How to use dictionary курсовая по языковедению на английском языке , Дипломная из Французский язык
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How to use dictionary курсовая по языковедению на английском языке , Дипломная из Французский язык

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Plan

1. Introduction 2. Types of dictionaries and their content 3. Kinds of dictionaries:

3.1.. general dictionaries; 3.2.. special dictionaries:

3.2...1...bilingual dictionaries; 3.2...2...explanatory dictionaries; 3.2...3...etymological dictionaries; 3.2...4...dictionaries of synonyms; 3.2...5...phraseological dictionaries; 3.2...6...pronouncing dictionaries; 3.2...7...spelling dictionaries

4. How to use a dictionary. Dictionaries entries. 5. The encyclopedic material of some American dictionaries. 6. Conclusions 7. The list of literature.

1

Dictionaries are tools, and they are much more complicated,

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and capable of many more uses then we suspect. All of us know

students need encouragement and guidance in the use of

dictionaries. Some students are able to use their dictionaries

with anything like efficiency. Certainly there must be very few

of those who come up through the grades these days who are not

familiar with the details of looking up words in dictionaries, but

it is one thing to find a word in a dictionary and quite another to

understand fully information there given about it. Linguists and

lexicographers have a matter with dictionaries. Every linguist

with an interest in the quantitative properties of language will on

some occasion be faced with some form of the ultimate question

in the word numbers game: ”How many words did Shakespeare

use?”, “How many words are there in the English language?”

“How many words should a dictionary have?” The first

question, at least, has a definite although not simple answer:

Shakespeare’s complete works consist of a total of 884647

words of text containing a grand total of 29066 different words

including proper names. But on the question ”How many words

should a dictionary have” it is very difficult to answer. Every

dictionary has a different number of words. On the contrary

lexicographers have a task to record the meanings of words, the

task of arranging these meanings in the orderthey think will be

of most help to those who use their work. Different editors solve

this problem of arrangement in different ways. In the prefatory

part of any dictionary you will find some indication of the plan

that has been followed in arranging the meanings. In the

3

Werriam-Webster dictionaries the meanings are arranged as far

as possible, in the order in wich they arose. In those dictionaries,

the first meanings given are the earliest a word is known to

have had, and the more modern meanings come later. The

arrangement of meanings is difficult, that’s why the only safe

course is to examine the forematter of the dictionary to see what

plan has been followed.

4

Dictionary is a book that contains a selected list of words

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arranged in alphabetical order. It explains their meanings and

gives information about them. In a dictionary a person can look

up a word quickly, discover what it means and learn how it is

prononced.

Dictionaries give the meanings of many kinds of words. Most

modern dictionaries describe the facts of a language as educated

speakers and writers use it. They are called descriptive

dictionaries because a dictionary editor does not change the

facts of a language. Many older dictionaries tried to prescribe

rules, some of wich did not agree with the way people

commonly talked or wrote. These books are called prescriptive

dictionaries. Most general dictionaries include:

1) the ordinary words of everyday life, such as bread, run and

with;

2) literary words used as aggregation, despoil,

incontrovertible;

3) thechnical word, such as starboard, gene and ratio;

4) words used chiefly on informal occasions, such as gap and

wimp;

5) words used in writing to give an old-fashioned flavor, such

as aweary and avaunt;

6) words not used today but found in the writtings of some

authors, such as plaister for plaster;

7) words or phrases form other languages, such as coup d’etat

from French, tofu from Japanese and barrio from Spanish.

8) Idioms, such as split hairs and unter the thumb of;

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9) Abbreviations, such as U.S.A., Kans., and p.;

10)Important propernames, such as Buddha and Jupiter.

No dictionary records all the words of our language. In fact,

no one knows exatly how many words there are. Besides

ordinary words used in evereryday speech, the English language

includes thousands of geaografical names; hundreds of

thousands of technical terms, including more than 750000

names of inspects alone. New words are coined for

newscientifiv and technical discoveries, and slang words and

specific vocabularies constantly spring up. As nations draw

closer together through trade and travel, satellite

communication, and sharing of technology, languages tend to

borrow more and more words from each other. That is why

dictionary editors must be selective in the words they decide to

include.

Most dictionaries tell us much more than just the meanings

of words. Many list pronunciations, derivations, refixes and

suffixes, illustrative quotations, synonyms and other

information. The illustration articles in dictionaries show in

detail what dictionaries contain.

7

Dictionaries may be clasified as general dictionaries and special

8

dictionaries. A general dictionary contains information on

everyday words such as it and the. But it also defines many

technical terms, such as chromatografhy and columella. A

specialized dictionary omits most everyday terms, and limits

itself to information on words used in a particular field, such as

biology.

General dictionaries range in size from small pocket

dictionaries to large multivolume or table dictionaries. The

number of entries in general dictionary depends, on its purpose.

Each dictionary is designed to answer the questions of a certain

type of reader. The World Book Dictioanry is an example of a

dictionary designed for family use. The largest general

dictionaries may contain over 400000 entries when a dictionary

has this many entries, many absolete and technical terms are

included. Other general dictionaries may have from 15000

entries to 200000 entries.

Specialized dictionaries are designed to give more

information in particular fields than general dictionaries can.

Dictionaries of this kind can be divided into such group as:

1) Explanatory dictionaries

2) Etymological dictionaries

3) Dictionaries of synonyms

4) Phraseological dictionaries.

Besides, such dictionaries can be mentioned as historical

dialectal.

9

Bilingual or translating dictionaries reresent the most

ordinary, widespread type. They contain words and expressions

of the native language and their foreign equivalents, or vice-

versa. (the English-Russian dictionary by V. K. Miller, etc)

Explanatory dictionaries give definitions of word meanings.

In fact to a certain extent they acquaint us with the history of

vocabulary development. The explanation are given in the same

language, so they are one-language dictionaries, as it were. For

example “Webster’s New World dictionary of the American

language”, Webster’s “New International dictionary of the

English language” are usually considered to be the most

available and popular editions. But the greatest authority,

naturally, and the most comprehensive is The New English

dictionary on Historical Principles.

Etymological dictionaries state the origin of words. If

borrowed, the source of borrowing and the original form are

given, with all the subsequent changes in meaning and usage. If

native, the Anglo-Dakon form is given together with the history

of word development paralel forms in other Gemanic languages.

Skeat’s Etymological dictionary is believed to be one of the

most widely used.

Dictionaries of synonymes give either groups of synonyms

without any explanations of difference in shades of meaning or

usage, as concise dictionaries usually do, or as in full-size

synonymic dictionaries, one can find lengthy definitions of

every synonym that the group contains with even directions as

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to how to use them. The dictionary of this kind is the Webster’s

dictionary of synonyms. It does not give any etymological or

historical information but it supplies very detailed and extensive

explanations of the subtlest shades of meaning that synonyms

differ in. The lists of synonymes are much more exhaustive than

in the earlier dictionaries of synonymes (e. g. amiable, lovable,

gracious, cordial, affable, genial, warm-hearted, warm,

responsive, kind, tender, kindly, begignant, benign).

Phraseological dictionaries deal with phraseological group of

a certain language(“English Idioms” by W. G. Smith, “English

Idioms and how to use them” by W. McMordie etc)

The best known phonetical dictionary is “An English

Pronouncing Dictionary” by Jones. Among dialectal

dictionaries the “Slang Dictionary” by Chatto and Windus is

famous. It is also called “Ethymological, Historical and

Anecdotal”.

Before using a dictionary, one should become familiar with

the metods, principles, and scope of the book because various

dictionaries are arranged in different ways. Many American

dictionaries are arranged in different ways. Many american

dictionaries arrange all entries in a single alphabetical list.

Others put abbreviations, geographical and biographical names,

and foreign words and phrases in separate lists, usually at the

end of the book. All good dictionaries today have introductory

sections that explain what the book contains and how it is

arranged.

11

First of all let us now look carefully at some dictionary entries

in an effort to secure from them all the information they contain.

We shall begin by looking closely at the entry anecdote in the

College edition of Webster’s New World Dictionary.

an.ec.dote(an’ik-dot’), n, [Fr. ;ML. Anecdota;Gr. Anekdota,

neut. Pl. of anecdots unpublished;an-, not

+ekdotos<ekdidonai;ek-, out+didonai, to give]

1) pl. Originally, little-known, entertaining facts of history or

biography; hence,

2) a short, entertaining account of some happening, usually

personal or biographical. –SIN. , see story.

This dictionary makes etymology one of its strong features

and so serves exceptionally well for our purpose.

The following things about this entry are of interest:

1) The entry word, printed in boldface to give it more

prominence, is divided by periods into its three syllables. This

form of division not only helps out with the pronunciation of a

word, but it also gives assistance to one whohas to divide a word

at the end of a line of writing or printing.

In such cases, words should be devided with respect to their

syllables.

2) then, within curves, the word is rewritten, this time in

symbols that show pronunciation. A heavy accent mark,

immediately follows the syllable which receives most stress, and

a lighter mark indicates the syllable getting minor stress. A

12

sylable, here Ik, which gets no stress is followed by a hyphen.

Following the indication of pronuciation comes the abbreviation

of the of speech to wich the word belongs.

3) It is well-accepted dictionary procedure to place

etymologies in square brackets just after the indication of

the part of speech of the word involved. Etymology easier

to follow if we begin at the very end of it and proceed

back to its beginning.

In Greek there was a verb, “didinai”, meaning “to give”. A

common prefix, ek-, was often used before this verb and it then

became “ekdidonai” (to give out). From this expanded form of

the verb Greek formed an adjective, “ekdotos”, given out. In

Greek it was customary to prefix an- to adjectives beginning

with a vowel and thus reverse or negate their meanings. So the

Greeks formed “anekdotos”, not given out.

Greek adjectives had masculine, feminine, and neuter forms.

The neuter plural of “anekdotos” was “anekdota”, unpublished

things, that is, things not given out. Latin, during the medieval

period, borrowed “anekdota” in the form “anecdota”. This latin

term passed into French, where it was spelled “anecdote”. From

French the word, unchanged in form, passed into English.

4) The meanings are given in the order of their ages, the

oldest meaning being given first. Observe how original

meaning ledon to sense 2, the one which nowadays the

word usually has.

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5) At the very end of the entry there is a reference to story for

a presentation of the synonyms of “anekdote”.

Dictionaries perform a useful service by distinguishing

between such terms as “anecdote”, “narrative”, “tale”,

“story”.

Of course, the larger a dictionary is, the more information one

can obtain from it. Here is the entry “anecdote” as it appears in

the current large unabridged Webster’s New International

dictionary, Second edition.

an’ec-dote (an’ek-dot; an’ik-), n

[Fr. Fr. Ir. Anekdotos not published, fr. An- not + ekdotos

given out, fr. Ekdidonai to gove out, to publish, fr ek- out

+didonai to give. See DATE point of time]

1) pl. Literally, unpublished items; narratives of secret or

private details of history;-often in book titles Now rare.

2) A narrative, sually brief, of a separable incident or event

of curious interst, told without nealice and usually with

intent to amuse or please,often biographical and

vharacteristic of some notable person,esp. of his likable

faibles. (Some modern anecdotes over, he noded in his

elbow chair. Prior)

Syn. –see story.

An’ec-dote v. I. To tell anecdotes-v. t.

To use as a subject for anecdotes. Both rare.

Notice that the etymology here ends with a reference to the

entry DATE, meaning a point of time. An inspection of the

14

etymology “given of that entry reveals that “anecdote” belongs

to a group of words that are related because they all trace their

ancestry, in whole or in part, back to the same IE root that os

seen in the Greek verb didonai, meaning to give. Here is the lst

of words Webster cities as being related in the manner indicated:

anecdote, condone, dado, damu, dative, datum, die, n..., donate,

dose, dower, edit, pardon, render, sacerdotal.

One of the unique and highly valuable features of the

unabridged Merriam-Webster is that it often groups words

basically related, because they, or parts of them, go back to a

common ancestor word. No othe english dictionary gives so

much of this kind of information. Some of the commonest

words in the language have a surpisingly large number of

relatives.

In the dictionary Century the entry of the word anecdote is as

follows:

Anecdote(an’ek-dot), n[<F. Anecdote,

First in pl. Anecdotes, M. L. Anecdota, <Gr. ,

pl., things unpublished, applied by Procopius to his memoirs of

Justinian, which consisted chiefly of gossip about the private

life of the court;prop. Neut. pl. of ]

1) pl. secret history; facts relating to secret or private affairs,

as of governments or of individuals: often used (commonly

in the form anecdota) as the title of works treating of such

matters.

15

2) A short narrative of a particular or detached incident; a

single passage of private life, =Syn. Anecdote, Story.

An anecdote is the relation of an interesting or amusing

incident, generally of a private nature, and is always reported as

true/

A story may be true or fictious, and generally has reference to

a series of incidents so arranged and related as to be

entertaining.

In this treatment of the word there are some things not

observed before:

1) as is often done in dictionaries, thi sign < is used freely in

the sense of ‘from’. One instance of its use is seen in the

etymology above.

2) According to the etymology given here, the form which

anecdote had in French was the plural, a form to be

expected from the word’s being derived from a plural in

Latin and in Greek. With this informatinon, it is easier to

understand why it was in its plural form that the word made

its first appearance in Engish.

3) The remainder f the Century entry is easily understood with

the possible exeption of the abbreviation”priv,. ” for

privative, a word used in grammar in connection with those

prefixes which change the sense of a word from a positive

to a negative one, as do un-, il-, in-, ir-, in English.

(Compae such words as lawful, unlawful, legal, illegal;

tolerant, intolerant, regular, irregular). Greek made use of a

16

prefix of this kind, a-, which might also appear as an-. In

Greek grammar this prefix is referred to as” alpha

privative”

It may appear to the beginner that by this time we have

certainly found out all there is to know about anecdote, but we

have not.

Here is how the entry looks in the Oxford English dictionary.

Anecdote( ). [a fr. Anecdote, or ad. Its source,

med. L. Anecdota(see sense I), a. Gr. Things

unpublished, f. Published, f. To

give out, publish, applied by Procopies to his “Unpublished

Memories” of the of the Emperor Justinian, which consisted

chiefly of tales of the private life of the court;whence the

application of the name to short stories or particulars]

1) pl. Secret, private, or hitherbo unpublished narratives or

details of history. (At first, and how again occas. Used in L form

anecdota( ) 1676 MARVELL Mr. Smirke Wks. 1875

IV.41. A man ... might make a pleasant story of the anecdota of

that meeting. 1727. Swift”Gulliver” VIII. 230. Those who

pretend to write anecdotes, or secret history[...]

2) The narrative of a detached incident, or of a single event,

event told as being in itself interesting or striking( At first, An

item of gossip)

1761 Gorke in Elli’s Orig. Left 11. 483. IV. 429. Monsieur

Coccei will tell you all the anecdotes of London better then I can

[...] 1838. Ht. Martineau Demerara

17

12. He told some anecdotes of Alfred’s childhood. Mod. An

after-dinner anecdote

b. collect

1826 Disraeli Viv. Grey 3. II. 95 A companion who knew

everything, everyone, full of wit and anecdote.

3) Comb. , as anecdote-book, -loving;anecdote-monger a

retailer of anecdotes[...]

1) With the information already given, it is easy to understand

the etymology of this entry. It should be observed that

according to it, anecdote may not have come into English

from French, but directly from midieval Latin. That this

source is likely is suggested by the spelling the word has in

the earliest example found of its use in English. Had it

come from french anecdotes, it is not easy to see why

Marvel in 1676 spelled it anecdota. Of course, it may have

come into English both from French and from Latin.

2) The most noteworthy feature of this entry, and of the

dictionary from which it comes, is that the definitions are

followed by examples of the use of the word in the senses

given. These examples all follow the same pattern. First

comes the date, than the authors name in small capitals,

than thie title of the work cited, usually abbreviated,

followed by the number of the page. The use of illustrative

quotationsis a marked feature of historical dictionaries.

18

They are given generously in the OED, there being about

1827306 of them in that great work.

It wod be a mistake, however, to conclude that the earliest

example given in the OED for a word in a particular sense is

really the first time the word uccurs in print. The OED is a

remarkable dictionary, but it would bu much more so if those

who collected, material for it had been able to find the very first

printed uses of all the words with extremely useful to have such

dates as are given, but they should not be misinterpreted.

3) Under 3 in the above entry there are given combinations

into which anecdote has entered. The first two of these,

anecdote-book, and anecdote-loving, are illustrated by only one

example each. Neither of the expressions appears to have been

much used. The same may be said of anecdote-monger, which is

treated slingtly differently becouse two examples of its use were

available.

19

The modern American dictionary is typically a single compact

20

volume published at a relatively modest price containing:

1) definitive American spellings;

2) pronunciation indicated by diacritical markings;

3) strictly limited etymologies;

4) numbered senses;

5) some illustrations;

6) selective treatment of synonyms and antonyms;

7) enxyclopedic inclusion of scientific, technological,

geofraphical, and biographical items.

The first American dictionaries were unpretentious little

schoolbooks based chiefly on Johnson’s Dictionary of 1775 by

way of various English abridgments of that work. The most

famous work of this class, Noah Websters Compedious

Dictionary of the English Language(1806) was an enlargement

of Entick’s spelling Dictionary (London 1764), distinguished

from its predecessors chiefly by a few encyclopedic

supplements and emphasis upon its Aericanism. The book was

never popular and contributed little either to Webster’s own

reputation or to the development of the American dictionary in

general.

The first important date in American lexicography is 1828.

The work that makes it important is Noah Webster’s An

American Dictionary of the English Language in two volumes.

Webster’s book has many deficiencies-etymologies quite

untouched by the linguistic sciense of the time, a rudimentary

pronunciation system actually inferior to that used by Walker in

21

1791, etc. –but in its insistence upon American spellings, in

definitions keyed to the American scene, and in its illustrative

quotatons from the founding Fathers of the Republic, it provided

the country with the first native dictionary comparable in scope

with that of Dr. Jhonson. Probably its greatest contribution to

succeding American dictionaries was the style of definition

writing-writing of a clarity and pithiness never approached

before its day.

The first American lexicographer to hit upon the particular

pattern that disbinguishes the American dictionary was

Webster’s lifelong rival, Joseph E. Worcesfer. His

Comprehensive Pronouncing, and Explanation Dictionary of the

English Language(1830), actually a thoroughly revised

abridgment of Webster’s two-volume work of 1828, was

characterised by the additions of new words, a more

conservative spelling, brief, well phrased definitions, full

indication of pronunciation by means of diacritics, use of stress

marks to divide syllables, and lists of synonyms. Because it was

compact and low priced, it immediately became popular-far

more popular in fact, than any of Webster’s own dictionaries in

his own lifetime.

In the field of unabridged dictionaries, the most important

accretion is the great /american linguist, William Dwight

Whitney and issued in six volumes. At the moment , the most

important advances in lexicography are taking place in the field

of the abridged collegiate-type dictionaries.

22

Meanwhile the scholarly dictionary has not been neglected.

Once the New English dictionary Was published, scholarly

opinion reealized the need to supplement it in the various

periods of English and particulary in American English. The

first of the proposed supplements, edited by Sir William Graigie

and Professor G. R. Hulbert, is the Dictionary of American

English on Historical Princples., completed in 1944. This was

followed by a dictionary of Americanisms, edited by Mitford M.

Mathews and publishied in 1951. A Middle English Dictionary,

a dictionary of Later Scottish are in preparation, and work on the

American Dialect society is now under way.

1)

23

Dictionaries prooide with various kinds of useful

24

information. Some of them, besides entries, have additional

articles about the English language, forms of address,

weights and measures, special signs and symbols, common

given names, some list historical events, and some, home

remedies and so on.

2) The common reader turns to a dictionary far information

about spelling, pronunciation, meaning and proper use of

words, He wants to know what is current and respectable.

He wants to know facts about any language, especially

difference berween the American and English languages.

3) The average purcaser of a dictionary uses it most often,

probably, to find out what a word “means”. As a reader he

wants to know what the author intended to convey. As the

speaker or writer, he wants to know what a word will

convey to his editors. And this too, is complex, subtle and

forever changing thing.

4) Dictionary material which are in different kinds of

dictionaries widely uses in language investigations by

linguists.

5) Using the dictionary helps us to improve our language. We

learn more and more new words, phrases, set expressions.

Our vocabulary becomes richer and our language becomes

more connected and tuneful

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