AutoCAD 2011 and AutoCAD LT 2011-Skripta-Modeliranje-Dizajn_19, Skripte' predlog Umetnost
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AutoCAD 2011 and AutoCAD LT 2011-Skripta-Modeliranje-Dizajn_19, Skripte' predlog Umetnost

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AutoCAD 2011 and AutoCAD LT 2011,Skripta,Modeliranje,Dizajn,Starting AutoCAD, The Welcome Screen, Exploring the New Features Workshop, The Customer Involvement Program, Exploring the AutoCAD User Interface, Introducing the AutoCAD Application Window, Working in the Command Window,Displaying the Ribbon Tools, Using the Ribbon Tools, Customizing the Ribbon, Opening a Drawing with the Application Menu, Switching between Open Drawings, Using the Line Command,Using Relative Coordinates, Using the Direct Distance Method, Drawing the Shape, Using Relative Polar Coordinates, Using Direct Input, Using the Offset Command, Using the Fillet Command, Extending Lines, The Grid, Setting Up Drawing Limits, Drawing with Grid and Snap, A Closer Look at Dynamic Input, Laying Out the Walls Creating a Polyline, Editing a Polyline, Creating the Exterior Wall Lines, Creating the Interior Walls, Cutting Openings in the Walls, Creating Doors, Drawing Swinging Doors, Copying Objects,Laying Out the Kitchen, Drawing the Counter, Drawing the Stove and Refrigerator, Completing the Stove with Parametrics, Drawing the Kitchen Sink, Constructing the Bathroom, Drawing a Shower Unit, Drawing the Bathroom Sink and Mirror, Positioning the Toilet and Shelves, Drawing the Hot Tub, If You Would Like More Practice, Drawing the Cabin Again, Drawing Something Else, Drawing Some Furniture for the Cabin, Drawing a Gasket, Drawing a Parking Lot, Introducing Dimension Styles, Making a New Dimension Style, Placing Dimensions on the Drawing, Placing Horizontal Dimensions, Using Other Types of Dimensions, Using Radial Dimensions, Using Aligned and Angular Dimensions, Using Leader Lines, Modifying Dimensions, Modifying Dimension Text, Using Dimension Overrides, Navigating with the ViewCube, Building the Decks, Putting a Roof on the Cabin, Getting Further Directions in 3D
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C r e a t i n g t h e F l o o r , F o u n d a t i o n , a n d t h r e s h o l d s 8 7 3

4. With the box in place, use the 3D Move tool to position the door 1′ (25 mm) inside the right edge of the patio opening.

5. Create a block-out that is 4′ (102 mm) smaller than the width and height of the frame you just drew, but significantly deeper. Then cen- ter it on the window frame, as shown in Figure 16.51.

Some display roughness may occur where the block-out and frame meet, but this is just a function of the current visual style and the thin faces shown.

F i G u R E 1 6 . 5 1 The first sliding-door frame and block-out

N O T E the Conceptual visual style is used in Figure 16.51 as a matter of clarity. Often the opaque nature of the conceptual style makes objects easier to interpret, whereas at other times the transparent nature of the X-ray visual style is preferred. Your choice will likely change based on the task at hand.

6. Subtract the block-out from the window frame.

7. Set the A-GLAZ-3DOB layer as current. Use the 3D Polyline tool to create the boundary to the glazing, extrude it 0.25″ (6 mm), and then center it in the frame.

8. Copy the frame until it butts the opening on the left and then move it 2″ (51 mm) toward the inside of the cabin so that the two door frames are offset (see Figure 16.52).

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F i G u R E 1 6 . 5 2 The completed sliding door with two offset panels

Building the Decks You’re nearly done modeling the cabin. The next step is to make the two decks using basic shapes and copying redundant objects. Follow these steps to create the front deck:

1. Make a new layer called A-DECK-3DOB, assign it color 240, make it current, and then thaw the A-FNDN-3DOB layer and freeze the other 3DOB layers except A-DOOR-THRE-3DOB and A-WALL-EXTR-3DOB.

2. Click the Box tool and create a box to represent floor of the deck. Use the Endpoint osnap to locate the two opposite corners of the deck, and then give the box a height of –1 5 ⁄8″ (-41 mm). Your model should look like Figure 16.53.

3. Draw a box that follows the perimeter of the railing on the left side of the deck, and make this box 2″ (51 mm) tall. Move the box 4″ (102 mm) in the Z direction to represent the lower railing; then copy it and move the copy 3′-2″ (965 mm) higher to represent the upper railing. Your railings should look like those in Figure 16.54.

C r e a t i n g t h e F l o o r , F o u n d a t i o n , a n d t h r e s h o l d s 8 7 5

F i G u R E 1 6 . 5 3 The beginning of the deck

F i G u R E 1 6 . 5 4 The first upper and lower railings

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4. Repeat the process to create the two sets of railings at the front of the deck, on the left side of the stairs; then copy both sets to the opposite side of the deck. Switch to the right and top views with the ViewCube to check your work, adjust the size of the railings on the right side of the steps, and then use the Zoom Previous command (ZP↵) to return to the current view (see Figure 16.55).

F i G u R E 1 6 . 5 5 The railings in place and adjusted for size

5. To draw the first railing post, click the down arrow below the Box but- ton in the Modeling panel and choose Cylinder from the fly-out menu.

6. At the Specify center point of base or: prompt, click the mid- point of the first lower railing that you drew where it meets the exte- rior wall, and enter 3/8↵ (9.5↵) for the radius (see Figure 16.56).

7. At the Specify height or: prompt, make sure the cursor is above the cylinder’s base, and then enter 3′↵ (914↵).

8. To fill in the row of posts, move the first post 3 5 ⁄8″ (92 mm) in the X direction and then copy it 20 times, at 4″ (102 mm) increments in the

C r e a t i n g t h e F l o o r , F o u n d a t i o n , a n d t h r e s h o l d s 8 7 7

X direction. The first set of railing posts should look like those shown in Figure 16.57.

F i G u R E 1 6 . 5 6 Creating the first railing post cylinder

T I P rather than manually copying the railing post 20 times, try using the ARRAY command. this command includes the source object in the row and column count, so to use it to complete step 8 you’ll need to create an array with 1 row and 21 columns.

9. Repeat steps 5 through 8 to draw the posts along the front of the deck, adjusting the count and the direction appropriately; then copy the posts from the left side of the deck to the right. Add any new post as required. The completed railing posts should look like those shown in Figure 16.58.

10. Zoom into the front-left corner of the deck, where the support post sits. Use the Box tool to draw the 8″×8″ (204 mm×204 mm) post and give it a height of 7′-8″ (2337). You may need to adjust the height later when the roof is applied.

11. Copy the post to the opposite side of the deck and adjust the placement as necessary. Figure 16.59 shows the two support posts in place.

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F i G u R E 1 6 . 5 7 The first set of railing posts

F i G u R E 1 6 . 5 8 The completed railing posts

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F i G u R E 1 6 . 5 9 The support posts in place

Building the Steps

The steps, the step railings, and the posts transition from the ground level to the top of the deck. In this section, you’ll build and move the stairs and create and then rotate the handrail.

1. Create a new layer named A-DECK-STRS-3DOB and make it current.

2. Zoom in to see the steps clearly; then switch to the 3D Wireframe visual style.

When you drew the steps in the plan view, the lines defining their width were trimmed back to the edge of the handrail. In reality, the steps extend all the way to the outside edges of the handrails.

3. Use the Box tool and Object Snap Tracking or the Apparent Intersection osnap to draw the four steps. Give each box a height of –1 5 ⁄8″ (–41 mm).

Switch back to the Conceptual visual style. Your steps should look like those in Figure 16.60.

4. Move the step furthest from the deck 24″ (609 mm) in the negative Z direction, the second 16″ (406 mm), and the third one 8″ (203 mm). The top step remains flush with the top of the deck.

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F i G u R E 1 6 . 6 0 The front deck steps before setting their elevations

5. To draw a polyline that you’ll extrude to become the stringer (the sup- port for the steps), you’ll use a 3D Polyline (see Figure 16.61). Follow these steps:

a. Click the 3D Polyline button in the Draw panel.

b. Using the Object Snap Tracking tool, start the polyline 8″ (203 mm) below the back of the top step.

c. Use the Endpoint object snap to continue drawing the stringer in a clockwise direction; snap to the corner of the top step.

d. Follow the bottom and back edges of the steps until you reach the front of the bottom step.

e. Continue the polyline in the negative Z direction 8″ (203 mm) and then in the negative X direction 8″ (203 mm).

f. Enter C↵ to close the polyline.

6. Extrude the stringer 2″ (51 mm), and move it 2″ (51 mm) in the posi- tive Y direction so that it’s tucked under the steps a bit.

7. Copy or mirror the stringer to the opposite side of the steps. The com- pleted steps should look like those shown in Figure 16.62.

C r e a t i n g t h e F l o o r , F o u n d a t i o n , a n d t h r e s h o l d s 8 8 1

Start here

Follow these edges

8″

8″

8″

F i G u R E 1 6 . 6 1 Drawing the stringer

F i G u R E 1 6 . 6 2 The completed steps

C h a p t e r 16 • C r e a t i n g 3 D G e o m e t r y8 8 2

Creating the Stair Handrails

To create the handrails for the stairs, you’ll first draw the vertical posts, create a box at the end of one of one of them, and then rotate it into place. Using the Dynamic UCS tool will ensure that the box is created in the correct orientation.

1. Zoom into the top of the stairs and draw a 3′-9″ (1143 mm)-tall box, using the rectangle at the end of the railing to define the footprint.

2. Click the Allow/Disallow Dynamic UCS button in the status bar to turn it on.

3. Start the BOX command, pick a point on the front surface of the post, and then specify a 2″×2″ (51 mm×51 mm) base and a 4′-6″ (1372 mm) height for the box.

The box is created perpendicular to the front surface of the post.

4. Move the handrail so that it is centered on the post and 1″ (25 mm) from the top, as shown in Figure 16.63.

5. Start the 3D Rotate tool, on the Modify panel of the Home tab, and select the handrail.

F i G u R E 1 6 . 6 3 The box drawn perpendicular to the post

6. At the Specify base point: prompt, pick the midpoint of the hand- rail where it meets the post. At the Pick rotation axis: prompt, click the green y-axis ring; then, at the Specify angle start point

C r e a t i n g t h e F l o o r , F o u n d a t i o n , a n d t h r e s h o l d s 8 8 3

or type an angle: prompt, enter -39↵ as shown in Figure 16.64. The handrail rotates into place.

F i G u R E 1 6 . 6 4 Rotating the handrail into place

7. The last items to build for this handrail are the 1″ (25 mm) posts that support it.

Copy one of the cylindrical railing posts you drew earlier, and space them evenly on the top step, centered under the handrail. Using the grips, adjust the height of each post so that they end inside the handrail.

T I P When copying the railing post, try using the center osnap to acquire the bottom center point. to ensure the post is properly centered under the top railing post, use the Mid Between 2 points osnap, and pick the front intersection of the 2D railing post line and the midpoint of the outer edge of the 3D step as shown here.

2. Pick this midpoint

1. Pick this intersection

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8. Using the endpoints of the steps as a reference, copy the posts to the other steps and then copy the handrail and posts to the opposite side of the steps. When you are done, the completed steps should look like Figure 16.65.

F i G u R E 1 6 . 6 5 The completed steps

Adding the Skirt

The final piece to add to the deck is a skirt, a linear member that acts as a connec- tion surface for the structure and a visual shield so the residents can’t see under the deck. With the modeling skills and experience that you picked up in the previ- ous chapter, this should be a quick fix; you’ll just build a skirt around the three open sides of the decks to obscure the underside. Here’s how:

1. Switch to the 3D Wireframe visual style, and make sure that the Endpoint running osnap is active.

2. Make the A-DECK-3DOB layer current.

3. Draw a 2″×6″ (51 mm×153 mm) box on the side and front of the deck just below the surface, as shown in Figure 16.66.

C r e a t i n g t h e F l o o r , F o u n d a t i o n , a n d t h r e s h o l d s 8 8 5

Use your preferred visual style to draw the boxes; for clarity the figure shown below uses the Conceptual visual style. The boxes should span the distance from the foundation to the support post and between the support posts, respectively.

Draw this box Draw this box

F i G u R E 1 6 . 6 6 The 2″×6″ skirt added below the deck

4. Copy the shorter box to the opposite side of the deck.

5. Change the visual style back to Conceptual, and your completed deck should look like Figure 16.67.

F i G u R E 1 6 . 6 7 The completed front deck

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Mirroring the Front Deck

Because the front deck is similar to the back deck, you can mirror all the objects that you’ve already worked hard to create to the back of the cabin, similar to the way you did in the 2D section of the book. Once the objects are in place, you can edit them to meet the design criteria. Follow these steps to mirror the deck:

1. Freeze all the layers except A-DECK-3DOB and A-DECK-STRS-3DOB; then thaw the A-WALL layer.

2. Click the face labeled TOP in the ViewCube to switch to a plan view of the cabin.

3. In the Layer Properties Manager, click the open lock icon in the Lock column next to A-WALL so that objects on the A-WALL layer can’t be selected or modified.

4. Select all the deck and step objects; then click the Mirror tool in the expanded Modify panel.

5. For the first point of the mirror line, select the midpoint of the long outside wall on the north side of the cabin, the wall that has the closet attached to the inside of it.

For the second point, pick a point directly to the right. Press ↵ to accept the default option not to delete the original objects. (See Figure 16.68.)

F i G u R E 1 6 . 6 8 Mirroring the front deck

C r e a t i n g t h e F l o o r , F o u n d a t i o n , a n d t h r e s h o l d s 8 8 7

T I P If the length of the cabin is displayed vertically, rather than hor- izontally, click the counterclockwise-facing arrow ( ) in the top-right corner of the ViewCube. this will rotate your current view 90° around the z-axis, giving your plan a more familiar orientation.

6. Thaw and lock the A-DECK layer; then zoom into the back deck.

7. Change to the 3D Wireframe visual style.

8. Delete any of the handrail posts that exist between the 8″ (204 mm) 3D support posts and the 8″ (204 mm) 2D support posts (see Figure 16.69) on both sides of the deck.

3D post Delete these posts on both sides of the deck.

2D post

F i G u R E 1 6 . 6 9 Delete the posts shown.

9. Click the Move tool from the Modify panel and drag a crossing win- dow, dragging from right to left around the front of the deck and the stairs, as shown in Figure 16.70.

10. Move the deck 4′-0″ (1220 mm) in the X direction to fit the narrower rear deck’s size. The floor, railings, and skirt project into the cabin.

11. Select the deck floor, horizontal railing, and horizontal skirts; then, using the triangular grips, move their right ends 4′ (1220 mm) to the left, so they extend only to the back wall of the cabin. Figure 16.71 shows the back of the cabin after adjusting the features.

12. Delete the ¾″ (20 mm) handrail posts in the vertical row on the north side of the 3D steps between the 4″ (102 mm) 3D vertical post and the 4″ (102 mm) 2D vertical post (see Figure 16.72).

13. So that you don’t accidentally move the deck surface, select the deck, and then click the light bulb in the lower-right corner of the Application win- dow to choose Hide Objects from the menu that opens.

The lightbulb will change from yellow to red; this indicates that an object isolation is active.

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The selection window

Click here for the first move point

Click here for the second move point

F i G u R E 1 6 . 7 0 Moving the deck to make it narrower

F i G u R E 1 6 . 7 1 The rear deck after adjusting the handrails, skirts, and deck floor

C r e a t i n g t h e F l o o r , F o u n d a t i o n , a n d t h r e s h o l d s 8 8 9

Delete these posts

Selection window

Add new posts here

Click here for the second move point

Click here for the first move point

F i G u R E 1 6 . 7 2 Moving the deck to make it narrower

14. Using the MOVE command, move the steps into place, as shown in Figure 16.72. Add any new posts that are required on the south side of the steps. Use the triangular grips to adjust the lengths of the rail- ings as required.

15. Click the red light bulb in the lower-right corner of the Application window and choose End Object Isolation. Change to the Conceptual visual style, and drag the ViewCube to get a good look at the new deck; it should look like Figure 16.73.

16. Save your drawing as 16A-3DMOD5.dwg.

Putting a Roof on the Cabin You’ll finish the 3D model of the cabin by constructing a roof. The surface of the roof will be a different color from the roof structure, so you’ll make them as two separate objects, each on its own layer. Both objects will be extruded from the east elevation, and you’ll use the Boolean Subtract function to cut the roof in the areas where it doesn’t project as far as it does over the pop-out. Follow these steps:

1. Create two new layers: A-ROOF-3DOB with color 32 and A-ROOF- DECK-3DOB with color 114. Make A-ROOF-3DOB current.

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F i G u R E 1 6 . 7 3 The completed back deck

2. Thaw the A-WALL-EXTR-3DOB and A-ROOF layers. Also thaw all layers beginning with A-ELEV except for those with a -PATT or -BNDY suffix.

3. Click the TOP face of the ViewCube to change the view orientation of your drawing, and then zoom into your east elevation (see Figure 16.74). The east elevation is the one that displays the sliding glass door; it is found in the upper-right portion of the drawing file provided in this chapter’s download.

4. Use the Endpoint osnap and carefully draw a closed polyline around the thin roof surface.

Make sure that the pline follows both the inner and outer surfaces of the roof covering and extends to the limits of the pop-out. There should be a total of six picks and then the Close option.

5. Make the A-ROOF-DECK-3DOB layer current, and then draw a closed polyline around the perimeter of the roof deck in the east elevation.

6. Pick the southeastern corner of the ViewCube to change to an isomet- ric view of your drawing. Zoom back into the east elevation.

C r e a t i n g t h e F l o o r , F o u n d a t i o n , a n d t h r e s h o l d s 8 9 1

F i G u R E 1 6 . 7 4 The east elevation

7. The two roof polylines you just created using the east elevation as a template are still in the 2D drawing plane. You’ll use the 3DALIGN command to orient these polylines with the 3D model of your cabin.

Choose the 3D Align tool from the Modify panel of the Home tab. At the Select objects prompt, choose the two polylines you drew in steps 4 and 5.

8. The 3DALIGN command will change the orientation of the selected objects from one plane to another. To do this, you must select the axis defining the source plane, and finally the destination plane.

To define the source plane, you’ll need to select three points: the base point, a second point, and a third point. Select these points as shown in Figure 16.75.

9. Without exiting the 3DALIGN command, zoom into the left deck col- umn on the east side of your cabin as shown in Figure 16.76.

10. To define the destination plane, select the base, second, and third points as shown in Figure 16.76.

11. Zoom out so the entire eastern side of your cabin is viewable. Your model should look like Figure 16.77.

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Select any point along this line as the second point

Base point

Select any point along this line as the third point

F i G u R E 1 6 . 7 5 Defining the source plane from the east elevation

Base point Second point

Third point

F i G u R E 1 6 . 7 6 Defining the destination plane within the 3D model

12. Use the Extrude tool to extrude the two polylines that you just drew 43′ (13110 mm). Move the extruded roof 1′6″ (457 mm) along the positive x-axis. When finished, your cabin should resemble the one shown in Figure 16.78.

C r e a t i n g t h e F l o o r , F o u n d a t i o n , a n d t h r e s h o l d s 8 9 3

13. The Extrude tool creates the extrusion in the current layer, so select the thinner of the two extrusions and move it to the A-ROOF-SURF- 3DOB layer using the Properties palette.

F i G u R E 1 6 . 7 7 Eastern edge of the 3D model after aligning the roof polylines to the model

F i G u R E 1 6 . 7 8 The eastern side of the cabin with extruded roof polylines correctly aligned

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Adjusting the Cabin Walls

The cabin walls were drawn with a constant height. In this section, you’ll cre- ate the peaks at the front and back of the cabin to accommodate the roof. To accomplish this, you will add segmentation to the top of the walls using the Slice tool and then move the new edges in the z-axis. Here’s how:

1. Freeze the A-DECK-3DOB, A-DECK-STRS-3DOB, A-ROOF-3DOB, and A-ROOF-DECK-3DOB layers.

2. Click the Slice button on the Solid Editing panel of the Home tab to start the SLICE command.

3. At the Select objects to slice: prompt, pick the exterior walls.

4. The Slice tool uses a plane with an infinite depth to cut the selected objects, so you need two points to define the plane.

At the Specify start point of slicing plane or: prompt, use the Midpoint osnap to pick the midpoint of the top of the front wall, as shown in the top image of Figure 16.79.

5. At the Specify second point on plane: prompt, pick the midpoint of the top of the back wall, as shown in the bottom image of Figure 16.79.

6. The Slice tool can display both sides of the sliced object or it can delete one of the sides. In this case, you want to keep both sides. At the Specify a point on desired side or [keep Both sides]: prompt, press ↵ or enter B↵ to retain both sides.

The new edges appear on the walls (see Figure 16.80) and there are now two sets of exterior walls; one on the south side of the cabin and one on the north. Notice that the slice is centered on the wall, but not centered over the doorway.

Just as you were able to edit the size of a box object by dragging its grips, you can do the same with nonprimitive objects. The grips are available at the edges, faces, and vertices—the points where two or more edges end. You access the subobjects by holding down the Ctrl key and clicking on the grip location. The grips won’t appear until you click.

7. Zoom into the newly sliced area on the front wall. Hold the Ctrl key down and click the middle of the top edge. The small rectangular red edge grip appears as shown in Figure 16.81.

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F i G u R E 1 6 . 7 9 Selecting the first Slice point (top); selecting the second Slice point (bottom)

8. Click the grip, and enter @0,0,82-1/4(@0,0,2496) to move the edge 8′-2¼″ (2496 mm) along the z-axis. The faces bound by the edge are adjusted accordingly and form one half of the peak, as shown in Figure 16.82.

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F i G u R E 1 6 . 8 0 The new edges created with the Slice tool

Edge grip

F i G u R E 1 6 . 8 1 Exposing the edge grip

9. Adjust the edge on the other side of the front wall in the same man- ner. Zoom out and you’ll see that adjusting one end of the sliced object adjusted the other, and the peak is already constructed at the back of the cabin (see Figure 16.83).

10. Thaw all of the A-ROOF layers; A-ROOF, A-ROOF-3DOB, and A-ROOF- DECK-3DOB. Using the ViewCube to look around the model, you can see that the northern walls and roof are largely OK; however, your walls are protruding out of the roof along the southern edge of your cabin (see Figure 16.84).

C r e a t i n g t h e F l o o r , F o u n d a t i o n , a n d t h r e s h o l d s 8 9 7

F i G u R E 1 6 . 8 2 Creating half the peak

F i G u R E 1 6 . 8 3 Both peaks are completed.

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