Riassunto Tourism 3 - Oxford University Press, Sintesi di Inglese
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Riassunto Tourism 3 - Oxford University Press, Sintesi di Inglese

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The global tourism industry is growing. The attractions of computers and the virtual world haven’t reduced

this. Some people used to think that with the growth of computer technology, business travel would

decline but this hasn’t happened. In fact, it is expanded because there is no substitute for face-to-face


The internet has led to a revolution in the tourism and travel industry, it has resulted in a new type of

independent consumer, who books everything online. It also emerging as the key distribution source: the

industry can reach customers directly and as a result, the role of the retail agent is declining.

Nowadays consumers are becoming increasingly conscious of the need to protect the environment.

Nowadays we speak about tourisms. There are three macro categories:


Currently tourism is becoming global. GLOBAL involves different part of the world (ex. EXPO) it involves a

lot of people all over the world. LOCAL is a local form of travelling that doesn’t attract a lot of people.


When a local reality becomes global, for example RHO because of expo.


MASS TOURISM: involve similar of global. Mass is the amount. Something that is practices by a number of

people. People go to a place where everybody go.

NICH TOURISM: something not common – uncommon

NATIONAL TOURISM ORGANISATION: are association that have different tasks. Their main aim is promote

or creating norms and market research. They are responsible for motional brand image.

There are many definitions of “tourism”.

Tourism is always concerned of temporary visit. It is the travel to an area other then the area the tourist


Tourism nowadays is divide in: travel for leisure and travel for business.

Good management skills are important for success of tourism because tourism now is a global activity that

revolves around. The operator need to focus of the satisfaction of customer because its offers abstract

products. Manager need to build, motivate and maintain a successful team.

Communication and intercultural skills (be able to understand cultural differences) are essential.

Tourism is now a global activity that revolves around teamwork and customer satisfaction. Because of this,

communication and intercultural skills are essential.

Different kinds of tourism:

OUTBOUND: people travelling away from their country

INBOUND: people entering your country




1. LEGISLATION AND POLICY DEVELOPMENT: creating laws and developing long-term strategies in

order to guarantee the maximum benefits for the whole country.

2. MARKETING AND PROMOTION: market research and planning, together with promotional

activities such as fairs and exhibitions. Creating a brand image for the country – a national brand


3. INFRASTRUCTURE AND FACILITIES: the upkeep(mantenere) of basic tourist facilities such as:

monuments, parks, national spaces, airports, rail networks.

4. TOURIST INFORMATION SERVICES: establishing the basic policies and strategies of local regional

tourist information centers.


MISSION STATEMENT: a document – a public statement(dichiarazione) of the organization’s fundamental

purpose (scopo), its broad function(ampia funzionalità) and roles in the country.

National Tourism authorities try to promote a brand image for their own country. The idea is to work on

the different thing people associate with your country. These things are what we term “attributes”.


A package holiday or inclusive tour includes the following elements: travel to the destination, local

transports, accommodation and meals, activities.

They have changed a lot due the impact of IT (information technologies) and we now have example of

customized or tailor-made tours, as well as the outcome of co-creation here, a customer approaches a

tour operator with an idea of a specific package. If the idea is viable(praticabile), the tour operator supports

the client in the planning, marketing and sales process.

A package tour includes several complex (perecchie complesse) tour operation.

There are three different kinds of management related to it:

1. MARKETING MANAGERS:they use different media promotion and marketing, such as brochures,

television or the internet.

2. TOUR MANAGERS: they accompany groups of holidaymakers on package tours. They offer practical

support during a tour or a stay.

3. RESORT MANAGERS: they work in the tour destination. They supervise the work of a employees.

They also negotiate with hoteliers and other service provides.

Tour operator stipulate different kind of contract with hoteliers. There are two type of contract used:

- ALLOCATION (SALE AND RETURN): tour operator only pay the hotelier for the beds they use.

- FIXED (GUARANTEED): tour operator pays for a fixed number of beds irrespective of how many are

sold. With a fixed contract, the risk to the tour operator is obviously increased.

Allocation contracts usually include a clause requiring the tour operator to confirm the number of beds

sold several weeks before the customers arrive, at which point the hotelier may take some of the rooms

back. This is called the release date. This enables the hotelier to sell off any beds.

Tour operators have similar contracting arrangements with airlines. If the number of passengers booked on

the airline is lower than the expectation, tour operators and airlines may operate a system of

consolidation. This is where two planned flights are combined, either with two different tour operators or

two separate departure or destination airports.

A Belgian tour operator has set up a division called Club Tour, which allows amateurs to create travel

packages, based on their own need, that are sold to the company’s customers.


Hotel belong to chain or corporations or they are independent. Despite (nonostante) what people believe,

the majority of hotel nowadays is still independently owned.

The major corporations do not own all of the properties they put their name to. Instead various formulas

are used, including:

- ACQUISITION: the company owns and manages the property

- MANAGEMENT CONTRACTS: Investors own properties and contract a hotel group to operate them

- FRANCHISING: the hotel group (franchisor) allows another company (franchisee) to use its name In

return for an agreed payment.

Hotel within a given brand cost more or less the same and look and feel very similar wherever they are.

Independent hotels are privately owned and are managed as a small/family business. This means that each

hotel feels unique. Independents can also offer the client a more personal experience; staff turnover in

generally lower than in chain hotels, and so repeat guests quickly become part of the family.

Independent hotels cannot easily access the benefits of chain in term of sharing the burden (peso) of

marketing costs, because of this hotel can team up with each other as a consortium.

Independent hotels compete with global hotel groups in different ways:

1- They can exploit(sfruttare) specific niches in the market and sell their uniqueness (not having that

identikit feeling typical of chain hotel)

2- They can work in collaboration with other hotels and form a consortium which allows them to

access a under market reasonable costs.

What makes a great place to work is the quality of the relationship between:

- Employees and management

- Employees and their jobs or company

- Employees and other employees

The success of the best places to work is due to:

- The unshakeable (irremovibile) conviction that their people are their most important asset


- An environment that supports associate growth and personal development

- A home-like atmosphere and friendly workplace relationship

- A performance-reward system that recognizes the important contributions of both hourly and

management associates

That is very important for the success of business and guest satisfaction.

The typical structure of medium or large hotel generally consists of:

1- ROOM (FO, reservations, Housekeeping, maintenance)

2- FOOD AND BEVERAGES (food productions, room services, restaurant, bars)

3- COMMERCIAL DEPARTEMENTS (sales and marketing, accounting)

FRONT OFFICE MANAGER ensures a high quality welcome for guests and leads a team of receptionists. He

has to:

- Integrate, train and supervise the team

- organize guest arrivals and departures

- keep the various management charts updated in order to monitor progress of business

- check invoicing (fatturazione) and cash operations

- draw up a sales strategy to maximize occupancy rates and improve room results

- Handle customer complaints and provide a swift solution.

A good FO Manager needs to:

- Have outgoing personality and service-minded

- Have Diplomacy and self-control

- Have Teaching and motivational skills

- Have Commercial know-how

- Have ability to listen and analyse

- Be proactive and decisive

- Have ability to delegate

- Have an excellent English

- Two years’ experience as receptionist

HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: is also crucial for the success of a hotel: good HR management keeps

staff motivated and ensures that they see themselves as part of a team and that they share their problems

with their colleagues so they can help him solve the problem before it affect the rest of the team.

HR also have to select new staff. They usually looking for people who had experience in hotels, especially in

hotels of the same category; who had the ability to organize and manage a team; who have discipline.

HR first discard the applications that do not fulfil the minimum requirements, from the remaining

applicants, they then select those with the best level of languages. A lot of importance is also given to how

long each applicant has spent in their previous jobs.


The outcome of the IT revolution (or of ITCS – information and communication technologies) has included

other professional figures and sectors along with the traditional high street travel agent:

1. ONLINE TRAVEL AGENT: purely internet-based, they have no physical shop or building

2. HOME-BASED AGENCIES: independent, they work from home and communicate with clients mainly

by e-mails

3. SUPPLIER WEBSITES: internet sites run by principals or suppliers (ie, airlines or hotel groups), they

sell directly to the customer without using travel agents or intermediates.

META SITES AND DATA AGGREGATORS: internet search engines that use information given by the

customer (destination, dates, preferences, etc) to browse the web for the travel product that best satisfies

the criteria given.

DYNAMIK PACKAGING: ICT allows travellers to go to a single website and put together their own “package

holyday”, choosing the transport, accommodation and other services from a vast range of option (although

traditional tourist agents are still popular, since they can offer their expertise and reliability).

The internet was supposed to make everyone a travel agent but it can turn into a frustrating, time-

consuming journey full of uncertainty. It’s no surprise, that the traditional travel agencies are still going


A growing number of travel agent choose to work from home. Thanks to the creation of sophisticated

networks spread across the world, home-based agent can also use a variety of online channels and forums

to talk to each other.

Mobile agents have time to develop more meaningful relationships with their customers. The reality is that

face to face meetings are rarely required.

Mobile agents will charge fees for their service, but generally no more than a regular agency.

Mobile travel agents run their own business but most belong to one of four groups.


The success of package holidays of the 1960s-1990s was based on volume and quality. During the 90s

however, it became clear that to be competitive, companies had to offer quality, as well as quantity.

Products offer quality when they meet the customers’ expectations. This places the customer at the centre

in contrast to mass tourism in the 60s-90s, where the product was the focus of the attention.

Several quality assurance techniques can be used to access the quality standards:

1. PERFORMANCE STANDARDS: lit of processes and tasks that employees have to perform and the

levels of service expected.

2. BENCHMARKING: comparing the company’s performance to that of excellent companies in the same


3. APPRAISAL (VALUTAZIONE PUNTI FORZA): an interview in which a manager and an employee

evaluate the employee’s previous performance before setting objects for the future.

4. FOCUS GROUPS: groups of customers that are brought together to discuss different aspect of the

holiday or travel experience.

5. OBSERVATION: a manager will spend some time with an employee, watching them perform their

normal job.

6. SUGGESTION BOX: where customer or staff can put any ideas or thoughts that they have.

7. MISTERY SHOPPER: somebody employed by the organization visits or contacts another part of the

organization and reports back to management on their experience.

8. REWARD /INCENTIVE SCHEME: for employees who deliver outstanding levels of performance or

show significant improvement, we will show material and public appreciation.

9. SERVICE CHARTER: a list of the key quality criteria, which the organization aim to meet consistently.

Focus and training in PROACTIVE THINKING rather than REACTIVE.

PROACTIVE: do something without telling you to do that. You do the duties before someone tell you.

REACTIVE: when you wait something to happen, deal with it and then promptly file it and forget about it.

Many travel and tourism organizations continually asses and monitor the quality of customer service they

provide. They do this to make sure that their service is meeting the needs of customers and, if not, then

necessary changes can be made. Customers’ needs and expectations are constantly changing, so any

customer service programme in travel and tourism must be flexible.

The management have also to define what “treat customer well” means. Employees need to know the

standards against which their performance will be measured. Once the standards are set, it is important to

monitor and measure to see they are being met.

Is important to welcome complaints because is that it shows confidence in the service provision. There is no

one better than the customers to tell what needs to improve.

A spoken complaint is usually very public, there are other people present, and that can be bad for the

company. You may want to take the customer to one side so it can also help to calm the situation if anger is

involved. It easy to check the details of the problem with the customer, to clarify exactly what happened, and

it’s usually possible to check there and then with any other people involved.

A written complaint is private, unless it’s in a newspaper or a magazine or a blog of course, and there’s no

immediate danger of damage to the company image. The customer will not be present, so there’s less

pressure to solve the problem immediately. You have time to consider the situation and your response. The

incident will already be in the past, and checking details will be time-consuming and tedious, evidence of any

serious wrongdoing by a member of your staff may already have been covered up.



POSITIVE: creation of jobs, income obtained from tourist; improvements in the transport

infrastructure and the local economy

NEGATIVE: low salaries for non-managerial jobs; financial speculation that cause the price of land

and homes to rise beyond the capacity of local people


POSITIVE: the natural environment is also a valuable tourist resource, as tourists demand protected

natural areas (green and eco-tourist)

NEGATIVE: destruction and spoiling of nature, pollution etc.


POSITIVE: meeting and interchange of cultures and values; local people appreciate elements of

their culture that they used to take for granted. It can generate understanding and tolerance of


NEGATIVE: heavy commercialization of arts and crafts to the point of being produced abroad;

trivialization or banalization (as traditions may lose their true meaning)

Global warming has given rise to a new niche in the booming ecotourism business: climate tourism. These

visitors are looking for places where warming is starting to have noticeable impacts. But there is a big irony

cause any trip by train, plane or cruise ship sends carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and possibly

contributes to the warming of the planet.

A new study has pointed to tourism as the main factor in the deterioration of the region’s forests. Tourism

has encouraged the commercial production of woodcarvings (sculture di legno) and handicrafts(artigianato)

and this has depleted (impoverito) local forest resources.


Event management involves the process of planning, organizing, coordinating, directing and evaluating an

event in order to see how it went and to determine to what extent the objectives have been met. It is a

fast-growing sector in contemporary tourism.


Product launch, training seminars, Olympic games, F1 racing, rural festival, weddings, trade fairs,

conferences, sport events, customized tours etc.


Planning, Project managing, promotion, finance and budgeting, human resource management,

trouble-shooting, thinking on your feet, fire-fighting, teamwork.

FAM TRIPS: are tours organized by tour operators, where journalists or people in the travel trade can get to

know the facilities and services offered, and thus help to sell or promote it.

A Key skill in events management is fire-fighting, it means solving problem as they come up.

A DESTINATION MANAGEMENT COMPANY is a company which, as the name suggest, organizes every

aspect of the event from the destination itself.

In events management, you need teamwork.

You have to:

- Training to practise and improve skills

- Be enthusiast for the event and team

- To be aware of the tasks to be carried out and of the needs of others

- Motivate to meet the objectives and to help others in team

- Be willing to adapt to change and take decisions

- Organize yourself to undertake responsibilities

- Recognise of the work of others in the team

- Know what is happening and keep everyone informed.

Events management covers a range of skills: planning, project managing, promotion, finance and

budgeting, human resource management, as well as trouble-shooting and thinking on your feet.

The reception is crucial for the success of the whole event.


GUIDELINES: according to the World Tourism Organization. Sustainable tourism development should:

1. Use environmental resources in a way that maintains their essential ecological processes and

helps to conserve a region’s natural heritage and biodiversity

2. Respect the sociocultural authenticity of host communities and conserve their built and living

cultural heritage.

3. Contribute to intercultural understanding and tolerance

4. Ensure viable, long-term economic activities, which will provide benefits to the local communities.

5. Create stable employment and generate income-earning opportunities and social services for the

host communities.

Sustainable tourism is not only a response to the negative environmental impacts of tourism, but to

sociocultural and economic impacts too. Sustainable tourism development guidelines are applicable to all

forms of tourism in all types of destination, including mass tourism and the various niche tourism segments.

ECOTOURISM: it aims to provide tourists with the chance to understand a natural or cultural environment

without permanently altering it.

GREEN TOURISM: it is essentially the same in its aims as ecotourism but the term green is used to create a

contrast with white and blue tourism.

Both eco and green tourism can be sustainable or not, according to the way they are developed. In this

respect, sustainable tourism is a far more wide concept than ecotourism or green tourism, since it seeks

sustainability not only in being eco-friendly but in all aspects of tourism, from the management of city

centre hotels or the recycling of waste or the elimination of waste in protected areas. It also involve

determining the carrying capacity of a given location or destination and to provide lasting positive effects.

Being an eco-friendly tour operator or travel agent brings many benefits such as reduced costs, wildlife

conservation, cultural understanding and more Eco tourists.

As a tour operator choose a project that interests your company and set yourself a goal. Create the timeline

with your staff and then inform your clients of your goals.

You also have to assurance that your drivers do not drive off the road in national parks. You have to explain

to your clients the potential damage of off road driving and ask them to help protect the parks by not

asking the driver to do so.

You have to do eco policy briefing for new staff or instead you can ask one of your staff to mentor new staff

on your company’s eco policies.

You have to create pre departure information that provides helpful hints on how to visit local cultures. Give

background information on cultural “dos and don’ts” for each area your client is visiting.

You have to working with local citizens so it gives to you the local information that you and your clients


You have to develop, operate and market tourism in a sustainable manner; all forms of tourism which make

a positive contribution to the natural and cultural environment, which generate benefits for the host

communities, and which do not put a risk the future livelihood of local people.

If you are a Hotel Manager and you would like your hotel to “go green” you can:

- Start a linen reuse programme in all guest rooms.

- Switch to low-flow toilets.

- Switch to compact fluorescent light bulbs in guest rooms, lobbies. Use sensors and/or timers for

areas that are infrequently used

- Whenever possible, buy food and guest amenities in bulk.

- Educate your staff to turn off lights and turn down heating/air conditioning when rooms are


- Install window film to lower heating and cooling loads and reduce glare(bagliore) in guest room.

- Provide recycling bins both in public areas and staff are.

- Buy office and guest amenity products that contain recycled material.

- Buy organic, fair trade, cruelty-free guest amenity products whenever possible.

- Use recycled paper products. Minimize the amount of paper used for each guest.

- Print with soy-based inks.

Sustainable tourism can be developed in natural areas and urban areas

Ecotourism is concerned with natural areas, with a focus on ecology, as the name suggest.

To be sure we are doing sustainable tourism we have to know the carrying capacity, it means the maximum

number of people that can visit a tourist destination at the same time, without damaging the physical,

economic, sociocultural environment, and without producing an unacceptable decrease in the quality of

visitor satisfaction.


Social tourism consists of those programmes and measures carried out by both public and private sector

groups in order to help those people that are marginalized and excluded from tourism for several diverse

reasons (there are still many sections of society unable to benefit from tourism even in countries in the

developed world)

Marginalization typically affects:

1. The young, families, single-parent families, and the unemployed, who all lack the financial means

to travel

2. Disabled people, who can suffer mobility, hearing, visual or mental impairment.

3. Elderly people, who may lack the necessary finance, or suffer problem of age-related disability, or a

combination of both.

The recent boom in low-cost travel is seen by some as another step towards making tourism available to

everybody, but some critics argue that such cheap transports do not satisfy the needs of really poor people

but only facilitate the richer ones.

People are marginalized and excluded from tourism for a number of reasons. Low income is certainly a big

reason, but it also include unemployed people, single parents, age and physical disability.

The aim of the social tourism movement has been to bring these people into the tourism experience.

Holidays should be seen as a basic right for all cause it improves the well being, strengthen family

communication and bonding, give a new prospective, as well as provide lasting memories.

It happens sometimes that passengers have some kind of “baggage” such as wheelchair, walking stick or

hearing aid. Some people would categorize those people as disabled. But if you are travelling with a

pushchair, a crying baby, a guitar, a dog or a cat, you’ve also got baggage, or if you are very tall or


So the staff need to be aware and need to care for a range of different needs and “baggages”. As a

manager, you have to train your staff with training sessions where you have to get your staff to experience

what it’s like. Put them in a wheelchair or give them a guitar and then get them to perform a simple

simulated tourism task like checking in at the airport or something like that.

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