AutoCAD 2011 and AutoCAD LT 2011-Skripta-Modeliranje-Dizajn_1, Skripte' predlog Umetnost
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AutoCAD 2011 and AutoCAD LT 2011-Skripta-Modeliranje-Dizajn_1, Skripte' predlog Umetnost

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AutoCAD 2011 and AutoCAD LT 2011,Skripta,Modeliranje,Dizajn,Starting AutoCAD, The Welcome Screen, Exploring the New Features Workshop, The Customer Involvement Program, Exploring the AutoCAD User Interface, Introducing the AutoCAD Application Window, Working in the Command Window,Displaying the Ribbon Tools, Using the Ribbon Tools, Customizing the Ribbon, Opening a Drawing with the Application Menu, Switching between Open Drawings, Using the Line Command,Using Relative Coordinates, Using the Direct Distance Method, Drawing the Shape, Using Relative Polar Coordinates, Using Direct Input, Using the Offset Command, Using the Fillet Command, Extending Lines, The Grid, Setting Up Drawing Limits, Drawing with Grid and Snap, A Closer Look at Dynamic Input, Laying Out the Walls Creating a Polyline, Editing a Polyline, Creating the Exterior Wall Lines, Creating the Interior Walls, Cutting Openings in the Walls, Creating Doors, Drawing Swinging Doors, Copying Objects,Laying Out the Kitchen, Drawing the Counter, Drawing the Stove and Refrigerator, Completing the Stove with Parametrics, Drawing the Kitchen Sink, Constructing the Bathroom, Drawing a Shower Unit, Drawing the Bathroom Sink and Mirror, Positioning the Toilet and Shelves, Drawing the Hot Tub, If You Would Like More Practice, Drawing the Cabin Again, Drawing Something Else, Drawing Some Furniture for the Cabin, Drawing a Gasket, Drawing a Parking Lot, Introducing Dimension Styles, Making a New Dimension Style, Placing Dimensions on the Drawing, Placing Horizontal Dimensions, Using Other Types of Dimensions, Using Radial Dimensions, Using Aligned and Angular Dimensions, Using Leader Lines, Modifying Dimensions, Modifying Dimension Text, Using Dimension Overrides, Navigating with the ViewCube, Building the Decks, Putting a Roof on the Cabin, Getting Further Directions in 3D
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AutoCAD® 2011 AnD AutoCAD Lt® 2011

No ExpEriENcE rEquirEd

AutoCAD® 2011 AnD AutoCAD Lt® 2011

No ExpEriENcE rEquirEd

Donnie Gladfe lter

Senior Acquisitions Editor: Willem Knibbe Development Editor: Jim Compton Technical Editor: Melanie Perry Production Editor: Christine O’Connor Copy Editor: Kathy Grider-Carlyle Editorial Manager: Pete Gaughan Production Manager: Tim Tate Vice President and Executive Group Publisher: Richard Swadley Vice President and Publisher: Neil Edde Book Designer: Franz Baumhackl Compositor: James D. Kramer, Happenstance Type-O-Rama Proofreader: Nancy Bell Indexer: Nancy Guenther Project Coordinator, Cover: Lynsey Stanford Cover Designer: Ryan Sneed Cover Image: © istockphoto.com/Palto

Copyright © 2010 by Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana

Published simultaneously in Canada

ISBN: 978-0-470-60216-4

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appro- priate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 646-8600. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, (201) 748-6011, fax (201) 748-6008, or online at http://www.wiley.com/go/permissions.

Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: The publisher and the author make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this work and specifically disclaim all warranties, including without limita- tion warranties of fitness for a particular purpose. No warranty may be created or extended by sales or promotional materials. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for every situation. This work is sold with the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, accounting, or other professional services. If professional assistance is required, the services of a competent professional person should be sought. Neither the publisher nor the author shall be liable for damages arising herefrom. The fact that an organization or Web site is referred to in this work as a citation and/or a poten- tial source of further information does not mean that the author or the publisher endorses the information the organization or Web site may provide or recommendations it may make. Further, readers should be aware that Internet Web sites listed in this work may have changed or disappeared between when this work was written and when it is read.

For general information on our other products and services or to obtain technical support, please contact our Customer Care Department within the U.S. at (877) 762-2974, outside the U.S. at (317) 572-3993 or fax (317) 572-4002.

Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Gladfelter, Donnie, 1982- AutoCAD 2011 and AutoCAD LT 2011 : no experience required / Donnie Gladfelter. — 1st ed. p. cm. ISBN-13: 978-0-470-60216-4 (pbk.) ISBN-10: 0-470-60216-3 (pbk.) ISBN: 978-0-470-90142-7 (ebk) ISBN: 978-0-470-90144-1 (ebk) ISBN: 978-0-470-90143-4 (ebk) 1. Computer graphics. 2. AutoCAD. I. Title. T385.G573 2010 620’.00420285536—dc22 2010013507

TRADEMARKS: Wiley, the Wiley logo, and the Sybex logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. and/or its affiliates, in the United States and other countries, and may not be used without written permission. AutoCAD and AutoCAD LT are registered trademarks of Autodesk, Inc. All other trademarks are the property of their respective own- ers. Wiley Publishing, Inc. is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book.

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Dear Reader,

Thank you for choosing AutoCAD 2011 and AutoCAD LT 2011: No Experience Required. This book is part of a family of premium-quality Sybex books, all of which are written by outstanding authors who combine practical experience with a gift for teaching.

Sybex was founded in 1976. More than 30 years later, we’re still committed to producing consistently exceptional books. With each of our titles, we’re working hard to set a new standard for the industry. From the paper we print on, to the authors we work with, our goal is to bring you the best books available.

I hope you see all that reflected in these pages. I’d be very interested to hear your comments and get your feedback on how we’re doing. Feel free to let me know what you think about this or any other Sybex book by sending me an email at nedde@wiley.com. If you think you’ve found a technical error in this book, please visit http://sybex.custhelp.com. Customer feedback is critical to our efforts at Sybex.

Best regards,

Neil edde Vice President and Publisher Sybex, an Imprint of Wiley

To Helen, who became my lovely wife on June 19, 2010.

Ack nowl edgments

In more ways than I can explain, it feels like yesterday when I was getting my start in the CAD industry as an entry-level CAD technician. That was more than a decade ago, and since then I’ve had the profound privilege of giving back to the CAD community through my blog (www.TheCADGeek.com) and through the hundreds of professionals I’ve trained. While there’s certainly no way for me to thank each one individually; without each boss, teacher, project manager, and even each user I’ve supported, there’s absolutely no way this book would have been possible.

Big or small, each of them has made a valuable contribution to building my career into what it has become today. Ironically, a structure’s ultimate strength is determined by what isn’t seen—the foundation. For me, that was built by some of the most passionate educators I’ve ever known: Walter Spain and Johnnie Collie of Hermitage High School and Hermitage Technical Center in Henrico County, Virginia. Their passion is what both inspired and empowered me to learn every- thing I could about the tools of my trade—namely AutoCAD.

In addition to those first teachers, I must thank everyone who helped me build on that foundation. Those individuals include Stan Hunt, who was my first boss; David Anderson, who helped open the door to me becoming a trainer; Jonathan Jackson, who taught me civil design; along with Mark Farnsworth and Eric Chappell, who helped me become a CAD manager.

There is likewise a long list of individuals who have contributed to the mak- ing of this book. This is my first book, and I had little idea of what all went into getting a book published. Senior Acquisitions Editor Willem Knibbe not only rallied support for this book within Wiley, but he also made sure my many ques- tions related to the publication process were answered. Thank you to Guillermo Cortabarria, Shaan Hurley, and Kate Morrical from Autodesk for demonstrating many of the new capabilities of AutoCAD 2011 and providing me access to soft- ware while it was still in development; and thanks to Lynn Allen for her insights and support as a fellow author.

From the first chapter to the last, I can’t thank the incredible team of editors enough—especially my technical editor Melanie Perry, developmental editor Jim Compton, copy editor Kathy Grider-Carlyle, and production editor Christine O’Connor. Melanie is a leader within the CAD community herself, and I very much appreciate her lending both her technical and industry experience as she checked the text and figures for accuracy. With stellar precision, Jim made sure every comment was answered; every image was accounted for; and every detail

was addressed. Christine tracked the production of each figure, and helped make every chapter ready for publication.

Aside from my editors, there was a small army of professionals at Wiley whose dedication to their craft is apparent as you read through this book. I am consis- tently impressed at the professional product they produce.

Finally, I want to thank the most important member of the production team, my wife (as of June 19, 2010) Helen. She did something much greater than edit- ing chapters or tracking schedules; she was my cheerleader when writer’s block got the best of me, the one who made me laugh daily and provided a shoulder to lean on even after some of the most demanding days in her job teaching at a local school dedicated to children with autism.

About the Author

Donnie Gladfelter is a highly visible and respected thought leader in the CAD community. He is well-known for his CAD Geek blog (www.thecadgeek.com), has written many articles for the popular AUGIWorld Magazine, and is a top-rated speaker at Autodesk University and other industry events. He has worked with the development team at Autodesk to help shape future versions of AutoCAD, and the company has featured him in numerous video interviews, including their popular “Ask the Expert” series. Donnie also helps empower CAD professionals by providing training and services to companies around the world as a member of the Autodesk User Group International (AUGI) Board of Directors.

A proven communicator, Donnie has reached thousands of people worldwide through many publications and various public speaking engagements. As a top-rated Autodesk University speaker since 2007, Donnie presented three ses- sions and assisted another at Autodesk University 2009. During the conference, he was also featured in many on-camera interviews, including an appearance on the popular Into Tomorrow radio show with Dave Graveline. Other speaking engagements have ranged in sizes up to 60,000 people.

With a professional reputation founded on both integrity and loyalty, he is a highly trusted and respected member of the CAD community who has worked with product managers and developers to help shape future releases of the soft- ware. These ideals have been achieved by subscribing to a simple, but effective personal mantra to “empower CAD professionals.” With an unwavering commit- ment to his craft, Donnie continues to embody this mantra by empowering the next generation of architecture and engineering professionals as a trainer and consultant to firms nationwide. In that role, he hosts classroom-style training sessions and helps reinforce that training with subsequent mentoring sessions.

Prior to becoming a consultant and trainer, he was the Design Systems Specialist (Assistant CAD Manager) for a multidisciplinary civil engineering firm headquartered in Richmond, Virginia. An ENR 500 firm, they employed more than 350 people in nine offices throughout the Mid-Atlantic. During his near six-year tenure there, Donnie was jointly responsible for providing the technical support and training for each of their CAD professionals. In that role, he was also responsible for the development of a collaborative BIM workflow used for a wide range of projects within the firm.

Donnie and his beautiful wife live in Richmond, Virginia.

contents At A gl Ance

Introduction xxi

Chap ter 1 Getting to Know AutoCAD 1

Chap ter 2 Learning Basic Commands to Get Started 37

Chap ter 3 Setting Up a Drawing 73

Chap ter 4 Developing Drawing Strategies: Part 1 99

Chap ter 5 Developing Drawing Strategies: Part 2 167

Chap ter 6 Using Layers to Organize Your Drawing 241

Chap ter 7 Combining Objects into Blocks 307

Chap ter 8 Controlling Text in a Drawing 367

Chap ter 9 Using Dynamic Blocks and Tables 439

Chap ter 10 Generating Elevations 505

Chap ter 11 Working with Hatches, Gradients, and Tool Palettes 555

Chap ter 12 Dimensioning a Drawing 593

Chap ter 13 Managing External References 657

Chap ter 14 Using Layouts to Set Up a Print 699

Chap ter 15 Printing an AutoCAD Drawing 781

Chap ter 16 Creating 3D Geometry 831

Chap ter 17 Rendering and Materials 911

Glossary 945

Index 963

contents

Introduction xxi

chApter 1 Get t ing to Know AutoCAD 1

Starting AutoCAD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 The Welcome Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Exploring the New Features Workshop. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 The Customer Involvement Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Exploring the AutoCAD User Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

Introducing the AutoCAD Application Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Working in the Command Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Using the Ribbon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

Displaying the Ribbon Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Using the Ribbon Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Customizing the Ribbon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 The Initial Setup Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

Using the Application Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Opening a Drawing with the Application Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Switching between Open Drawings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

Using the Drop-Down Menus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Using the Toolbars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

Workspaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Using the Keyboard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Using the Mouse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Are You Experienced? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

Now you can… . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

chApter 2 Learning Basic Commands to Get Star ted 37

Using the Line Command. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Using Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Using Relative Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Using the Direct Distance Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

Drawing the Shape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Using Relative Cartesian Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Erasing Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

C o n t e n t sx i i

Controlling How the Selection Tools Are Displayed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Using Relative Polar Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Using Direct Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Using the Offset Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Using the Fillet Command. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

Completing the Shape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Offsetting Lines to Mark an Opening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Extending Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Trimming Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

If You Would Like More Practice… . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Are You Experienced? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

Now you can… . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

chApter 3 Set t ing up a Drawing 73

Setting Up the Drawing Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Setting Up the Drawing Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

The Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Setting Up Drawing Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

Drawing with Grid and Snap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 A Closer Look at Dynamic Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

Saving Your Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 A Summary of AutoCAD’s Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

Linear Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Angular Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96

Are You Experienced? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Now you can… . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96

chApter 4 Developing Drawing Strategies : Par t 1 99

Laying Out the Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Creating a Polyline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Editing a Polyline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Creating the Exterior Wall Lines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Creating the Interior Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Cutting Openings in the Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121

Creating Doors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 Drawing Swinging Doors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 Copying Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140

C o n t e n t s x i i i

Mirroring Objects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 Scaling the Bathroom Door . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Drawing a Sliding Glass Door . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 Drawing the Bi-Fold Doors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156

If You Would Like More Practice… . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 An Alternative Sliding Glass Door. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 An Addition to the Cabin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 Draw Three Views of a Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164

Are You Experienced? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 Now you can… . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166

chApter 5 Developing Drawing Strategies : Par t 2 167

Drawing the Thresholds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 Drawing the Front Threshold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 Drawing the Back Threshold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .176

Drawing the Decks and Stairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 Drawing the Front Deck . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178

Laying Out the Kitchen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 Drawing the Counter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 Drawing the Stove and Refrigerator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 Completing the Stove with Parametrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 Drawing the Kitchen Sink . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216

Constructing the Bathroom. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 Setting Running Object Snaps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 Drawing a Shower Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 Drawing the Bathroom Sink and Mirror. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 Positioning the Toilet and Shelves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 Drawing the Hot Tub . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230

If You Would Like More Practice… . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234 Drawing the Cabin Again. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234 Drawing Something Else . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234 Drawing Some Furniture for the Cabin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234 Drawing a Gasket . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235 Drawing a Parking Lot. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237

Are You Experienced? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238 Now you can… . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238

C o n t e n t sx i v

chApter 6 using Layers to organize Your Drawing 241

Using Layers as an Organizing Tool. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 Setting Up Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243

Assigning Linetypes to Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256 Assigning Objects to Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261

Using the Quick Properties Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266 Selecting the Doors and Swings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268 Turning Off and Freezing Layers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276 Drawing the Headers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280 Drawing the Roof . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283

Setting a Linetype Scale Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289 Drawing the Ridgeline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291 Using the Layer Walk Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292

Setting Properties of Layers and Objects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295 Selecting Colors for Layers and Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295 Assigning a Color or a Linetype to an Object Instead of a Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . 295 Making a Color or a Linetype Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296

Using the Action Recorder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297 Creating Layer States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300 If You Would Like More Practice… . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304

Experimenting with Linetypes and Linetype Scales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304 Setting Up Layers for Your Own Trade or Profession . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305

Are You Experienced? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305 Now you can… . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305

chApter 7 Combining objects into Blocks 307

Making a Block for a Door . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308 Inserting the Door Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314 Using Dynamic Blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319

Finding Blocks in a Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321 Using Grips to Detect a Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321 Using the List Command to Detect a Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323 Using the Properties Palette to Examine a Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325 Creating a Window Block. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326

Inserting the Window Block. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331 Rotating a Block during Insertion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333 Using Snap Tracking to Set the Insertion Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335

C o n t e n t s x v

Changing a Block’s Scale Factor Using Object Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337 Finishing the Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338

Revising a Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343 Sharing Information between Drawings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346

Dragging and Dropping between Two Open Drawings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346 Using AutoCAD’s DesignCenter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350 Other Ways to Share Information between Drawings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356

If You Would Like More Practice… . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363 Are You Experienced? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365

Now you can… . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365

chApter 8 Control l ing text in a Drawing 367

Setting Up Text Styles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369 Determining Text and Drawing Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370 Defining a Text Style for View Titles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371 Placing Titles of Views in the Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375

Using Annotative Text. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378 Defining an Annotative Text Style. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379 Placing Room Labels in the Floor Plan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381 Using Text in a Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391 Creating a Title Block and Border . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401

Using Multiline Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .417 Using the Spell-Check Feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427 Exploring Other Aspects of Multiline Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431

If You Would Like More Practice… . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436 Are You Experienced? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437

Now you can… . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437

chApter 9 using Dynamic Blocks and tables 439

Using Attributes for a Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440 Defining Blocks with Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445 Inserting Blocks with Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446 Editing Attribute Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449

Setting Up Multiple Attributes in a Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450 Defining a Block with Multiple Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454 Inserting the Room Information Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459 Editing Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464

C o n t e n t sx v i

Controlling the Visibility of Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467 Exploring Other Uses for Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471

Creating a Dynamic Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 472 Setting Up Parameters and Actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473 Fine-Tuning the Dynamic Block with the Properties Palette . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 477 Inserting a Dynamic Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480

Creating a Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485 Defining a Table Style . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485 Designing a Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 489 Creating Tables from Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 497

If You Would Like More Practice… . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504 Are You Experienced? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504

Now you can… . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504

chApter 10 Generat ing Elevations 505

Drawing the South Elevation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 506 Creating the South Elevation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 506 Setting Up Lines for the Heights. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 509 Using Construction Lines to Project Elevation Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 510 Trimming Lines in the Elevation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 515 Assigning Elevation Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 520 Drawing the Decks in Elevation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 521

Generating the Other Elevations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 533 Making the Opposite Elevation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 534 Revising the New South Elevation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 536 Making the Front and Back Elevations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 541

Considering Drawing Scale Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 551 Drawing Interior Elevations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 552 If You Would Like More Practice… . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 552 Are You Experienced? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 553

Now you can… . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 553

chApter 11 Working with Hatches, Gradients, and tool Palet tes 555

Hatching the South Elevation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 557 Looking at Hatch Patterns. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 560 Hatching the Rest of the South Elevation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 562 Adding Special Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 568

C o n t e n t s x v i i

Using Hatches in the Floor Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 573 Hatching the Floors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 573 Finishing the Hatches for the Floors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 576

Modifying the Shape of Hatch Patterns. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 580 Creating and Managing Tool Palettes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 581

Creating a New Tool Palette. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 582 Setting Up a Palette for Hatches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 584 Creating a Palette for Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 586

If You Would Like More Practice… . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 588 Creating the Hatch Patterns for the Other Elevations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 588 Creating Your Hatch Palette . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 591

Are You Experienced? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 592 Now you can… . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 592

chApter 12 Dimensioning a Drawing 593

Introducing Dimension Styles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 594 Making a New Dimension Style. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 596

Placing Dimensions on the Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 614 Placing Horizontal Dimensions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 614

Using Other Types of Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 622 Using Radial Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 623 Using Aligned and Angular Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 628 Using Leader Lines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 634

Modifying Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 639 Modifying Dimension Text. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 640 Using Dimension Overrides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 645 Dimensioning Short Distances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 647

If You Would Like More Practice… . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 650 Dimensioning the Garage Addition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 651 Dimensioning to a Centerline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 651 Further Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 654

Are You Experienced? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 655 Now you can… . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 655

chApter 13 Managing External References 657

Drawing a Site Plan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 658 Using Surveyor’s Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 658 Drawing the Driveway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 663

C o n t e n t sx v i i i

Setting Up an External Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 670 Using the External References Palette . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 670 Moving and Rotating an Xref. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 678

Modifying an Xref Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 679 Modifying an Xref by Making It the Current Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 679 Modifying an Xref from within the Host Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 682 Adding an Image to a Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 686

Putting Xrefs to Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 690 Exploring Additional Xref Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 691

Setting the Xref Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 692 Binding Xrefs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 694

Exploring Further on Your Own . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 696 If You Would Like More Practice… . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 697

Compare Reference Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 697 Are You Experienced? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 698

Now you can… . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 698

chApter 14 using Layouts to Set up a Print 699

Getting Ready . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 701 Preparing the Title Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 702

Creating the Title Block Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 702 Setting Up a Sheet Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 714

Setting the Layout Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 716 Finishing the Sheet Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 721

Creating Your First Plan Sheet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 725 Using Sheet Set Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 727

Creating a New Sheet Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 728 Adding Existing Drawings to a Sheet Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 733 Creating Drawings with Sheet Set Manager. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 737

Setting Up Layouts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 741 Referencing the Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 741 Creating the Paper Space Viewport. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 744 Setting the Viewport Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 746 Copying the Layouts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 749

Adjusting a Viewport’s Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 759 Setting the Linetype Scale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 760 Managing the Floor Plan Sheet File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 761 Managing the Elevations Sheet File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 768

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Setting Up the Site Plan Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 771 Locking and Turning Viewports Off . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 776

If You Would Like More Practice… . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 779 Are You Experienced? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 780

Now you can… . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 780

chApter 15 Print ing an AutoCAD Drawing 781

Using the Plot Dialog Box. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 783 Printer/Plotter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 785 Paper Size and Number of Copies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 785 Plot Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 786 Plot Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 791 Plot Offset and Plot Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 792 The Expanded Plot Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 794

Applying Plot-Style Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 796 Introducing Plot-Style Table Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 796

Printing a Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 806 Determining Lineweights for a Drawing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 806 Setting Other Properties of Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 812 Setting Up the Other Parameters for the Print . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 812 Previewing a Print . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 814

Viewing Plots in Design Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 816 Printing a Drawing Using Layouts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 818

Updating Model File Layer Properties in Sheet Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 818 Plotting a Single Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 820 Printing a Drawing with Multiple Viewports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 822 Publishing Multiple Layouts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 824 Publishing with Sheet Set Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 826

Summing Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 829 Are You Experienced? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 830

Now you can… . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 830

chApter 16 Creating 3D Geometry 831

Modeling in 3D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 833 Setting Up a 3D Workspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 833 Making the Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 839 Creating the Door and Window Block-Outs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 842

C o n t e n t sx x

Moving and Rotating in 3D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 847 Cutting the Openings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 850

Creating the Floor, Foundation, and Thresholds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 852 Creating the Foundation and Supports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 854 Building the Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 855 Navigating with the ViewCube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 869 Building the Decks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 874 Putting a Roof on the Cabin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 889

Getting Further Directions in 3D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 901 Using Other Solid Modeling Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 903 Using Mesh-Modeling Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 906 Using Surface-Modeling Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 907

Are You Experienced? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 909 Now you can… . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 909

chApter 17 Rendering and Materials 911

Creating Cameras to Reproduce Views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 912 Using the Loft Tool. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 912 Creating the Cameras . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 916

Creating a Lighting Scheme. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 921 Creating a Light Source. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 921 Enabling Shadows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 925 The First Render. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 926 Controlling the Background of the Rendering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 930

Adding Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 932 Adjusting the Material Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 937 Rendering to a File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 940

Are You Experienced? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 944 Now you can… . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 944

Glossary 945

Index 963

Introduc t Ion This book was born of the need for a simple, yet engaging tutorial that would help beginners step into the world of AutoCAD or AutoCAD LT without feeling intimidated. That tutorial has evolved over the years into a full introduction to the ways in which architects and civil and structural engineers use AutoCAD to increase their efficiency and ability to produce state-of-the-art computerized production drawings and designs.

Because AutoCAD and AutoCAD LT are so similar, it makes sense to cover the basics of both programs in one book. For most of the book, the word AutoCAD stands for both AutoCAD and AutoCAD LT.

When you come to a section of a chapter that applies to AutoCAD only, the icon shown here is displayed in the margin to alert you. When appro-

priate, extra information for AutoCAD LT users is provided to give you a work- around or otherwise keep you in step with the tutorial.

Because AutoCAD LT doesn’t have 3D commands or features, the last two chapters, which are an introduction to drawing in 3D, apply only to AutoCAD. But LT users can be assured that LT is very much the same program as AutoCAD, with only minor differences. You’ll be prompted when those differences, most of which are 3D features, come along.

This book is directed toward AutoCAD and AutoCAD LT novices—users who know how to use a computer and perform basic file-managing tasks, such as creat- ing new folders and saving and moving files, but who know nothing or little about AutoCAD or LT (as I’ll call AutoCAD LT throughout the book). If you’re new to the construction and design professions, this book will be an excellent companion as you learn AutoCAD. If you’re already practicing in those fields, you’ll immediately be able to apply the skills you’ll pick up from this book to real-world projects. The exercises have been successfully used to train architects, engineers, and contrac- tors, as well as college and high school students, in the basics of AutoCAD.

For those of you in other trades and professions, the project that runs through the book—drawing a small cabin—has been kept simple so that it doesn’t require special training in architecture or construction. Also, most chapters have addi- tional information and exercises specifically designed for non-AEC (Architecture, Engineering, and Construction) users. Anyone wanting to learn AutoCAD will find this book helpful.

I n t r o d u c t i o nx x i i

What Will You Learn from this Book? Learning AutoCAD, like learning any complex computer program, requires a significant commitment of time and attention and, to some extent, a tolerance for repetition. You must understand new concepts to operate the program and to appreciate its potential as a drafting and design tool. However, to become pro- ficient at AutoCAD, you must also use the commands enough times to gain an intuitive sense of how they work and how parts of a drawing are constructed.

At the end of most chapters, you’ll find one or more additional exercises and a checklist of the tools you have learned (or should have learned). The steps in the tutorial have a degree of repetition built into them that allows you to work through new commands several times and build up confidence before you move on to the next chapter.

Progressing through the book, the chapters fall into five general areas of study:

Chapters 1 through 3 familiarize you with the organization of the  AutoCAD user interface, cover a few of the basic commands, and equip you with the tools necessary to set up a new drawing, including the use of a standard such as the National CAD Standard (NCS) to organize your files.

Chapters 4 and 5 introduce the basic drawing commands and develop  drawing strategies that will help you use commands efficiently.

Chapters 6 through 11 work with AutoCAD’s major features such as  blocks, hatches, and annotation. You’ll also learn about using layers to organize the various components of a drawing by applying the National CAD Standard.

Chapters 12 through 15 examine intermediate and advanced AutoCAD  features, including managing and creating document sets using Sheet Set Manager.

Chapters 16 and 17 cover the 3D modeling tools by exploring 3D sol- ids and 3D surfaces. You’ll also learn how to apply materials to 3D objects allowing you to produce eye-catching 3D visualizations. In the process of exploring these elements, you’ll follow the steps involved in laying out the floor plan of a small cabin. You’ll then learn how to generate elevations from the floor plan, and eventually you’ll learn how to set up a title block and layouts to print your drawing. Along the way, you’ll also learn how to do the following:

I n t r o d u c t i o n x x i i i

Use the basic drawing and modify commands in a strategic  manner

Set up layers using an established standard

Assign colors to your drawing

Define and insert blocks

Generate elevation views

Place hatch patterns and fills on building components

Use text in your drawing

Chapters in the latter part of the book touch on more advanced features of AutoCAD, including:

Creating dynamic drawings using geometric and dimensional para- metric constraints

Dimensioning the floor plan

Drawing a site plan and managing drawings of varying units

Efficiently organizing drawing sets using external references

Setting up and managing drawings for printing with layouts

Making a print of your drawing

Working in 3D (for AutoCAD users)

All these features are taught using the cabin as a continuing project. As a result, you’ll build a set of drawings that document your progress throughout the project. You can use these drawings later as reference material if you need to refresh your memory with material covering a specific skill.

At the end of the book is a glossary of terms that are used in the book and are related to AutoCAD and building design. This is followed by an index.

Files on the Website If you’re already somewhat familiar with AutoCAD and you’re reading only some of the chapters, or if you want to check your work on the cabin against the book at different stages, you can pull accompanying files from this book’s page on Wiley’s website at www.sybex.com/go/autocad2011ner. Click the Resources & Downloads button on that page.

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