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LABORATORIO DI INGLESE SPECIALISTICO FIGURES OF SPEECH CONTINUED…. + SOME
GRAMMAR (RELATIVE CLAUSES COMPARISON FORMS AND SUPERLATIVES
FIGURES OF SPEECH CONTINUED…
THE “SUBSTITUTION OF AN EPITHET OR APPELLATIVE, OR THE NAME OF AN OFFICE OR DIGNITY, FOR A PERSON’S PROPER NAME”. E.G.: ‘THE IRON DUKE OF WELLINGTON’, ‘HIS GRACE THE ARCHIBISHOP’, AND SO ON.
ALSO, THE USE OF A PROPER NAME TO EXPRESS A GENERAL IDEA, e.g.: CALLING AN ORATOR A CICERO; A CASANOVA, A CASSANDRA, ETC.
IT EXPLOITS METAPHOR AND SIMILITUDE.
IT USES ALSO PERIPHRASES (OR CIRCUMLOCUTION): THE ATHENS OF THE NORTH: EDINBURGH
CAN YOU GUESS THE SUBJECTS IN THESE EXAMPLES? THE DIVIDED CITY (some 15 years ago….) THE EMERALD ISLE / THE ETERNAL CITY THE IRON LADY / THE BIG APPLE
HOW WOULD YOU NAME A LONG, COMPLEX JOURNEY, FULL OF EXPERIENCES?
... AN ODYSSEY
USED MAINLY IN FORMAL SPEECH. ITS AIM IS TO TONE DOWN THE IMPACT OF OFFENSIVE, EMBARASSING EXPRESSIONS OR PAINFUL SITUATIONS.
USE OF ACRONYMS TO ‘HIDE’ THE ACTUAL MEANING OF THE SINGLE WORDS.
C.W.: CHEMICAL WEAPONS / PLWA: PERSON LIVING WITH AIDS / OAP: OLDAGE PENSIONER ETHNIC CLEANSING: GENOCIDE ELDERLY/ SENIOR CITIZENS: OLD PERSON NEUTRALIZE: KILL NONPERFORMING ASSET: LOAN, OR SOMETHING BAD KILLED BY FRIENDLY FIRE: KILLED ACCIDENTALLY BY WEAPONS FIRED BY THEIR OWN SIDE BRACELETS: HANDCUFFS A FAMILY: A MAFIA GROUP TO PASS AWAY: TO DIE EASY MONEY: STOLEN OR ILLEGALLY GAINED MONEY
WORDS OR EXPRESSIONS THAT TEND TO EXAGGERATE SOME SITUATIONS OR ASPECTS OF REALITY.
A FLOOD OF TEARS / TONS OF MONEY I’VE GOT A THOUSAND AND ONE THINGS TO DO THE OFFICE WAS FLOODED WITH APPLICATIONS FOR THE JOB MILLIONS OF EXAMPLES
WHAT ARE THE FIGURES OF SPEECH TO REMEMBER?
METAPHOR / METONYMY AND SYNECDOCHE SIMILITUDE / ANTONOMASIA
EUPHEMISM / HYPERBOLE
RED TAPE TURKEY: AN AWAKENING GIANT A TONS OF FIASCOS THE EMERALD ISLE NEUTRALIZE THE WOUNDED BEAR (RUSSIA) DISCREET AS A TOMBSTONE PUPPET GOVERNMENT WHITE KNIGHT WALL STREET A FLOOD OF TEARS BRACELETS
RELATIVE CLAUSES (WHO/WHICH/THAT)
WHO OR THAT ARE USED IN A RELATIVE CLAUSE TO IDENTIFY PEOPLE:
“HE HAS THE AIR OF A MAN WHO/THAT HAS DONE THIS MANY, MANY TIMES BEFORE”
WHICH OR THAT ARE USED FOR THINGS:
“BOLDNESS AND VISION ARE QUALITIES THAT/WHICH ALL LEADERS SHOULD HAVE”.
IF THE RELATIVE PRONOUN DEFINES THE SUBJECT OF THE SENTENCE, THEN IT MUST BE INCLUDED:
“A COUNTERFEITER IS A PERSON WHO/THAT COPIES GOODS IN ORDER TO TRICK PEOPLE”
“WHERE IS THE DOCUMENT WHICH/THAT WAS ON THE TABLE”?
HOWEVER, IF WHO/THAT OR WHICH/THAT INDICATES THE OBJECT IN THE SENTENCE, THAN IT CAN BE OMITTED:
“PEOPLE (WHO/THAT) WE EMPLOY ARE VERY HIGHLY QUALIFIED”.
“HAVE YOU READ THE REPORT (WHICH/THAT) I LEFT ON YOUR DESK”?
NONDEFINING CLAUSES PROVIDE EXTRA INFORMATION ABOUT THE SUBJECT OR OBJECT OF A SENTENCE. THE SENTENCE STILL MAKES SENSE WITHOUT THIS INFORMATION; THE EXTRA INFORMATION IS SEPARATED BY COMMAS.
WHO (NOT THAT) IS USED FOR PEOPLE: SIR LINDSAY, WHO TURNS 62 THIS MONTH, IS NOW THE CHAIRMAN.
WHICH (NOT THAT) IS USED FOR THINGS: JOHN TOLD ME ABOUT HIS NEW JOB, WHICH HE’S ENJOYING VERY MUCH.
COMPARISON AND SUPERLATIVES
1. The comparative and superlative forms of onesyllable adjectives are formed by adding –er and est: “The country enjoys an advantage because of lower labour costs”. “All countries, including the poorest, have assets (beni, risorse)”. 2. We often use ‘than’ after a comparative: My salary is higher than yours. John’s car is more expensive than mine.
Adjectives of 3 ore more syllables have more and the most before the adjective itself:
It’s more expensive than the old model. (COMP.) It’s the most expensive model in the range. (SUPER.) ‘The’ is normally used before a superlative. But possessives can be used instead of ‘the:
“The oldest car manufacturer in Italy / Italy’s oldest car manufacturer”.
After a superlative we can use ‘in’ or ‘of’. In is used for places and groups of people: It’s the most expensive hotel in Oxford. Who is the best player in the team? This question is the most difficult of all. August is the wettest month of the year. 4. After the superlative there is often a clause: This is the best model we have ever produced. That was the most delicious meal (that) I’ve ever eaten.
Adj./Adv. Comparative Superlative
good/well better best
bad/badly worse worst
far farther/further fartherst/furthest