Berezovskaya s.n. texts in business english, Упражнения из Деловое общение и английский язык. Academy of Management and Entrepreneurship
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Berezovskaya s.n. texts in business english, Упражнения из Деловое общение и английский язык. Academy of Management and Entrepreneurship

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БЕЛОРУССКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ

С.Н. Березовская Е.В. Климук

Учебно-методическое пособие по деловому английскому языку для студентов заочного отделения всех экономических специальностей

TEXTS IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

Минск: БГЭУ, 2007

Авторы: Березовская С.Н., Климук Е.В.

Рецензент: Ст. преподаватель кафедры профессионально ориентированной английской речи Круталевич А.Ф..

Учебно-методическое пособие по деловому английскому языку– Мн., БГЭУ, 2007. - 43 с.

Данное учебно-методическое пособие направлено на развитие навыков чтения и говорения по деловому английскому языку.

Пособие предназначено для студентов заочного отделения всех экономических специальностей БГЭУ. Может быть использовано студентами в качестве основного или дополнительного материала.

Contents

I. The Concept of

Business

4 II.

Economics

7

III. Types of

Companies 10

IV. Careers in

Business 1

4

V. Management

19

VI. Factory

Production

24

VII. Marketing

28

VIII. Advertising

31

IX. Commerce

35

X. Finance and

Accounting. 3

9

Literature

43

I. The Concept of Business I. Go through the following vocabulary notes to avoid difficulties in

understanding and find these words in the text.

exchange distribution sale profit production conversion dealership

proprietorship

partnership

обмен распределение продажа прибыль производство переработка местное представительство право собственности товарищество

corporation certificate

share stockholder shareholder expenses entity

ассоциация документ, свидетельство акция акционер владелец акций затраты экономический объект, хозяйственное подразделение

II. Match the words in the left column with the definitions in the right column.

1.business 2.profit 3.production 4.distribution 5.sale 6.surplus

a) excess of revenues over outlays and expenses in a business enterprise over a given period of time, usually a year

b) an industrial, commercial, or professional operation; purchase and sale of goods and services

c) the creation or manufacture for sale of goods and services with exchange value

d)the exchange of goods, property, or services for an agreed sum of money or credit

e) a quantity or amount in excess of what is required

f) the process of physically satisfying the demand for goods and services

III. Read the text and give the definition of business.

Business is a word that is commonly used in many languages. Traditionally, business simply meant exchange or trade for things people wanted or needed. Nowadays, the concept and activities of business have increased. One definition of business is production, distribution, and sale of goods or services for a profit. To examine this definition, let us look at its different parts.

First, production is the creation of services or processing of materials into products. Example is the conversion of iron ore into metal car parts. Next, these products need to be moved from the plant to the marketplace. This is known as

distribution. A car might be moved from a plant in Germany to a car dealership in Poland. Third is the sale of goods and services. Sale is the exchange of a product or service for money. A car is sold to someone in exchange for money.

Goods are products that people either need or want; for example, cars can be classified as goods. Services, on the other hand, are activities that a person or group perform for another person or organization. For example, an auto mechanic performs a service when he repairs a car. A barber renders a service when he cuts your hair.

Business, then, is a combination of all these activities: production, distribution, and sale. However, there is another important factor, i.e., creation of profit or economic surplus. A major goal in the functioning of any business company is making a profit. Profit is the money that remains after all the expenses are paid. Creating an economic surplus or profit is, therefore, a primary goal of business activity.

IV. Answer these questions using the active vocabulary of the text.

1. What is the traditional definition of business? 2. Is business production, distribution and sale of goods and services for a profit? 3. What is the creation of services or processing of materials into products? 4. How do we call the process of moving products from the plant to the market

place? 5. Sale is the exchange of a product or service for money, isn’t it? 6. What kind of activities are services? 7. What is a major goal of any business company? 8. What does a company get after all expenses are paid?

V. Read the text again and decide whether these statements are true (T) or false (F).

1. Business is production, distribution, and sale of goods or services for a profit. 2. Production is the exchange of a product or service for money. 3. Distribution is moving from the plant to the marketplace. 4. Sale is the creation of services or processing of materials into products. 5. Services are activities that a person or group perform for another person or organization. 6. Profit is the money that remains after all the expenses are paid.

VI. Choose Russian equivalents to the following phrases.

exchange for things a) обмен вещей; b) обмен на вещи; c) изменение вещей.

the creation of services a)оказание услуг; b)создание услуг; c)организация услуг.

the money that remains a) деньги оставленные; b) деньги, которые остаются; c) деньги, что оставят.

VII. Make an outline of the text consisting of 5-8 sentences.

VIII. Retell the text according to its outline.

II. Economics I. Go through the following vocabulary notes to avoid difficulties in

understanding and find these words in the text.

allocate scarce

inputs

output

назначать; распределять недостаточный, скудный затраты (напроизводство) продукция; выпуск изделий

consumer accounting

employment

labor force increase decrease

потребитель бухгалтерское дело служба; занятие; работа (понайму) рабочая сила увеличивать уменьшать

II. Match the words in the left column with the definitions in the right column.

1.economics 2.macroeconomics 3.microeconomics 4.scarcity 5.resources 6.goods 7. employment 8. economic growth 9. price stability

a) the state achieved by monetary control, balanced budgets, etc.

b) the branch of economics concerned with particular commodities, firms, or individuals and the economic relationships between them

c) possessions and personal property d) inadequate supply e) the social science concerned with the

production and consumption of goods and services and the analysis of the commercial activities of a society

f) the work or occupation in which a person is employed

g) a source of economic wealth, esp. of a country (mineral, land, labor, etc.) or business enterprise (capital, equipment, personnel, etc.)

h) the branch of economics concerned with aggregates, such as national income, consumption, and investment

i) this period characterized by rising wages, profits, and prices, full employment, and high levels of investment, trade, and other economic activity

III. Read the text and explain the highlighted words.

Economics is the study of how society allocates scarce resources and goods. Resources are the inputs that society uses to produce output, called goods. Resources include inputs such as labor, capital, and land. Goods include products such as food, clothing, and housing as well as services such as those provided by doctors, repairmen, and police offices. These resources and goods are considered scarce because of society's tendency to demand more resources and goods than are available.

Most resources are scarce, but some are not — for example, the air we breathe. Its price is zero. It is called a free resource or good. Economics, however, is mainly concerned with scarce resources and goods, as scarcity motivated the study of how society allocates resources and goods.

The term market refers to any arrangement that allow people to trade with each other. The term market system refers to the collection of all markets, also to the relationships among these markets. The study of the market system, which is the subject of economics, is divided into two main theories; they are macroeconomics and microeconomics.

Macroeconomics The prefix macro means large, indicating that macroeconomics is concerned

with the study of the market system on a large scale. Macroeconomics considers the aggregate performance of all markets in the market system and is concerned with the choices made by the large subsectors of the economy — the household sector, which includes all consumers; the business sector, which includes all firms; and the government sector, which includes all government agencies.

Microeconomics The prefix micro means small, indicating that microeconomics is concerned

with the study of the market system on a small scale. Microeconomics considers the individual markets that make up the market

system and is concerned with the choices made by small economic units such as individual consumers, individual firms, or individual government agencies.

Economic Policy An economic policy is a course of action that is intended to influence or

control the behavior of the economy. Economic policies are normally implemented and administered by the government. The goals of economic policy consist of value judgments about what economic policy should strive to achieve. While there is some disagreement about the appropriate goals of economic policy, there are three widely accepted goals including:

1. Economic growth: It means that the incomes of all consumers and firms (after accounting for inflation) are increasing over time.

2. Full employment: It means that every member of the labor force who wants to work is able to find work.

3. Price stability: It means to prevent increases in the general price level known as inflation, as well as decreases in the general price level known as deflation.

IV. Answer these questions using the active vocabulary of the text.

IV..1 What is the definition of economics? IV..2 Why are resources scarce? IV..3 What are the two main theories of economics? IV..4 What do they deal with? IV..5 What are the goals of economic policy? IV..6 What is inflation?

V. Read the text again and decide whether these statements are true (T) or false (F).

V..1 Economics is the study of how society allocates scarce resources and goods. V..2 Society's tendency is to demand more resources and goods than are available. V..3 The term market refers to any arrangement that allow people to trade with each other V..4 Microeconomics is concerned with the study of the market system on a large scale. V..5 Macroeconomics is concerned with the choices made by small economic units such as individual consumers, individual firms, or individual government agencies. V..6 Economic policies are normally implemented and administered by the private sector. V..7 Three widely accepted goals include labor force, inflation and the incomes of all consumers.

VI. Find Russian equivalents to the following phrases in the second column.

1.scarce resources 2.available 3.on a large scale 4.aggregate performance 5.household 6.implemented 7.value judgments 8.strive to 9.appropriate goals 10.general price level

a)в крупном масштабе b)доступный c)хозяйственный d) субъективная оценки e)недостаточные ресурсы f)общий ценовой уровень g)реализованный h) стараться, пытаться i)совокупная производительность j)соответствующие показатели

VII. Make an outline of the text consisting of 5-8 sentences.

VIII. Retell the text according to its outline.

III. Types of Companies I. Go through the following vocabulary notes to avoid difficulties in

understanding and find these words in the text.

debt asserts liabilities proprietor proprietorship

pledge

долг активы пассивы собственник владение, собственность закладывать

bankruptcy enterprise joint venture

accountant entity

charter

банкротство предприятие cовместное предприятие бухгалтер экономический объект устав

II. Match the words in the left column with the definitions in the right column.

IX. sole proprietorship X. partnership XI. general partnership XII. joint venture XIII.limited company

a) It is a business in which two or more companies have invested, with the intention of working together.

b) It is the legal entity having a right to issue stock certificates.

c) It is an association of two or more people involved in business under a written partnership agreement.

D) It is used by lawyers, doctors, dentists, and chartered accountants.

e) It means going into business for oneself.

III. Read the text and say what types of businesses are described in it.

The three traditional forms of business are the sole proprietorship, the partnership, and the corporation. The sole proprietorship means going into business for oneself. All one needs is some knowledge about the business, start-up capital and knowledge of regulations. The partnership is an association of two or more people involved in business under a written partnership agreement. The corporation is the legal entity having a right to issue stock certificates. The people who own such stock certificates (or shares) are called stockholders/ shareholders. They in fact own the corporation.

Sole Proprietorship A sole proprietorship is a business owned and usually operated by a single

individual. Its major characteristic is that the owner and the business are one and the same. In other words, the revenues, expenses, assets and liabilities of the sole proprietorship are the revenues, expenses, assets, liabilities of the owner. A sole proprietorship is also referred to as the proprietorship, single proprietorship,

individual proprietorship, and individual enterprise. A sole proprietorship is the oldest and most common form of ownership.

Some examples include small retail stores, doctors' and lawyers' practices and restaurants.

A sole proprietorship is the easiest form of business to organize. The only legal requirements for starting such a business are a municipal license to operate a business and a registration license to ensure that two firms do not use the same name. The organization costs for these licenses are minimal.

A sole proprietorship can be dissolved as easily as it can be started. A sole proprietorship can terminate on the death of the owner, when a creditor files for bankruptcy, or when the owner ceases doing business.

A sole proprietorship offers the owner freedom and flexibility in making decisions. Major policies can be changed according to the owner's wishes because the firm does not operate under a rigid charter. Because there are no others to consult, the owner has absolute control over the use of the company's resources. As mentioned earlier, the financial condition of the firm is the same as the financial condition of the owner. Because of this situation, the owner is legally liable for all debts of the company. If the assets of the firm cannot cover all the liabilities, the sole proprietor must pay these debts from his or her own pocket. Some proprietors try to protect themselves by selling assets such as their houses and automobiles to their spouses. A sole proprietorship, dependent on its size and provision for succession, may have difficulty in obtaining capital because lenders are leery of giving money to only one person who is pledged to repay. A proprietorship has a limited life, being terminated on the death, bankruptcy, insanity, imprisonment, retirement, or whim of the owner.

Partnerships A partnership is an unincorporated enterprise owned by two or more

individuals. A partnership agreement, oral or written, expresses the rights and obligations of each partner. For example, one partner may have the financial resources to start the business while the other partner may possess the management skills to operate the firm. There are three types of partnerships: general partnerships, limited partnerships, and joint ventures. The most common form is the general partnership, often used by lawyers, doctors, dentists, and chartered accountants.Partnerships, like sole proprietorships, are easy to start up. Registration details vary by province, but usually entail obtaining a license and registering the company name. Partners' interests can be protected by formulation of an "Agreement of Partnership". This agreement specifies all the details of the partnership.

Complementary management skills are a major advantage of partnerships. Consequently partnerships are stronger entity and can attract new employees more easily than proprietorships.

The stronger entity also makes it easier for partnerships to raise additional capital. Lenders are often more willing to advance money to partnerships because all of the partners are subject to unlimited financial liability.

The major disadvantage of partnerships is that partners, like sole proprietors, are legally liable for all debts of the firm. In partnerships, the unlimited liability is both joint and personal. Partners are also legally responsible for actions of other

partners. Partnerships are not as easy to dissolve as sole proprietorships. Limited companies Limited companies, unlike proprietorships or partnerships, are created by law

and are separate from the people who own and manage them. Limited companies are also referred to as corporations. In limited companies, ownership is represented by shares of stock. The owners, at an annual meeting, elect a board of directors which has the responsibility of appointing company officers and setting the enterprise's objectives.

Limited companies are the least risky from an owner's point of view. Corporations can raise larger amounts of capital than proprietorships or partnerships through the addition of new investors or through better borrowing power. Limited companies do not end with the death of owners.

It is more expensive and complicated to establish corporations, proprietorships or partnerships. A charter, which requires the services of a lawyer, must be obtained through provincial governments or the federal government. In addition to legal costs, a firm is charged incorporation fees for its charter by the authorizing government.

Limited companies are subject to federal and provincial income taxes. Dividends to shareholders are also taxed on an individual basis.

With diverse ownerships, corporations do not enjoy the secrecy that proprietorships and partnerships have. A company must send each shareholder an annual report detailing the financial condition of the firm.

IV. Read the text again and answer these questions using the active vocabulary of the text.

IV..1 What are the three traditional forms of business? IV..2 What is a sole proprietorship? IV..3 What is the owner of the company legally liable for? IV..4 How do any proprietors try to protect themselves? IV..5 Why may a sole proprietorship have difficulty in obtaining capital? IV..6 What is a partnership? IV..7 What are three types of partnerships? IV..8 What is a major advantage of partnership? IV..9 Are all of the partners subject to unlimited financial liabilities? IV..10 What is the major disadvantage of partnership? IV..11 How are limited companies created? IV..12 Who is represented by shares of stock in limited companies? IV..13 Do limited companies end with the death of owners? IV..14 Is it more expensive and complicated to establish corporations? Why? IV..15 What must a company send each shareholder?

V. Decide whether these statements are true (T) or false (F).

1. The financial condition of the firm is the same as the financial condition of the owner.

2. The sole proprietor mustn’t pay debts from his or her own pockets. 3. A sole proprietorship doesn’t have any difficulty in obtaining capital.

4. A partnership is an unincorporated enterprise owned by two or more individuals. 5. There are three types of partnerships: general partnerships, limited partnerships

and joint venture. 6. Complementary management skills are a minor advantage of partnerships. 7. In partnerships the limited liabilities both joint and personal. 8. Limited companies are not created by law and are not separate from the people

who own and manage them. 9. Limited companies end with the death of owners. 10. Limited companies are subject to federal and provincial income taxes.

VI. Choose the correct variant to finish the sentence.

1. The financial condition of the firm………. . a) is the same as the financial condition of the owner. b) is better than the financial condition of the owner. c) depends on the financial condition of the shareholder. 2. Some proprietors try to protect themselves…… . a) lending assets such as their houses and automobiles to their relatives. b) selling asserts such as their houses and automobiles to their spouses. c) pledging the asserts to their relatives. 3. A partnership is an unincorporated enterprise owned……… . a) by two or more firms. b) by the members of the government. c) by two or more individuals. 4. In limited companies, ownership is represented by…….. . a) shares of stock. b) asserts. c) investors. 5. All of the partners are…….. . a) subject to limited financial liability. b) subject to unlimited financial liability. c) subject to unlimited juridical liability. 6. Limited companies are subject to …….. . a) shareholders’ income taxes. b) federal and provincial income taxes. c) to foreign investors income taxes.

VII. Make an outline of the text consisting of 5-8 sentences.

VIII. Retell the text according to its outline. IX.

IV. Careers in Business I. Go through the following vocabulary notes to avoid difficulties in

understanding and find these words in the text.

accounting

data processing bookkeeper aptitude advancement goal predictable trial

бухгалтерское дело обработка данных бухгалтер пригодность продвижение задача предсказуемый испытательный

human resource

track undergo pursue boost extend requirement self-assesment competitive background

трудовые ресурсы путь испытывать преследовать поддержка простираться требование самооценка конкурентный биографические данные

II. Match the words in the left column with the definitions in the right column.

X. broad fields XI. pursue a carrier XII. requirement XIII.setting goals XIV. self-assessment XV. retention XVI.reduction XVII. career

a)self-esteem b)setting up aims c)areas of business d) to follow some steps in order to

overtake success at work e)keeping a job place f) lessening of the staff g) a path or progress through life or

history h) something demanded or imposed as an

obligation

III. Read the text and tell the difference between a career and a job.

Business is an increasingly important activity throughout the world today. Consequently, the opportunities for a business career have grown in variety and number. There are now five broad fields or areas of business that offer exciting careers: management, marketing, accounting, finance and data processing. Within each of these fields are specific jobs in which you can specialize. For example, within the field of marketing you can specialize in market research, advertising, buying, selling, or distribution. The figure below gives an idea of the general career opportunities that are available in the various fields of business

Fig. 1. Business Fields and Careers

Manageme nt

Marketing Accounting Finance Data Processing

Human resource Manageme nt

Production

General manager

Marketing manager

Chief accountant

Finance manager

Computer operator

Personnel Manager

Production manager

Executive manager

Researcher Bookkeeper Banker Computer programme r

Advertiser Financial analyst

Systems analyst

Distributor Stock Broker

PR manager Auditor Sales Manager

In choosing a business career, there are several questions you may want to ask. For instance, does the work interest you? Are there any areas of business for which you have an aptitude or special capability? What are the opportunities involved, such as demand (or need) for the job, salary, and chance for advancement? Answers to these kinds of questions and careful planning will help in choosing a suitable and successful career in business.

Kim Jackson's love of politics, hard work, and excellent research and writing skills placed her on a career track to becoming a political correspondent on Capitol Hill. When her interests and enthusiasm for the job waned, Jackson wondered if she should make a career change. Before making a major move, she discussed her concerns with her editor and a member of the human resource management office. The newspaper, which was reluctant to lose a reporter of Jackson's talents and background, provided an opportunity for her to undergo testing and experimentation in other potential areas of career interest. Eventually, a simple solution emerged: Jackson was moved to the international desk. Covering international political events renewed her enthusiasm and her years on Capitol Hill gave her special insight into U.S. reaction to global events.

What does it mean to have a career? Most people do not want to just "go to work"; they want to "pursue a career." To some people, having a career requires successful movement up the corporate ladder, marked by boosts in salary and status. To others, a career means having a profession—doctors and professors have careers, whereas secretaries and blue-collar workers have jobs. Still others will tell you that no matter what the occupation, the difference between a career and a job is about 20 hours a week—that is, people who have careers are so involved in their work that they extend beyond its requirements. For these people, it is psychological involvement in their work that defines a career.

A job is a specific task performed for an organization. A career is the sequence of jobs a person holds over a life span and the person's attitudes toward involvement

in those job experiences. A career has a long-term perspective and includes a series of jobs. Moreover, to understand careers we must look not only at people’s work histories or resumes but also at their attitudes toward their work. People may have more or less money or power, be professional or blue collar, and vary in the importance they place on the work in relation to the rest of their lives - yet all may have careers.

Career management was discussed from two perspectives: the individual who wants to have a successful career and the organization that wishes to provide career opportunities for its employees. Individual career planning normally entails five steps—self-assessment, exploring opportunities, making decisions and setting goals, action planning, and follow-up. Individual careers follow predictable stages that include exploration and trial, establishment and advancement, mid-career, and disengagement. Other issues of concern to individual career planning are mentors and coping with stress.

Productivity satisfaction, retention, and commitment of valued employees, stress reduction, and a flexible work force will help the organization remain competitive in the global economy.

IV. Answer these questions using the active vocabulary of the text.

1. What careers does business offer? 2. What questions should you answer while choosing a business carrier? 3. What will help you in choosing a suitable and successful career in business? 4. How was Jackson moved to the international desk? 5. What other examples of successful carrier paths can you give from the text? 6. What does it mean to have a career? 7. How does a carrier characterize people? 9. What is carrier management? 10. What will help the organization competitive in our global economy?

V. Read the text again and decide whether these statements are true (T) or false (F).

1. Nowadays the opportunities for a business career have declined in variety and number. 2. Kim Jackson became a political correspondent on Capitol Hill of her love politics, hard work, excellent research and writing skills. 3. The newspaper didn’t provide an opportunity for Kim Jackson to move to the international desk and she left the job. 4. Most people do not want to pursue a career; they want just to go to work. 5. The difference between a career and a job is about 20 hours a week. 6. To understand careers we must look only at people’s work histories or resumes. 7. Career management was discussed from both perspectives: the individual and the organization.

VI. Find Russian equivalents to the following phrases in the second column.

1. market research 2.Personnel Manager 3. Sales Manager 4. give one’s special insight into 5. be reluctant 6. life span 7. job experiences 8. blue collar 9. career opportunities 10. making decisions 11. action planning 12. follow-up 13. mid-career 14. commitment of valued employees 15. coping with stress 16. flexible work force

a) справляться с напряжением b) продолжительность жизни c) последующая работа (деятельность) d) начальник отдела кадров e) делающий что-л. с большой неохотой, по принуждению; сопротивляющийся f)начальник сбыта g) обязательства ценных работников h)трудовой опыт i)исследование рынка j) сeредина карьеры k) "синий воротничок", производственный рабочий l)обратить особое внимание m)возможности карьерного роста n)принятие решение o)легко приспосабливающаяся рабочая сила p)планирование действий

VII. Choose the appropriate translation of the following sentences.

1. There are now five broad fields or areas of business that offer exciting careers. a) Есть теперь пять широких полей или области бизнеса, которые предлагают захватывающие карьеры. b) В бизнесе существует пять широких областей или сфер, предлагающих захватывающую карьеру .2 To some people, having a career requires successful movement up the corporate ladder, marked by boosts in salary and status. a) Для некоторых людей карьера – это успешное продвижение вверх по корпоративной лестнице с повышением в заработке и статусе. b) Некоторым людям, имея карьеру требует успешного движения корпоративная лестница, отмеченная повышениями в заработке и статусе. 3. A career is the sequence of jobs a person holds over a life span and the person's attitudes toward involvement in those job experiences. a) Карьера – последовательность рабочих мест, занимаемых человеком в течение жизни, и его отношение к вовлеченности в рабочий процесс. b) Карьера - последовательность рабочих мест, человек держит за продолжительность жизни и отношения человека к причастности в тех опытах работы. 4. Other issues of concern to individual career planning are mentors and coping with stress. a) Другие проблемы беспокойства к индивидуальному планированию карьеры - наставники и справляющийся с напряжением. b) Другие проблемные моменты в планировании личной карьеры связаны с наставниками и преодолением стресса.

VIII. Make an outline of the text consisting of 5-8 sentences.

IX. Retell the text according to its outline. X.

V. Management I. Go through the following vocabulary notes to avoid difficulties in

understanding and find these words in the text.

attainment implementation applicableclarification guideline

execution feedback

достижение реализация применимый выяснение руководство выполнение обратная связь

subordinate encourage guidance achievement responsibility gauging

restricting

подчинённый поощрять управление достижение ответственность измерение ограничивать

II. Match the words in the left column with the definitions in the right column.

1. Management 2. subordinate 3. staff 4. Clarification 5. Planning 6.Organizing 7. Directing 8. Controlling 9. performance

10. feedback

a) to offer or suggest (information, ideas, etc.) in reaction to an inquiry, experiment, etc.

b) the act, process, or art of performing c) under the authority or control of

another d) a group of people employed by a

company, individual, etc e) to form (parts or elements of

something) into a structured whole; coordinate

f) the technique, practice, or science of managing, controlling or dealing with

g) to regulate, conduct, or control the affairs of

h) a detailed scheme, method, etc., for attaining an objective

i) to command, direct, or rule j) making smth. clear or easy to

understand

III. Read the text and define the task and main activities of management.

It is through the process of management and the execution of work that the activities of the organization are carried out. The task of management is to get work done through other people. It is the cornerstone of the people-organization relationship. Management is essentially an integrating activity. Management is a generic term and subject to many possible interpretations. It is also frequently the subject of debate and discussion. A number of different ideas are attributed to the meaning of management and to the work of the manager. However, we are

concerned with management as: taking place within a structured work organization and with prescribed roles; directed towards the attainment of goals and objectives; achieved through the efforts of other people; and using systems and

procedures. The setting of objectives and formulation of policy take place at different

levels in an organization but as part of the same process. The board of directors, or their equivalent, establishes objectives and formulates policy for the organization as a whole. Management is responsible for the implementation of policy decisions and for the execution of work designed to meet these objectives. It is through the process of management that the efforts of members of staff are channeled, coordinated and guided towards the achievement of organizational goals and objectives. But what does the process of management involve and what activities does it encompass?

There are many ways of looking at management. One approach is to search for the common activities which are applicable to managers in all organizations. This approach gives rise to many different descriptions of management, although on closer study they often show a basic similarity. The inclusion or exclusion of a particular aspect of management tends to revolve round the use and interpretation of different terms, and the emphasis placed upon them.

Main activities of management Clarification of objectives and policy Objectives are the aims to-be achieved and the desired end results. Policy

provides guidelines for the operations of the organization and determines the course of action to follow. The clarification of objectives and policy is a prerequisite if the process of management and execution of work is to be effective. If not, the manager has no secure basis for decision-making and the management of subordinate staff.

Planning of work Planning sets out the courses of action to be followed in order to meet

objectives and achieve desired end results, for example in relation to occupancy rates, financial measures or sales performance. Good forward planning is essential if staff are to know what to do and what is expected of them, for example the timing and sequencing of operations, methods by which the operations are to be carried out and standards of performance.

Organizing The work of the establishment has to be divided among its members.

Organization provides the framework within which the process of management takes place. It makes possible the execution of work and involves the allocation of tasks and responsibilities, levels of hierarchical authority, formal relationships and coordination among individuals, groups and departments.

Directing subordinate staff It is the responsibility of managers to encourage staff to work willingly and

effectively. This is often referred to as motivation. It is certainly part of a manager's job to motivate staff and to provide them with job satisfaction, but it involves more than this. Subordinate staff also needs development and guidance. They need to be motivated to perform well in the right areas. Their efforts should be directed towards the achievement of given objectives within stated policy guidelines. The manager

has a responsibility to see that staff is effective as well as efficient in what they do. Controlling performance Control is a necessary part of the process of management. It involves gauging

the measure of success in achieving objectives and planned targets. Management control involves far more than a means of restricting behavior or the exercise of authority over others. It should not be seen therefore only in a negative sense: it can have many positive effects. Effective control systems are a means of monitoring performance and progress, providing feedback to staff and a guide to future operations and personal development. Control completes the cycle of managerial activities and is an important part of the process of management.

IV. Answer these questions using the active vocabulary of the text.

.1 What is the task of management?

.2 How can management be described?

.3 What does the process of management include?

.4 What are the approaches to management?

.5 Why is clarification of objectives so important in management?

.6 When is forward planning essential?

.7 What does the process of organizing involve?

.8 Why should staff be motivated?

.9 Name the positive and negative effects of management control.

.10 What process completes the cycle of managerial activities?

V. Read the text again and decide whether these statements are true (T) or false (F).

1. The task of management is to get work done through other people. 2. The setting of objectives and formulation of policy take place at one level in an organization but as part of the same process. 3. Policy provides guidelines for the operations of the organization and determines the course of action to follow. 4. Objectives are the subtasks to-be achieved and the desired end results. 5. Good forward planning is additional if staff is to know what not to do and what is not expected of them 6. Organization provides the area within which the process of management takes place. 7. Subordinate staff also needs development and guidance to be motivated to perform well in the right areas. 8. Effective control systems are not a means of monitoring performance and progress, providing feedback to staff and a guide to future operations and personal development.

VI. Choose the appropriate translation of the following sentences.

1. It is the cornerstone of the people-organization relationship. a) Это - краеугольный камень отношений организации людей. b) Это выступает краеугольным камнем в отношениях между людьми и

организацией. XI.The board of directors, or their equivalent, establishes objectives and formulates policy for the organization as a whole. a) Правление директоров, или их эквивалента, устанавливает цели и формулирует политику для организации в целом. b) Совет директоров, или соответствующий ему орган, устанавливает задачи и формирует политику всей организации в целом. XII. The inclusion or exclusion of a particular aspect of management tends to revolve round the use and interpretation of different terms, and the emphasis placed upon them. a) Включение или исключение специфического аспекта управления имеют тенденцию вращаться вокруг использования и интерпретации различных сроков, и акцента, помещенного в них. b) Применение или не применение определенного подхода в управлении имеет отношение к использованию и пониманию различных условий и представляемой ими важности. XIII. Planning sets out the courses of action to be followed in order to meet objectives and achieve desired end results, for example in relation to occupancy rates, financial measures or sales performance. a) Планирование излагает курсы действия, которое сопровождается, чтобы встретить цели и достигнуть желательных результатов конца, например относительно норм занятия, финансовых мер или коммерческой работы. b) Планирование определяет курс действий, которого нужно придерживаться, чтобы соответствовать целям и достичь конечных желаемых результатов; например, это имеет отношение к степени занятости, финансовым показателям или уровню продаж. XIV. It makes possible the execution of work and involves the allocation of tasks and responsibilities, levels of hierarchical authority, formal relationships and coordination among individuals, groups and departments. a) Это делает возможным выполнение работы и вовлекает распределение задач и обязанностей, уровни иерархической авторитарности, формальных отношений и координации среди индивидуумов, групп и отделов b) Это помогает осуществить выполнение работ и включает в себя распределение задач и обязанностей, уровни подчинения в иерархии, формальные отношения и координацию между людьми, группами и отделами XV. Effective control systems are a means of monitoring performance and progress, providing feedback to staff and a guide to future operations and personal development a) Эффективные системы управления - средство контроля работы и прогресса, обеспечение обратной связи, чтобы укомплектовывать и гида для будущих действий и личного развития. b) Эффективные системы контроля представляют собой средства мониторинга за эффективностью работы и прогресса, обеспечивающие обратную связь с сотрудниками и являющиеся руководством для будущих действий и персонального развития.

VII. Make an outline of the text consisting of 5-8 sentences.

VIII. Retell the text according to its outline.

VI. Factory Production

I. Translate the following words into Russian and learn them.

bring about

owe

sleek appropriate brazier glow convince incredible

осуществлять; вызывать быть должным (кому-л.); быть в долгу (передкем-л.) гладкий должный жаровня сверкать убеждать маловероятный

disarmingly gain stretching technique bountiful competent viable mahogany upsurge interpret

обезоруживающий добывать растяжение технические щедрый осведомлённый жизнеспособный красное дерево подъём объяснять

II. Match the words in the left column with the definitions in the right column.

1. production 2. contribution 3. standard of living 4. division of labor 5. production line 6. run 7. mass production 8. batch production 9. job production

a) producing of smth. individually b) something given, such as money or

ideas c) a continuous flow of producing smth. d) a level of subsistence or material

welfare of a community, class, or person e) the creation or manufacture for sale of

goods and services with exchange value f) distribution of work among workers g) the amount of work performed in a

period of time h) producing of smth. in large quantities i) creating a significant number of similar

items

III. Read the text and name three main types of production method.

Over two hundred years ago, Adam Smith introduced some ideas which were to bring about a world revolution. If we enjoy a high standard of living in modern society, we owe much to this Scottish economist and philosopher. If we enjoy driving in sleek motor cars, wearing fashionable shoes, or flying away to distant places for exciting holidays, we should perhaps give an occasional vote of thanks to the man who made it all possible.

What then was Adam Smith's contribution? Like so many ideas which have earth-shattering effects, his was a disarmingly simple notion. He watched workers practicing their craft of pin making. One man would heat the strip of metal, stretch it out, cut off an appropriate length, shape it, cool it and finally smooth and shine it.

Smith drew attention to the advantages which could be gained if these various tasks were performed by different workers. Let one be responsible for keeping the brazier glowing and preparing the metal. Another for stretching and cutting. Another for shaping. Another for finishing. He described this technique as the Division of Labor, whereby workers perform short work-cycles, repeating the same actions again and again and again. Smith convinced the world that specialization could solve the problems of poverty and want.

What was the result? The Industrial Revolution, specialization became the order of the day. Productivity was increased to an incredible degree. For Britain, where the revolution started, there was an upsurge in prosperity which made them the richest country in the nineteenth century world. British trains - and railway lines - spread out like a spider's web across the world, opening up the great continents of America, Asia, Africa and Australasia. British ships - built of iron and steel - were used to carry the new bountiful cargoes (including human beings) from every corner of the world, to every corner of the world.

The revolution is not over. It is still with us, but now it is a worldwide phenomenon. Everywhere, factories producing large numbers of more or less identical units are in continuous production. What were called mass-production lines yesterday are called robotic production lines today. If anything, the pace of change is increasing. And if these techniques have brought us prosperity, they have also brought us a trail of misery in overcrowded towns, boring jobs and, worst of all, unemployment.

There are three main types of production method: Job production In this type of production specific work is carried out for individual

customers. Job production is of the one off variety and can range from a bride's wedding dress to an ocean-going liner. Job production is usually labor intensive and requires the employment of skilled labor which is able to interpret technical instructions. If supervisors are employed they will need to be technically competent. Unit costs will always tend to be high when small numbers of individually designed items are produced.

Mass production This method of production is possible where the demand for a product is so

great that the goods can be produced in a continuous flow. Motor vehicles and food processing are among the industries which resort to mass production techniques. Once set up the production lines are not easily changed and advertising is often necessary to ensure that stocks of finished goods do not pile up in the factory. Unskilled and semi-skilled workers can be used, though the modern tendency is to use computerized robots. By using these capital-intensive methods unit costs may be substantially reduced and higher output can be obtained by running the expensive machines over two or three shifts per day.

Batch production This method falls between job and mass production. It could be described as

repeated production runs in contrast to the continuous flow or mass production technique. The orders consist of a significant number of similar items. One industry which uses this technique is the furniture industry. A batch of teak tables of a

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