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1-58503-269-7 -- ANSYS 10 Workbench Tutorial

ANSYS ®

Workbench

Tutorial ANSYS Release 10

Kent L. Lawrence

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering University of Texas at Arlington

SDC

Schroff Development Corporation

www.schroff.com

www.schroff-europe.com

PUBLICATIONS

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Solid Modeling Fundamentals 1-1

Chapte 1

Solid Modeling Fundamentals

1-1 OVERVIEW

A simple L-shaped cross section is used to introduce basic solid modeling concepts with

ANSYS DesignModeler. These tutorials explore modeling by:

♦Extruding

♦Revolving

♦Sweeping

A number of additional parametric, feature-based modeling possibilities and formulations

are demonstrated in this chapter.

1-2 INTRODUCTION

Solid modeling can be accomplished in a number of ways, and one favorite method

involves starting with a two-dimensional shape and manipulating it to create a solid. That

is the approach we will use for many of object models created in this book. Figure 1-1

shows an L-shaped cross section that has been variously extruded, revolved, or swept

along a curve to produce the solid object models shown.

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1-2 Solid Modeling Fundamentals

Figure 1-1 Extruding, revolving, sweeping an L-shaped section.

In the following we use the simple L-shaped section to illustrate these three fundamental

solid modeling approaches.

1-3 TUTORIAL 1A – EXTRUSION

Follow the steps below to create a solid mod l of an extrusion with an L-shaped cross

section.

1. Start ANSYS Workbench

Figure 1-2 Start ANSYS Workbench in Windows.

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Solid Modeling Fundamentals 1-3

The startup menu allows you to retrieve old files, begin a new DesignModeler geometry,

start a Simulation or initiate a New Project. Select New geometry.

2. Select New > Geometry

Figure 1-3 ANSYS Workbench startup menu.

Figure 1-4 DesignModeler interface.

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1-4 Solid Modeling Fundamentals

3. Select OK – To work in millimeter units.

We will sketch the L-shaped cross section on the XY Plane. Make it 35 mm high, 20

mm wide with 5 mm thick legs.

4. Select XYPlane as in the figure below. Then click on the Look at icon to view the

XYPlane.

Figure 1-5 Select the sketching plane.

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Solid Modeling Fundamentals 1-5

Figure 1-6 View of the sketching plane.

5. Sketching. Change from Modeling to

Sketching by selecting the Sketching tab.

Select Draw > Line

Figure 1-7 Sketching tools.

6. Use the line drawing tool to draw the left

vertical edge of the L-shape. Left click at the

beginning and again at the end of the line. The

V indicates that you’ve got it exactly vertical.

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1-6 Solid Modeling Fundamentals

Figure 1-8 Left edge of the L-shape.

7. Continue sketching until you have something like what is shown below. (Notice

that the top edge is not quite horizontal.) If you need to change something, use the

New Selection, Edge filter to select the line, press the delete key and redraw it.

Also note that the cursor changes shape when it is snapped onto another point or

axis.

Figure 1-9 L-section sketch.

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Solid Modeling Fundamentals 1-7

Now use constraint options to make the top edge horizontal and to make sure that the

vertical and horizontal legs of the L are of the same thickness.

8. Sketching > Constraints > Horizontal –

Left click the top edge.

Figure 1-10 Sketching constraints.

9. Sketching > Constraints > Equal length –

Left Click the top edge and then the right edge.

The figure is just a sketch so far, and a number of different dimensioning schemes could

be used to produce the section we want. We will use the Sketching > Dimensions

options to give it the desired properties.

10. Sketching > Dimensions > General – Left click on the left vertical edge of the

section and drag the dimension to a convenient location. The V1 means this is the

first vertical dimension for this sketch.

Figure 1-11 L-section sketch.

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1-8 Solid Modeling Fundamentals

Continue with General dimensioning to specify H2 and V4. Don’t dimension the top

edge; it has to be equal to V4. The bottom edge is located directly on the X axis but we

need to locate the vertical edge with respect to the Y axis.

11. Sketching > Dimensions > Horizontal – Left click the left vertical edge then click

the dotted Y axis and drag the H3 dimension to a convenient location.

Figure 1-12 L-section sketch with all dimensions.

The current values for the dimensions depend upon the scale used in the sketching

process, e.g., H2 = 20.012 mm in the figure above.

12. Edit the dimensions to give them the desired

values. – Click on a value, enter the change and

press return.

Figure 1-13 Default dimension values.

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Solid Modeling Fundamentals 1-9

13. View > Ruler (Top menu) to turn off the ruler display. Use the middle mouse roller

to zoom in and out.

The result is shown in the figure below.

Figure 1-14 Edited dimension values.

To reposition the section on the screen, Right Click and select one of the following

options: Cursor Mode, View, or Zoom to Fit.

To perform the extrusion, switch from Sketching to Modeling. If is not already

highlighted, click Sketch1 to highlight it.

14. Modeling > Sketch1 > Extrude

The L-shaped section will be extruded along the positive Z axis by the amount specified

in the Depth field shown in the next figure. Edit this value (45 mm) to give the solid a

depth of 100 mm.

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1-10 Solid Modeling Fundamentals

The tree structure shows the components from which the solid model is created.

Figure 1-15 Section ready for extrusion.

15. Click the Generate icon to complete creation of the extruded shape model.

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Solid Modeling Fundamentals 1-11

Right click > View > Isometric (or hold down the middle mouse button and rotate the

object).

Figure 1-16 Extrusion.

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1-12 Solid Modeling Fundamentals

16. Click on the Display Plane icon to turn off the axes display and high-light the

last item in the model tree (Solid) to display the volume, surface area, faces, edges

and vertices in this model.

Figure 1-17 Solid and its properties.

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Solid Modeling Fundamentals 1-13

17. Save your work – Use the Save As option to save the extrusion using a name (e.g.

T1A) and location of your choice.

Figure 1-18 File menu.

Basic solid modeling notions have been used thus far to demonstrate creating a solid by

extruding a two-dimensional section. In the next tutorial we will revolve the same L-

shape to create a solid of revolution.

1-4 TUTORIAL 1B – REVOLUTION

We can reuse the extrusion model after it has been safely saved somewhere. Start from

the screen shown below if the extrusion is still in memory, or start Workbench and reload

the extrusion.

First modify the tree structure.

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1-14 Solid Modeling Fundamentals

Figure 1-19 Select the extrusion.

1. Click on Extrude1 and press Delete. Click Yes to the query. The extrusion is

deleted and the new tree structure shows 0 Parts and 0 Bodies.

Figure 1-20 Delete the extrusion.

2. Use Save As to save this work using a new file name, say Tutorial1B.

3. Click on Sketch1, the Display Plane icon and the Look at Plane icon

We obtain the view of the same sketch we had earlier.

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Solid Modeling Fundamentals 1-15

Figure 1-21 Select the sketch.

4. Be sure Sketch1 is highlighted and Click

Revolve.

5. Click Axis > Select the Y axis > Apply

(below right)

6. Select Angle > Enter 120 deg.

7. Click Generate

The L-shaped section is rotated about the Y axis by

120 degrees using a right-hand rule to create the solid

of revolution shown next.

Figure 1-22 Revolve1 tree.

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1-16 Solid Modeling Fundamentals

Figure 1-23 Solid of revolution.

8. Save to archive your work.

Next we will take the same cross section and sweep it along an arbitrary path to create the

third kind of modeling discussed in this chapter.

1-5 TUTORIAL 1C – SWEEP

1. Start ANSYS Workbench. Sketch the 20 x 35 mm L-shape on the XYPlane as

before. We get the figure shown below. Save this file as tutorial1c or T1C or

something convenient.

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Solid Modeling Fundamentals 1-17

Figure 1-24 Cross section sketch.

We now want to sketch a path along which the L-shape will be swept to produce a solid.

We will use a simple curve to define this path.

2. Select the YZPlane and Select Sketching.

3. Use the Line option to sketch a simple two-segment line in the YZPlane similar

to the one below.

Turn on the Ruler and use the middle scroll wheel to Zoom out so that your line is about

150 to 200 mm in length. If you make a mistake, click the New Select button ,

click the line and press delete. (I deleted several before settling on the one shown, so my

sketch is numbered Sketch6. Not to worry if your number is different.)

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1-18 Solid Modeling Fundamentals

Figure 1-25 Path of sweep.

4. Select Sweep to create the solid.

We need to specify the Profile (cross section) of the solid and the Path along which the

profile will be swept.

5. Click Sketch1 > Details of Sweep1 > Click on Profile > Apply.

6. Click Sketch6 > Details of Sweep1 > Path > Apply (Sketch6 in the figure above.

Your path sketch number will be different.)

See the figure below.

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Solid Modeling Fundamentals 1-19

Figure 1-26 Profile and path selection.

7. Generate to obtain the solid shown next.

Figure 1-27 Swept solid.

Notice that the profile is not necessarily perpendicular to the path as when we used

Extrude to create a solid. Also the path can be a more complex curve as in the example of

Figure 1-1 where a spline was used for the path.

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1-20 Solid Modeling Fundamentals

1-6 SKETCHING

A wide variety of sketching tools are available to help in creating two-dimensional

sections. We used the line drawing option and the equality constraint option in the

tutorials above. Some of the other sketching features are shown below.

The next illustration shows the Draw and Modify options. The Draw menu includes

Line, Tangent Line, Line by two Tangents, Polyline, Polygon, Rectangle, Oval,

Circle, Arc, Ellipse, Spline and Construction Point.

The Modify menu includes Fillet, Chamfer, Trim, Extend, Split, Drag, Cut, Copy,

Paste, Move, Replicate and Offset.

Figure 1-28 Draw and Modify sketching options.

We will have the occasion to illustrate the use of many of these options in what follows.

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Solid Modeling Fundamentals 1-21

Menu selections for assigning Dimensions and enforcing Constraints are shown in the

next figure.

In addition to a General dimension specification, Dimensions can be assigned which are

Horizontal, Vertical, Length/Distance, Radius/Diameter, or an Angle. Select Semi-

Automatic Dimensioning if you want DesignModeler to select a dimensioning scheme

automatically. You then have the option to accept, add or delete dimensions to meet your

specific design needs.

Constraints that can be enforced for sketching entities include Horizontal, Vertical,

Perpendicular, Tangent, Coincident, Midpoint, Symmetric, Parallel, Concentric,

Equal Radius, Equal Length and Equal Distance.

As sketching proceeds DesignModeler will attempt to detect and enforce constraints that

seem to be part of the design intent of the sketch. The Auto Constraints option allows

you to turn these on and off as desired. Cursor triggered constraints are local, while

Global constraints relate to all entities in the sketching plane.

Figure 1-29 Dimension and Constraint sketching options.

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1-22 Solid Modeling Fundamentals

Dimensioning is the process of defining how geometry is to be constructed.

In that regard, sketches must be unambiguously defined; that is, they cannot have too

many dimensions or too few dimensions specified. The figure below shows two different

dimensioning schemes for a simple shape.

Figure 1-30 Dimensioning schemes.

If you over dimension a sketch, DesignModeler will issue the following warning:

Figure 1-31 Over-constraint message.

Finally, the Settings option provides a grid sketching aid that allows you create drawing

entities placed at vertices of the grid as indicated in the next figure.

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Solid Modeling Fundamentals 1-23

Figure 1-32 Settings options and a sketching grid.

1-7 SUMMARY

Three tutorials in Chapter 1 introduce basic solid model creation in ANSYS

DesignModeler and provide examples from which more complex shapes can be

developed. In the next chapter we will extend these ideas and introduce additional

modeling features.

1-8 PROBLEMS

1-1 Identify some common objects (such as an unsharpened pencil, drinking glass, etc.)

and develop models of them using the ideas presented in this chapter.

1-2 Use a “Z” shaped section to create a solid by extrusion, another by revolving, and

another by sweeping. Select your own units and dimensions.

1-3 Measure the exterior dimensions of a light bulb, estimate the wall thickness of the

glass and base, and create a model by revolving the sketch.

1-4 Create the shape shown and extrude it to form a solid. Choose your own

dimensions. Use the Sketching Trim option to help in the sketch development.

Save it and we’ll use it in a simulation problem later in the text.

Figure P1-4

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