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INGLESE… MARTIN LUTHER KING AND THE AMERICAN CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT In America fu serrata la lotta contro il razzismo, simbolo di questa lotta fu Martin Luther King con il quale si diede inizio al movimento per la conquista dei diritti civili dei neri.
Racism i san attitude that subordinates an individual or group because of their skin colour or racial origin. Discrimination is an action that typically result from prejude. During the early part of twentieth century, the idea of racial superiority was given “scientific” credibility through a science called “eugenics”. The science aimed at proving that some people were genetically superior to others, and the Nazism used this research to justify their action.
The post-war civil rights movement challenged racial discrimination of African Americans with unprecedented energy. The questions received national attention as newspaper, radio and television and on 1948, President Harry Truman issued one executive order which provided for equality of treatment and opportunity in the armed forces without regard to race, colour, religion or national origin; this was an important victory for the civil rights movement. On December first, 1955 in Montgomery, Alabama, Rosa Parks, an African Americans left work and boarded a bus for home. Buses in Montgomery were segregated, with the seats in the front reserved for “whites only”. Black people had to sit at the back of the bus, but if the bus was crowded, they were expected to give up their seats. As the bus became crowded, the bus driver ordered Rosa Parks to give up her seat to a white passenger. Rosa refused to give up her seat and was arrested. This fact set off a train of events that generated a momentum the civil rights movement had never before experienced
Local civil rights leader were hoping for such an opportunity to test the city’s segregation laws. Deciding to boycott the buses and the African American community soon formed a new organisation to supervise the boycott, the “Montgomery Improvement Association, MIA, and the Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. was chosen as the first MIA leader. He devoted all his energies to the civil rights issue and it was his insistence on using Gandhian, non-violent protest which made the movement effective: in 1964 the Civil Rights bill was passed and Martin Luther King was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize; in 1965 the New Voting Rights Act was signed. On 1963 Martin Luther King made a rousing speech to a large number of people who had marched to Washington to celebrate the centenary of the emancipation of the slaves. They listened to the most eloquent expression of all that Martin Luther King and the civil rights movement stood for. Martin Luther King was assassinated on 1968 while he was speaking in Memphis.