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Introduction in orthopedics

Introduction in orthopedics

Exam literature:

Apley’s System of Orthopaedics and Fractures Ninth Edition-2010

Orthopaedic Guide-Medical school Split -Section 1 General Orthopaedics

-Section 2 Regional Orthopaedics

Ancient History of Orthopedics

-In Egypt, splints have been found on mummies made of bamboo, reeds, wood, or bark, and padded with linen - In ancient Greece, the works of Hippocrates detail the treatment for dislocations of the shoulders, knees, and hips, as well as treatments for infections resulting from compound fractures.

History of orthopaedics

The Origin of the Word: Orthopedics vs. Orthopaedics -Nicholas Andry coined the word "orthopaedics", derived from Greek words for "correct" or "straight" ("orthos") and "child" ("paidion"), in 1741, when at the age of 81 he published Orthopaedia: or the Art of Correcting and Preventing Deformities in Children.

-In the U.S. the spelling orthopedics is standard, although the majority of university and residency programs, and even the AAOS, still use Andry's spelling -Elsewhere, usage is not uniform -In Canada, both spellings are common -”Orthopaedics” usually prevails in the rest of the Commonwealth, especially in Britain.

The Early Modern History

-Jean-Andre Venel established the first orthopedic institute in 1780, which was the first hospital dedicated to the treatment of children's skeletal deformities - He is considered by some to be the father of orthopedics or the first true orthopedist in consideration of the establishment of his hospital and for his published methods.

-Antonius Mathysen, a Dutch military surgeon, invented the plaster of Paris cast in 1851 -Many developments in orthopedic surgery resulted from experiences during wartime -Traction and splinting developed during World War I - Since WWII, treatments have evolved to include joint replacements, arthroscopy, and a whole host of technologies

Orthopaedic Trauma Surgery

Specialty evolved after WW I Heritage of Orthopaedic surgery is TRAUMA TRAUMA is the common thread of all subspecialties in Orthopaedics

Ortopeadics in Croatia

- Orthopedics in Croatia from 1908. -Božidar Špišić -The specialty in 1919. -Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, 1922.

Orthopaedic

Orthopaedics is concerned with bones, joints, muscles, tendons and nerves – the skeletal system and all that makes it move

Conditions that affect these structures fall into seven easily remembered pairs: 1. Congenital and developmental abnormalities. 2. Infection and inflammation. 3. Arthritis and rheumatic disorders. 4. Metabolic and endocrine disorders. 5. Tumours and lesions that mimic them. 6. Neurological disorders and muscle weakness. 7. Injury and mechanical derangement.

Orthopaedics - Diagnostics

-anamnesis -clinical examination -radiology -scintigraphy -special search or exam.

Orthopaedics - Diagnostics

Anamnesis -the most common reason:pain -muscle weakness -deformation -limping -previous treatment

Orthopaedics - Diagnostics

Clinical examination: -inspection at rest and movement -palpation -measure the length and scope of the extremities -measuring the movement of the joints, active and passive

Orthopaedics - Diagnostics

-the zero position of the joint - anatomical posture -physiological position - equally relaxed structure -central position- can accommodate up liquid -functional position - for the best function -antalgic position

Orthopaedics - Diagnostics

-contracture -ankylosis - bone and fibrous -arthrodesis -abnormal motility -crepitus -blockade

Orthopaedics - Diagnostics

-measurement of the length of the limbs -laboratory tests -tissue typing -microbiological -search synovial fluid -radiological diagnosis -arthroscopy

Orthopedics - Orthopedic procedures

-non-surgical procedures

-surgery procedures: the soft tissues the bones

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