled to Zurich in neutral Switzerland, where He died in 1941.
In 1907 Joyce published a collection of poetry, Chamber Music, which was follow in 1914 by the short stories Dubliners. His semi-autobiographical first novel, A portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, was published in 1916 and the paly Exiles in 1918. His masterpiece, Ulysses, after being declared obscene and banned in Britain and America, was published in Paris in 1922.
The writings of Joyce make frequent use of interior monologue, both direct and indirect: in this way, the writer almost disappears and the readers find themselves directly inside a character’s mind. Joyce’s stories and novels are also characterised by peaks of intensity in the narrations that the writer calls “epiphanies”: it’s a sudden revelation, a moment in which a sudden spiritual awakening is experienced. This moment can be compared to Virginia Woolf’s idea of “vision”.
Focus on the text: Ulysses
Published in 1922, Ulysses represents a high point of Modernism literature. Ulysses tells the peripatetic appointments and encounters of Leopold Bloom in Dublin in the course of an ordinary day. Ulysses is the Latinised name of Odysseus, the hero of Homer's epic poem Odyssey, and the novel establishes a series of parallels between the poem and the novel, with structural correspondences between the characters and experiences of Leopold Bloom and Odysseus, Molly Bloom and Penelope, and Stephen Dedalus and Telemachus, in addition to events and themes of the early twentieth century context of modernism, Dublin, and Ireland's relationship to Britain. The novel imitates registers of centuries of English literature and is highly allusive. Joyce divided Ulysses into 18 chapters or "episodes". Every episode of Ulysses has a theme, technique, and correspondence between its characters and those of the Odyssey. These usually become parodic or at least are treated with comic
circumspection. Joyce shows how the problems, conflicts, triumphs and tragedies of the classical worls are the same problem faced by modern man. The difference is that a modern man is imperfect: He’s not a hero.
The plot of Ulysses like a map on which we follow Leopold Bloom’s wanderings,the various odysseys of Bloom, Stephen and Molly are equally voyages through the internal sea of their own consciousness, which the reader is invite to listen to. The interior monologue attempts to simulate the workings of the consciousness in several ways: it employs incomplete sentences, there is interrupted syntax,slips of tongue,sudden changes of tense to indicate the intermingling of past, present and anticipated future events. Thoughts are connetted by free associations. All this things increase sense of realism: Joyce doesn't select material on aesthetic grounds, but he preservesal the rubbish that passes trough our mind. Ulysses is structured according to a very precise symbolic system.
We analyzed the final lines of the book: Molly Bloom’s famous monologue which ends Ulysses. The final episode consists of Molly Bloom's thoughts as she lies in bed next to her husband. The episode uses a stream-of-consciousness technique in eight sentences and lacks punctuation. Molly thinks about Boylan and Bloom, her past admirers, the events of the day, her childhood in Gibraltar, and her curtailed singing career. These thoughts are occasionally interrupted by distractions, such as a train whistle or the need to urinate. The episode famously concludes with Molly's remembrance of Bloom's marriage proposal, and of her acceptance: "he asked me would I yes to say yes my mountain flower and first I put my arms around him yes and drew him down to me so he could feel my breasts all perfume yes and his heart was going like mad and yes I said yes I will Yes."