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INTERNATIONAL SLAVONIC UNIVERSITY (KHARKOV) DEPARTMENT OF INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS AND BUSINESS
HUMAN RIGHTS SITUATION AND PROTECTION. UNO ACTIVITY .
Essay of the second year student Darya Ivanova
Tutor - N. Dolinina
CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION 2. UNO ACTIVITY IN HUMAN RIGHTS SPHERE 3. THE INTERNATIONAL GEAR OF PROTECTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS 4. HUMAN RIGHTS IN UKRAINE 5. POLITICAL RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS IN UKRAINE 6. SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC RIGHTS 7. FREEDOM OF VOICE 8. CONCLUSIONS 9. RESUME
In the period after acceptance of the Declaration of State Independence in Ukraine was considerably made more active state and political activity in the sphere of human rights. A parlamentary committee on human rights is created, there is accepted a number of acts, aimed at strenghtening of legal status of citizens, legal base of protection of human rights and freedom is updated as a whole.
A set of nation-wide, regional and local right-defence organizations were registered, international contacts with interstate and non-government organizations are adjusting. These organizations have devoted their activity to the protection of the person in today's difficult, rigid and even severe world.
Many international pacts, agreements and conventions on human rights and freedoms were signed. There was considerably improved the integration of Ukraine in the international right-defence gear, real steps to increase the warranties of fulfillment of
international obligations in human rights sphere were made.
Much more forums are conducted with the dominant idea of protection of Ukrainian citizen's and foreigner's (which are on the territory of Ukraine) rights and freedoms.
New magazines on human rights are established, lectures are read, special and optonal cources on human rights are organized, educational programs are distributed. Much attention is paid to the educational aspect of the problem. National and international conferences and symposiums, "round tables" and readings on urgent problems of development of institute of human rights and protection of political, social and economic rights, freedoms and legal interests of the person are carried out.
In other words "the requirement of all-round maintenance of human rights and freedoms" has become not simply a line of preamble of the Declaration of State Independence of Ukraine but the program of state and political activity of citizens of Ukraine and foreigners, which permanently or temporary stay in our country.
But it will be an error to overestimate the first shifts in the right-defence sphere. Despite all the achievements in this sphere the situation of the person in Ukraine remains hard and unprotected. There are a lot of reasons and there is a great number of explanations of this fact.
It is possible to refer to the absence of a legal state with precisely distributed functions of legislative, executive and judicial powers. Frankly speaking, these branches are imperfect because of the political traditions in all the contries of the former USSR . For example, the judicial power continues to act with the main idea of punishment, instead of protection of rights and freedoms of citizens.
Frequently jealous relations between right-defence organizations make public right defence movement weak. It is not so influental and effective as should be.
The habit to make acts in the field of human rights propagandistic by character has overload them by political, moral or simply ideological admonitions. As it frequently happens it is heavy to separate from them really legal statements, it sometimes makes impossible protection of rights, honour and interests of the person.
As a rule there remains inconsistency of national legal acts with international pacts and conventions on human rights. The principle of priority of international norms in the matters of human rights is recognized by the law, but is not applied or it is applying very seldom in practice.
We have a selective approach to recognition of international obligations in the sphere of protection of rights, that is not allowed in practice of other states. Just due to such approach we did not ratify, have not joined, have not accepted or not approved a significant number of important international pacts, agreements, conventions.
The plenty of ratified by Ukraine international pacts does not act concerning our state because we have used the stipulated in them gear of realization in a very specific way. In the international contractual activity of Ukraine the negative tendency to sign international pacts on human rights without output of domestic gear of their realization was expanded.
The practice not to publish the text of ratified documents and conventions in the sphere of human rights or to publish by a small edition or with a 5-10 year delay has become rather widespread.
It is possible to consider natural the inconsistency of the Ukrainian legislation with international obligations of state. Practically only in the last years the authority of international pacts on human rights has become admitted by our officials. Some integral rights of the person are absolutly unknown to our state or are admitted only on the paper.
It is necessary to achieve the real, guaranteed maintenance of such integral rights and freedoms as: right to life, right to freedom of opinions and the free manifestation of them, right to ideological (with exception of the ideological movements, forbidden by modern international legislation), religious, cultural freedom, right to participation in political life and management, right to freedom of print, to reception and distribution of information, right to strike, right to healthy environment, right to an acceptable living standard, necessary for health support, well-being, honour, right to access depending on abilities and professional training to any posts in state bodies, establishments, organizations, right to protect rights and freedoms according to the legislation, right to property indemnification of moral damage, caused by illegal actions of state bodies, by officials and other persons, right to leave the country and to return to it, right to appeal to the court in the case of illegal arrest, detention, refuse in the opening or closing of a criminal case, right of citizens to free movement and to choose a place of residing in the country, right to property indemnification in case of illegal detention, arrest, conviction, illegal dismissal from a post, illegal location in mental establishments, etc.
The named rights are usual for the world practice. We have to lead the legislation of Ukraine to conformity with international
standards in the sphere of human rights but this step will not give necessary results without solution of a problem how to increase literacy of the population in the sphere of international standards. The lack of information in this sphere influences the decrease of legal culture.
UNO ACTIVITY IN HUMAN RIGHTS SPHERE
After the Second World war under the influence of the facts of mutual abuse of human rights the general recognition was received by the concept of necessity of the international cooperation in this sphere. In item 3 of article 1 of The UNO Constitution it was proclaimed that one of the UNO tasks is realization of joint activity of the state members. This activity is directed to the human rights be respected and adhered by all, irrespective of race, sex, language and religion.
According to this item Ukraine as one of the UNO founders has taken the obligations to act independently or together with other states in order to achieve a world wide respect of human rights and their realization. In the Declaration of State Independence of Ukraine, July 16, 1990 a priority of common to all mankind values above class values and a priority of conventional norms of the international legislation above norms of domestic legislation were confirmed. And by this Ukraine confirms its readiness to adhere the UNO Constitution. In the Law "On the Action of International Agreements on the Territory of Ukraine", December 10, 1991 was established, that signed and properly ratified by Ukraine international agreements are an integral part of the legislation of Ukraine and are used in the order, stipulated for norms of the national legislation. In the basis of this Law there is recognition of the priority of the common for all mankind values and the general principles of the international legislation and will to supply the unviolability of human rights and freedoms and to join the system of legal relations between states on the basis of mutual respect of the state independence and democratic bases of international cooperation.
The Law "On the Right Inheritance of Ukraine", September 12, 1991 confirmed in article 6 the obligations of our state concerning international agreements, signed by Ukrainian SSR. The adduced international acts and the domestic legislation convincingly prove Ukraine's will to participate actively in UNO work directed to the protection of human rights.
On the territory of Ukraine this obligation enables each person to lean for the protection of its rights and freedoms on international standards produced by UNO, and in case of refusal of government bodies to protect these rights and freedoms to address in UNO. Unfortunately such necessity exists, as on apt expression of the chairman of a the standing Commission on Human
Rights, Protection of Minorities and Refugees of Supreme Council of Ukraine Mr. Vladimir Butkevich today in our state there is a crisis of the legal system.
In this case it is necessary to consider a gear of UNO activity in the field of rights of the person and to define opportunities for protection of each person.
First of all it should be said, that UNO has defined a sense and has made a list of human rights which should be observed by all countries of the world and Ukraine in particular.
Our country, since it has become a member of UNO, actively participates in the output of main documents, which concern human rights. Ukraine ratified and has admitted compulsory 14 of 22 major international agreements on human rights, developed by UNO. At the Second World Conference on Human Rights in Viden in 1993 delegates from almost all the countries of the world have admitted, that the main international standards of human rights are today generated and the main task of UNO is to increase the efficiency of the gear of international protection of rights of the person.
Not concretizing the sense of international standards concerning human rights, which are well investigated by Ukrainian and Russian scientists (these standards are in published texts of The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, December 10, 1948, International Pact on Economic, Political and Cultural Rights, December 16, 1966 and in some other documents), it would be necessary to note, that even the announcement of the state of emergency can not call restrictions or abuse of the great number of human rights.
According to article 4 of The International Pact on Civil and Political Rights in a case of state of the emergency when there is the heaviest threat to the human rights and freedoms there can not be abused: the right to life; prohibition of deprivation of freedom for impossibility to execute contract obligations; prohibition of providing with the force of return the criminal law; the right to recognition of the legal capacity of each person; ideological freedom, freedom of conscience and religion.
THE INTERNATIONAL GEAR OF PROTECTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS
Today the international gear of protection of human rights acts in frameworks of UNO.
The General Assembly of UNO according to article 13 of The UNO Constitution carries out researches and gives recommendations concerning fulfillment and respect of human rights. In order to support this UNO accepts appropriate resolutions on particular questions of protection of human rights. Though the resolutions
have recommendatory character, member countries, as a rule execute these recommendations. The General Assembly also accepts and opens for ratification by countries - members conventions, which fix international standards of human rights. Economic and Social Council helps General Assembly in this activity . According to article 68 of The UNO Constitution two functional commissions were created - the Human Rights Committee with smaller Subcomission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities and the Commission on Women Status. In the already mentioned Subcomission there is a representative of Ukraine - professor Vladimir Butkevich .
The Human Rights Committee is chosen by the Economic and Social Council from 43 representatives of UNO member countries for 3 years. The representatives of Ukraine many times were chosen members of the Human Rights Committee considering their active work in the development of international agreements and other documents in the field of rights of the person.
The Human Rights Committee is going annually on sessions and discusses most important questions of international protection of human rights. Besides development of projects of conventions for General Assembly of UNO, it investigates the cases of malicious and mass abuse of human rights.
Only in modern conditions of development UNO and its bodies have an opportunity to depart from the ideological collisions on questions of human rights and to begin to consider aspects of interstate relations as cooperation for achievement of such great values - rights and freedoms of the person.
Now such conventional bodies act: Committee on Liquidation of Race Discrimination, created according to the International Convention on Liquidation of All Forms of Race Discrimination, December 21, 1965 (since April 7, 1969 Ukraine participates in this Convention); the Human Rights Committee, created according to International Pact on Civil and Political rights, December 16, 1966, (Ukraine participates in this Pact since November 19, 1973); Committee on Liquidation of Discrimination of Women, created according to the Convention on Liquidation of All forms of Discrimination of Women, December 18, 1979 (since September 3, 1981 Ukraine participates in this Convention), Committee Against Tortures, created according to the Convention Against Tortures and Other Severe or Humiliating Honor Kinds of Behaviour and Punishment, December 10, 1984 (since June 26, 1987 Ukraine participates in this Convention), Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, created according to the International Pact on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, December 16, 1966 (Ukraine is a member of this Pact since November 19, 1973), Committee on Chidren's Rights, created according to the Convention on Children's Rights, October 20, 1989 (Ukraine is a member of this Convention since September 27,
The named committees consist of 18 members, which should be citizens of country - members of appropriate conventions and which are people of high moral and which are competent in the field of human rights. The members of the committees are chosen by secret voting by country - members of the appropriate convention for a period of 4 years. Such procedure of creation of committees gives them an opportunity to solve difficult, complex tasks of protection of human rights in the states, which have signed appropriate international documents.
It is clear that an important element of activity of these international bodies concerning the realization of agreements are obligations of the member countries to participate in their activity and to adhere their decisions. That is a feature of the whole process of protection of human rights with the help of international conventional bodies. If in the national legislation there is a law, which is realized due to the activity of courts or state bodies, the international bodies lean exclusively to cooperation of the countries, which take the obligations.
When the country refuses to participate in the convention on protection of these or other rights of the person, it does not take international measures concerning realization of these rights.
The competence of the named committees is largely stopped. It is nessesary to consider the Human Rights Committee work.
According to the Pact the Committee receives and considers reports of member countries on the taken measures for realization of the rights proclaimed in this international document. After consideration of the reports the Committee approves recommendations to the member countries concerning realization of civil and political rights.The Committee can make remarks of general character, which explain the statements of the Pact and help member countries to realize human rights.The Committee also considers complaints of member countries of abuse of these statements by other member country. In this case the Committee grants its service for permission of this argument, and in case of disagreement of the countries nominates a special commission. May be the most important authority of the Committee is its right to assort arguments of persons and international non-state organizations about abuse of human rights by the member country. The Committee receives such right only with the specific agreement of the member countries. The Optional Protocol to the International Pact on Civil and Political Rights of December 16, 1966 was adopted, according to which the member countries of the Pact take an obligation to admit the competence of the Committee to consider arguments of countries. The members of the Pact are
93 countries, and The Optional Protocol was ratified only by 53 countries. Ukraine ratified this document on November 25, 1991. So each person in Ukraine can address the Committee with complaints on abuse of civil and political rights provided in the Pact.
However, there is an important requirement: the Committee considers such complaint only when all national opportunities of legal protection were used. So in Ukraine the person should address for the protection rights to court and only after the decision of the national court, and in case of the appeal after the decisions of supreme judicial instances, it is possible to refer to the Human Rights Committee.
The Committee considers received complaints and offers the countries to give an explanation. After confidential consideration of the case and explanations or applications of the countries the Committee notifies the interested person and country on which complaint was sent on the consequences of discussion.
Till March of 1991 the Committee considered 445 messages of persons concerning 33 countries. In 119 cases the Commitee has published conclusions and has established 93 facts of abuse of human rights. The considered international procedure influences maintenance of civil and political rights. In the connection with participation of Ukraine in the Optional Protocol and availability of difficult cases of abuse of human rights on the territory of our country, where, as it frequently happens, national ways of legal protection are exhausted, there is a good idea to give an address of Human Rights Committee. Other Committees are situated there too. This address should be written in English: The Human Rights Commitee c/o the Centre of Human Rights, United Nations Office 8-14 avenue de la Paix 1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland. In the message it should be indicated, that it is posted according to the Optional Protocol to the International Pact on Civil and Political Rights. There must be the information about the author of the message (surname, name, nationality, profession, date and the birthplace, address). The author should indicate the member country - infriger, which article of the pact was infringed and which national ways of legal protection were used. Then there must be indicated which abuse of human right this letter is and the date. In the end there should be a signature of the author of the message.
By the decision of the General Assembly of UNO it is also provided, that all the members of the Organization should grant reports about realization of civil, political, social and economic rights. These reports are discussed at meetings of the Commission on Human Rights. When the members of the Commission have questions or need new materials they address the appropriate country. The
Human Rights Committee uses only materials given by the state.
After the discussion of the report ther Human Rights Committee will promulgate general remarks. And after this influence of UNO on country - infringer of rights is limited. The practice of UNO proves, that this influence is unsufficient. Such countries as Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, Somali, Ruande, where there are rough infringements of human rights, do not react to the remark of the Committee. Therefore already there is a question of introduction of measures in a UNO gear, which would influence the activity of the countries and notify or terminate infringements of human rights.
In 1993 the General Assembly of UNO adopted the decision to introduce a new post - Supreme Commissioner of UNO on Human Rights. This official should monitor observance of human rights worldwide and using present gears of UNO render influence the countries, in order to achieve observance of human rights and freedoms. Yet there is no experience of work of this new chain of the gear of UNO in protection of human rights. But the experience of regional conventions on human rights testifies that it is necessary to add to the UNO gear one more important part - International Human Rights Court. In modern conditions it could execute protection of rights and freedoms of the person worldwide in judicial order. This body could consider complaints of persons on infringement of human rights. Now such complaints without any consequences are considered by the Human Rights Committee. And the International Human Rights Court could bear compulsory decisions, fulfillment of which Security Council of UNO would guarantee. It's clear, that the consent to the compulsory jurisdictions of such court countries should give in the appropriate international document.
The International Court of UNO acting today considers exclusively complaints of countries at the infringement of international agreements by other countries. It concerns conventions on human rights. Ukraine has admitted the compulsory jurisdiction of the International Court of UNO concerning complaints at infringements of human rights. Any complaint at the infringement of the international conventions on human rights will be taken to consideration in the International Court of UNO. Concerning other conventions, at availability of the complaint of certain country on Ukraine, consent of our country to consideration in the International Court is necessary. Such position of Ukraine testifies its relation to human rights and its diligence to use completely the acting gear of UNO for protection of human rights.
There is one important task facing Ukraine - to enter the political and legal space, created in Europe. The European Council did large work and has created more than 140 conventions on human rights. Participation of the majority of the countries of Wstern Europe in these conventions caused the unification of
their legislation on human rights and has given an opportunity to increase the level of realization of human rights and freedoms.
HUMAN RIGHTS IN UKRAINE
July 16, 1990 Supreme Council of Ukraine has ratified the Declaration of the State Independence of Ukraine, which has proclaimed "the state independence of Ukraine is priority, independence, completeness and unity of the authority of the Republic in its territorial borders and independence and equality in external relations". In the Declaration there was stressed the equality of all citizens of the republic irrespective of origin, social and property status, race and nationality, sex , education, language, political sights and religion, profession, place of residing and other circumstances.
December 25, 1991 Ukraine has joined the Optional Protocol and International Pact on Civil and Political Rights.
But, unfortunately, having ratified these important international agreements, Ukraine its own internal legislation has not been put in conformity with the named agreements.
For example in Section of the International Pact on Civil and Political Rights it is said, that the person has the right to life, which is protected by the law. But in our state capital punishment is still used. This kind of punishment is preserved in the the new Criminal code draft.
Ukraine ratified 45 important international conventions, has participated in preparation and acceptance of more than 60 resolutions, declarations, pacts, conventions, agreements and other documents, which impose particular international obligations on member countries. Besides the above mentioned international documents, Ukraine ratified the International Convention on Liquidation of All Forms of Race Discrimination, the International Convention on Termination of Apartheid Crimes and Punishment for Them, Convention Against Apartheid in Sport, Convention on Liquidation of All Forms of Discrimination of Women. It testifies a certain level of development of legal culture, that will allow the state to enter the world community.
POLITICAL RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS IN UKRAINE
The adoption at the end of 1989 by the Supreme Council of Ukrainian SSR of the Law "On Elections of National Deputies", in which the elections on the alternate basis stipulated, was the first step on a way to creation of democracy in Ukraine. Despite obvious defects of that Law, as granting of a unique opportunity to the Communist party to interfere in the process of elections.
The republic received a new Parlament, which has on August 24, 1991 adopted the Act declarating independence of Ukraine. The Supreme Council of Ukraine has ratified the laws "On public and local referendums", "On elections of president of Ukraine", "On public associations". The preconditions for participation of the person in state and public life, for influence on activity of different state bodies and public associations of political direction; participation in the formation of representative bodies of state power and local authorities; creation and participation in the activity of public associations.
In 1991 there was conducted a referendum, which gave an opportunity to citizens to express their attitude to independence of Ukraine. The elections of president of Ukraine, which were conducted on December 1, 1991 on the alternate basis, were free and democratic. People chose Leonid Kravtchuk. But already in the mid-1992, as the consequence of an economic policy discontent began to grow (there was made an attempt to collect 3 million of signatures with the requirement advance to re-elect Supreme Council and the president of Ukraine).
An important step on the way to construction of a democratic state was an acceptance on March 6, 1992 the Law "On cancellation of criminal punishment in a kind of the exile and banish".
At the end of 1993 the Supreme Council accepted the Law "On entrance - departure", which is certainly a step of our legislation ahead. Unfortunately, this project does not contain precisely developed political gears of realization of the right of citizens to departure and entrance to Ukraine. Some thesis of the project are directed on legal fastening of the existing situation.
February 4, 1994 the Law "On the legal status of foreigners" was adopted, it defines the legal status, fixes the main rights, freedoms and responsibility of foreign citizens, as well as those of persons without citizenship, which live or temporarily stay in Ukraine, and defines the order of consideration of questions, connected with departure or entrance to country.
SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC RIGHTS.
Ukraine among the first 20 states, ratified the International Pact on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (three years before the input of the Pact in to action).
But most of the already declarated by Ukraine social and economic rights are not provided. Our country now can't provide citizens with certain life standard.
In 1990-1993 the Supreme Council accepted some laws, which should become the guarantor of social protection of the
population: the laws "On the Status and Social Protection of Citizens Damaged as a Consequence of Chernobyl Accident", "On Employment of the Population", "On the Bases of Social Protection of Invalids", "On the State Help to Families with Children" etc. But in practice these laws were not realized.
A characteristic feature of the modern social and economic situation in Ukraine is constant decrease of the level of life of the majority of the population, which is under pressure of inflationary processes and recession of manufacture.
Today mass misery of the population is the factor, which considerably influences the formation of consciousness of people, of their attitude to updating of society. The success and the prospects of reforms in Ukraine depend on whether the existing political parties and movements will manage to ensure social support of reforms. The experience of the last years testifies that conditions for occurrence and constant reproduction of subjects of a market economy are extremely slowly created, and they are deformed by the crisis phenomena in our economy.
The second president of Ukraine - Leonid Kuchma tried to stabilize economic situation, but it seems that he failed. Now Ukrainian economy is a market economy due to reforms of the last three years. It seems to be a great success but it is not a great success because now it's clear that nobody can stop the catastrophic recession of manufacture.
The growth of indiffirence of social layers testifies to formation rather specific relations between authorities and population - relations of parallel existing and non-interference.
Among economic rights of the person the central place takes the right to property. Unfortunately and so far legislation has no norms of equal and reliable protection of the property of all subjects of economic activity. Diffirent norms concerning the property are contradicting each other.
FREEDOM OF VOICE
Today in Ukraine a distribution of separate periodic editions is forbidden. It is done by local representative authorities, infringing the legislation.
Despite the existence of the laws about the information, press and TV, the access of journalists to the primary sources still remains problematic, and sometimes - impossible, if it touchs interests of the officials.
There are a lot of examples such as the accident with the famous TV
program. Broadcast of one of its releases was prohibited by the Supreme Council despite the legislation because of a scene in Parliament. And there are a lot of journalists which insult officials and famous persons. This situation witnesses the low level of culture of our journalists and deputies.
Freedom of voice in Ukraine has not reached an appropriate level yet. Real freedom of word is possible only with the conformity of the whole current legislation with international norms and creation of state gears of regulation.
The creation of the united legal space in Europe imposes on Ukraine new, difficult obligations to edit the norms of the legislation, coordination of rules of judicial practice with the existing universal and regional agreements. Development of normative base and gears of its realization in the international right considerably advances appropriate Ukrainian parameters of all directions. Therefore it is necessary to update the legislation up to a modern european level. All european international legal system is generated as a system of protection of human rights. Meanwhile the legislation of Ukraine is a system of protection of interests of the state.
Ukrainian Constitution should guarantee, instead of declare the right to life, freedom of voice and free realization of it, to ideological, religious and cultural freedom, freedom to participate in political life and management, right to strike, right to property indemnification of moral losses, caused by illegal actions of state bodies, officials, right to leave the country and to come back to it and so on. The named rights are new for Ukraine and are usual for world practice.
The problem of human rights in Ukraine is difficult, multiplan.
Serious work on adaptation of the current legislation to principles and norms of the international legislation is carried out. You have paid attention how frequently at disputes the national deputies refer to articles of this or that international agreement. Today they do not practically consider bills, if they mention rights of citizens and have not previously passed the examinations of international experts.
In case of especially difficult bills, for example on citizenship, they address or may addreaa an appropriate structure of international organizations and, especially, UNO with the request to grant the consulting help at preparation of the legal act.
All the already adopted acts are now being analized for their conformity to the international standards and international
obligations of Ukraine. There are enough frequently accepted laws on amendments and additions to the acting laws.
Before the Declaration of Independence we had not any periodic editions, directly devoted to the questions of human rights. Today more than ten of periodic editions are devoted to this theme. National and international conferences, round tables, seminars etc. are devoted to the questions of human rights.
There is much work to do but now we have a few results.
Ukraine has a lot of problems now. One of them is the situation in human rights sphere. Many international pacts, agreements and conventions on human rights and freedoms were signed. There was considerably improved the integration of Ukraine in the international right-defence gear, real steps to increase the warranties of fulfillment of international obligations in human rights sphere were made.
But it is insufficient. The infrigments of human rights by state bodies and officials are numerous. Common to the international practice norms are unknown in Ukraine (or regulary abused). The already declared rights can not be supported because of the global economic crisis.
Today mass misery of the population is the factor, which considerably influences the formation of consciousness of people, of their attitude to updating of society. The success and the prospects of reforms in Ukraine depend on whether existing political parties and movements manage to ensure social support of reforms. The experience of the last years testifies that conditions for occurrence and constant reproduction of subjects of a market economy are extremely slowly created, and they are deformed by the crisis phenomena in our economy.
The human rights are infriged in Ukraine and there is nessesity to refer to international orgsnizations for defence of human rights and freedoms.
Today the international gear of protection of human right acts within the UNO frameworks. One of such UNO bodies is the Human Rights Committee.
The Committee considers the received complaints and offers the countries to give an explanation. After the confidential consideration of the case and explanations or applications of the countries the Committee notifies on consequences of the discussion the interested person and country on which complaint was sent.
There is the an important requirement: The Committee considers such a complaint only when all national opportunities of legal protection were used. So in Ukraine the person should address for the protection of rights to the court and only after the decision of the national court, and in case of the appeal after the decisions of supreme judicial instances, it is possible to refer to the Human Rights Committee.
It's a pity but competence of this committee (and other UNO bodies as well) is largely stopped.
The problem of human rights in Ukraine is difficult, multiplan.
Serious work on adaptation of the current legislation to principles and norms of the international legislation is carried out. Today deputies do not practically consider bills, if they mention rights of citizens and have not previously passed the examinations of international experts. We have to do a lot to make our state a really democratic and legal one.
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6. The Statesman's year-book edited by Brian Hunter, 1993, London.
7. Duc Trang, Legal seminars. Constitutional law and human rights, 1993, Kiev.