HISTORY OF THE POST IN CROATIA-Seminarski rad-Engleski jezik 1-Saobracajni fakultet
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mullerlove25 July 2013

HISTORY OF THE POST IN CROATIA-Seminarski rad-Engleski jezik 1-Saobracajni fakultet

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Saobracajni fakultet, engleski jezik 1, seminarski rad, HISTORY OF THE POST IN CROATIA, History of the post in Croatia, correspondence,official letters between business partners, letters between two private persons, cour...
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seminar

FAKULTET PROMETNIH ZANOSTI SVEUČILIŠTE U ZAGREBU,

Vukelićeva 4, Zagreb

SEMINARSKI RAD

HISTORY OF THE POST IN CROATIA

student: smjer: poštansko-telekomunikacijski profesor: prof. Borka Bjelobrk, viši predavač

Zagreb,.

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CONTENTS

History of the post in Croatia ....................................................... 2

Summary ....................................................................................... 5

Key words ...................................................................................... 6

Abbreviations ............................................................................... 7

Translation ......................................................................................8

Literature ...................................................................................... 12

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History of the post in Croatia

The history of the present post organization in Croatia dates back to the period of the Roman Empire. In Croatia, postal services were introduced by the Roman Emperor Augustus who organised a traffic service - CURSUS PUBLICUS- the first organization of that kind on Croatian soil. Postal service was introduced in the first century A.D., charged with the swift dispatch of official correspondence and the transport of officials. Within this highly complex and ramified transport system, traffic passed between stations located at about half a day's walking distance from each station, known as "stations positae", from which our term "post" was later developed. Maintenance of the Curcus Publicus represented a heavy burden for citizens obliged to supply it with free-of-charge wagons, traveler’s catering and food for animals, as well as maintenance of the roads and construction of rest stations. According to its organization Cursus Publicus maintained all the elements of the postal institution and represented the biggest and most highly organized messenger service of the old age, however, it could not transform to the postal service since it lacked the public service element. After the collapse of the Roman Empire (479 AD) the Cursus Publicus disappeared too. In the 7th century the Croats inhabited the region between the river Drava and the Adriatic Sea and organized the early Middle Age state. Under the conditions of medieval feudal fragmentation of states at that time there neither existed the interest nor the means for organizing a transmission of news. The postal operation began to gain the momentum with the rise of importance of towns and trade and not only the rulers and the church had the messengers, messengers were also in service of monasteries, universities, schools, nobles, merchants and craftsmen. The transmission of messages and parcels was the obligation of couriers on foot or on a horseback. Particularly estimated and well known by their exceptional diligence were the fast couriers of the Dubrovnik Republic. They were well known throughout the former Europe; France, Spain and Austria engaged them for delivering of their correspondence to Levant. Thanks to the abovementioned the individual messengers from Dubrovnik Republic left their trace in building of the international postal traffic between East and West. At the end of 15th century with the discovery of the New World and the development of science and art the need for the quicker transmission of news became a necessity. The Thurn-Taxis family was granted the patent to carry official and personal postal messages from Vienna throughout the Habsburg Monarchy. They have first reorganized

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with the aid of subsidy the courier service into a regular postal delivery service, i.e. the postal services had fixed routes and times of departure, the organizer responsible for financing the service was known, the scale of charges for delivery of mail was laid down, and - most important of all - the postal service had become a public amenity available to all and sundry. In the meantime the incursion of Turks called for a defensive system, so Germany, Austria, Hungary and Venice organized timely transmission of any kind of news from the battlefield. The Austrian military command established the first military courier service in Croatia. King Ferdinand I, ordered postal delivery to be organized in Croatia in 1525 linking Graz- Maribor- Celje- Jastrebarsko, and in 1529 the postal delivery was introduced on the relation Vienna-Zagreb. The mentioned postal service marked the collapse of the old middle age courier service and the introduction of the new organized postal service in Croatia. From the 17th century regular postal delivery services have been organized with fixed charges for the mail as well as for travelers. The officials that accompanied the carriages which transported both travelers and mail wore uniforms, and the horn became the symbol of the postal service. Apart from the Thurn-Taxis family in the Austrian empire to which Croatia also belonged, the family Paar was granted the right to organize postal delivery service. During the 18th century the postal delivery service passed from the private hands of the Paar family under the state authority. In 1722, upon the order of the Austrian Emperor Karl VI, some larger post offices were taken over by the state, and smaller offices were handed over to the nobles who then added the postal symbol- the horn-to their coat of arms. The Croatian Post of the 18th century was administered through three administrative centers: Varaždin, Osijek, Karlovac, and all the three postal centers were under the authority of Vienna (until 1822) and Pešta (until 1848). In 19th century the modern organization of postal services was regulated by law, and the delivery of mail was conducted through major postal centers, employing a host of workers and utilizing modern machinery and contemporary modes of transportation.

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Postal bus for mail and passenger transport

On 11 August 1848 the Vice-Roy Jelačić and his Council issued a decree establishing the General Directorate of Posts in Zagreb, thus creating the first national postal administration in Croatia, with the title THE GENERAL DIRECTORATE OF POST FOR CROATIA AND SLAVONIA. The first state postal office was organized in 1831 in the convent of the Clarissa nuns in Opatička street ( presently the Museum of the City of Zagreb). In 1848 the premises were inhabited by the Directorate of Posts of Croatia and Slavonia. Permanent increase in postal traffic and the introduction of telegrams in 1850 created the necessity for building of the new post. In 1901 the first state building was erected along with the Main Railway Station building. The construction of the postal castle in Jurišićeva street number 13 started in 1902 and was carried out by Greiner and Varoing, constructors that lived in Zagreb, backed up by some Hungarian enterprises. The first clerks moved in on 29 August 1904. At that time the building had only two floors (in the first half of the 20th century several adaptations and reconstruction were carried out until 1958 when the building was finished).

Postal castle in Jurisiceva street, Zagreb, 1904.

In the further development of post there were no crucial changes until 1918 when the new state was founded-Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenians (SHS). In April 1919 the Ministry of Post and Telegraph of the Kingdom SHS in Belgrade started to work, and the state territory was devised into nine postal and telegraphic directorates. The headquarters of Croatian Directorate was in Zagreb. In 1929 the Ministry of Post and Telecommunications was dissolved and the PTT traffic was placed under the

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authority of the Ministry of Construction. However from 1930 till 1935 it was under the authority of the Ministry of Traffic, and in 1935 the Ministry of Post, Telegraph and Telephone was established for the second time. The new "Regulation on the Organization of Ministry of Post, Telegraph and Telephone" was introduced, which apart from the new organizational scheme, brought "numerous clausus " for female PTT employees. Pursuant that regulation women with university degrees were forbidden to work for PTT and only 25% of women with lower educational backgrounds, 30 % of women with secondary school qualification, out of the total number of employees, were employed in PTT organization. After the WW II, the Directorate of Posts in Croatia was part of the Yugoslav PTT Community (JPTT). The Law enforced by the Parliament of the Republic of Croatia, on 10 October 1990, established the public firm HPT-Croatian Post and Telecommunications, with the basic activity of postal and telecommunication services. The HPT firm was the legal successor of the former 13 PTT firms of the Republic of Croatia, and in that sense inherited all the rights and obligations of the mentioned firms. The headquarters of the Croatian Post and Telecommunications was in Zagreb, on Jurišićeva Street no.13, and it was governed by the Administration Board consisting of nine members. Croatian Post and Telecommunications consisted of Joint Departments ( Director's Office, Economy Department, Legal , Personnel and Administrative Department, Internal Control and Audit Department) and the Directorate of Posts and Directorate of Telecommunications separately organized due to the organizational and technical differences between the postal and telecommunication systems. Not even a year passed when on 25 June 1991, the Parliament of the Republic of Croatia proclaimed the independence of the Republic of Croatia based on the results of the organized referendum on the separation of the Republic of Croatia from Yugoslavia. Thereafter, the armed aggression of the former federal Yugoslav Army and the local Serbian citizens commenced. In extremely difficult war conditions the employees of the Croatian Post and Telecommunications with their hard work and determination contributed to the development of the firm. As soon as the war was over the Administrative Board of the Croatian Post and Telecommunications tried, within the frame of its possibilities, to diminish the serious financial situation which was the imminent outcome of the war, and reconstruct all damaged properties and cover all the damages in the business relations of the Croatian Post and Telecommunications. In spite of the war, Croatian Post and Telecommunications achieved, in its eight years of existence, remarkable results in its business operations. With respect to the differences in services and technology in functioning of the

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Directorate of Posts and Directorate of Telecommunications, and in accordance with world trends, on 01 January 1999 the Croatian Post and Telecommunications separated into two firms: the Croatian Post Inc. and the Croatian Telecommunications Inc., and from that date on the Croatian Post acts as an independent shareholders company, and continues the tradition and development of the postal services on the territory of the Republic of Croatia.

SUMMARY

History of the post in Croatia

The history of the present post organization in Croatia dates back to the period of the Roman Empire. In Croatia, postal services were introduced by the Roman Emperor Augustus. Traffic passed between stations located at about half a day´s walking distance from each station, known as "stations positae", from which our term "post" was later developed. The Thurn-Taxis family was granted the patent to carry official and personal postal messages from Vienna troughout the Habsburg Monarchy. The Austrian military command established the first military courier service in Croatia. Apart from the Thurn-Taxis family in the Austrian empire to which Croatia also belonged, the family Paar was granted the right to organize postal delivery service. During the 18th century the postal delivery service passed from the private hands of the Paar family under the state authority. In 19th century the modern organization of postal service was regulated by law, and the delivery of mail was conducted through major postal centers. On 11 August 1848 the Vice-Roy Jelačić and his Council issued a decree establising the General Directorate of Posts in Zagreb. The construction of the postal castle in Jurišićeva street number 13 started in 1902 and was carried out by Greiner and Varoing. In April 1919 the Ministry of Post and Telegraph of the Kingdom SHS in Belgrade started to work, and the state territory was devised into nine postal telegraphic directorates. After the WW II, the Directorate of Posts in Croatia was part of the Yugoslav PTT Community (JPTT). The Law enforced by the Parliament of the Republic of Croatia, on 10 October, established the public firm HPT-Croatian Post and Telecommiunications, with the basic activity of postal and telecomunication services. The headquarters of the Croatian Post and Telecommunications was in Zagreb, on Jurišićeva Street no.13. Croatian Post and Telecommunications consisted of Joint Departments. On 25

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June 1991, the Parliament of the Republic of Croatia proclaimed the independence of the Republic of Croatia and the separation of the Republic of Croatia from Yugoslavia. In spite of the war, Croatin Post and Telecommunications achieved, in its eight years of existence, remarkable results in its business operations. On 01 January 1999 the Croatian Post and Telecommunications separated into two firms: the Croatian Post Inc. and the Croatian Telecommunications Inc..

KEY WORDS

 correspondence: official letters between business partners or letters  between two private persons  courier: a special messenger (based on latin currere "to run")  delivery: the delivering of letters etc., something delivered  fragmentation: the process or an instance of breaking into fragments  headquaters: the administrative centre of an organization etc.  maintenance: the provision of the means to support life, esp. by work etc.  message: a communication sent by one person to another  post: the official conveyance of parcels, letters, etc. (send it by post)  postman: man who is employed to deliver and coletts letters, etc.  post office: the public department or corporation responsible for postal

services and telecommunications  service: the act or an instance of serving the provision or system of

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supplying public need, eg. transport, or the supply of water, gas, telephone, etc.

 telecommunication: speaking with someone on a long distance

Abbreviations

A.D : lat. anno Domini (= in the year of our Lord)

i.e. : lat. id est (= that is to say)

JPTT : Yugoslavian Post and Telecommunications

PTT : Pošta i Telekomunikacije

WW II : World War II

TRANSLATION

Povijesni razvoj pošte u Hrvatskoj

Povijest današnje pošte u Hrvatskoj seže još u doba Rimskog carstva. Car August smatra se osnivaćem CURSUS PUBLICUS-a, prve prometne organizacije na hrvatskom tlu. Nastala je u I. stoljeću poslije Krista, a osnovni zadatak bio je prijenos službene korespodencije i prijevoz službenih osoba. Unutar te složene transportne organizacije promet se odvijao između stanica smještenih na udaljenosti otprilike pola dana hoda. Stanice su se nazivale "stationes positae" iz čega je poslije nastala riječ "pošta". Održavanje Cursus publicusa predstavljalo je težak teret za stanovništvo koje je bilo dužno snabdjevati ga besplatnim davanjem kola, hrane za putnike i životinje, te održavati ceste i graditi postaje za odmor. Po svojoj organizaciji Cursus publicus imao je sve elemente poštanske ustanove, bio je najveća i najsavršenija glasnička služba starog vijeka, ali se u poštu nije

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mogao pretvoriti jer nije imao element javnosti. Propašću Zapadnorimskog carstva (479. god.) nestalo je i Cursus publicusa. U VII. stoljeću Hrvati naseljavaju prostor od rijeke Drave do Jadranskog mora i na tom prostoru formiraju ranu srednjovjekovnu državu. U uvjetima srednjovjekovne feudalne usitnjenosti država nije postojao niti interes a ni sredstva za organizirani prijenos vijesti. Međutim, razvojem zanatstva i trgovine, te porastom gradova počinje organizacija glasničke službe od strane crkvenih i samostanskih redova, sveučilišta, škola, feudalaca, kraljeva, trgovaca i obrtnika. Prijenos vijesti i pošiljaka obavljale su za to posebno određene osobe - glasnici-kuriri - pješice ili na konju. Posebno su bili cijenjeni i poznati po svojoj savjesnosti i brzini glasnici Dubrovačke republike. Za njih je znala čitava negdašnja Europa, a Francuska, Španjolska i Austrija koristile su ih za prijenos svoje korespodencije na Levant. Zahvaljujući tome dubrovački su glasnici ostavili svoj trag u stvaranju međunarodnog poštanskog prometa između istoka i zapada. Krajem XV. stoljeća, otkrićem Novog svijeta, napretkom znanosti i umjetnosti javlja se potreba za bržim prijenosom vijesti. Plemička obitelj Thurn - Taxis u službi njemačkih careva organizira poštanski promet iz Beča sa svim zemljama Habsburške monarhije. Oni su uz subvencije prvi pretvorili kurirsku službu u poštansku, tj. poštohod je imao određeni pravac i vrijeme kretanja, znao se organizator i financijer poštohoda, određena je poštarina za prijenos pošiljke i pošta je dobila elemenat javnosti, tj. prijenos pisama postao je dostupan svakome. To je i vrijeme prodora Turaka na naše prostore, pa Austrija, Njemačka, Ugarska i Venecija u pripremanju obrane od Turaka nastoje uspostaviti stalan i brz sustav prenošenja vijesti s ratišta. Stoga Austrija organizira vojno - kurirsku službu i na prostoru današnje Hrvatske. Kralj Ferdinand I. naložio je uspostavu prvog poštohoda u Hrvatskoj 1525. godine na relaciji Graz - Maribor - Celje - Jastrebarsko, a 1529. godine uveden je i poštohod Beč - Zagreb. Taj poštohod označio je početak odumiranja stare srednjovjekovne glasničke službe i uspostavu organizirane poštanske službe u Hrvatskoj. Od XVII. stoljeća uspostavljaju se redovite poštanske veze i utvrđuju se cijene za prijevoz pošiljaka i putnika. Osoblje koje je u diližansama pratilo putnike i poštu nosilo je uniforme, a kao poštanski znak javlja se rog koji postaje simbolom poštanske službe. Osim obitelji Thurn - Taxis u Austrijskoj carevini, u čijem se sastavu nalazi i Hrvatska, u XVII. st. nasljedno pravo za organiziranje poštanskog prometa dobija i obitelj Paar. Tijekom XVIII. stoljeća poštanska služba postupno prelazi iz ruku spomenutih obitelji u državnu nadležnost. 1722. godine po naredbi austrijskog cara Karla VI. veće poštanske urede preuzima država, a manji se ustupaju plemićima koji svojim obiteljskim grbovima dodaju i poštanski znak - rog. Hrvatskom poštom se u

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XVIII. stoljeću upravlja iz tri središta: Varaždina, Osijeka i Karlovca, a ta su središta upravno podvrgnuta Beču (do 1822.) i Pešti (do 1848.). U XIX. stoljeću moderna organizacija pošte uređuje se zakonima, distribucija pošiljaka obavlja se iz poštanskih središta, veliki poštanski sustav zapošljava mnoštvo radnika, ukljućena je moderna mehanizacija, a pošiljke se prenose suvremenim prijevoznim sredstvima.

Poštanski autobus za prijevoz putnika i poštanskih pošiljaka

25. ožujka 1848. godine donesen je najznačajniji akt Narodne skupštine Kraljevine Dalmacije, Hrvatske i Slavonije: "Svekoliko pako pošte u trojednoj kraljevini neka se u svemu podlože našemu domaćemu ministeriju". Odlukom bana Jelačića i Banskog vijeća 11. kolovoza 1848. osnovana je prva nacionalna poštanska uprava u Hrvatskoj sa sjedištem u Zagrebu pod nazivom VRHOVNO HRVATSKO - SLAVONSKO UPRAVITELJSTVO POŠTA. Prvi državni poštanski ured bio je smješten od 1831. godine u samostanu Klarisa u Opatičkoj ulici (danas muzej grada Zagreba). Tu se 1848. uselilo Vrhovno hrvatsko - slavonsko upraviteljstvo pošta. Stalno povećanje poštanskog prometa, te uvođenje brzojava 1850. godine nametnulo je potrebu za izgradnjom nove poštanske zgrade. 1901. godine izgrađena je prva državna zgrada uz Glavni kolodvor. Izgradnja poštanske palače u Jurišićevoj 13 počinje 1902. godine

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Izgled glavne pošte u Jurišićevoj ulici 1904.godine

Građevinske radove izveli su zagrebački obrtnici (Greiner i Varoing), te neka ugarska poduzeća. Useljenje je započelo 29. kolovoza 1904. u tadašnju dvokatnicu. (Tijekom prve polovice XX. st. izvršeno je nekoliko adaptacija i rekonstrukcija, sve do 1958. kada je zgrada dobila današnji izgled).U daljnjem razvoju pošte nije bilo bitnih promjena do 1918. godine , kada je osnovana zajednička država - Kraljevina Srba, Hrvata i Slovenaca (SHS). U travnju 1919. započinje s radom Ministarstvo pošta i telegrafa Kraljevine SHS u Beogradu, a državni teritorij bio je podijeljen na devet poštansko- telegrafskih direkcija. Sjedište hrvatske direkcije bilo je u Zagrebu. Do početka II. svjetskog rata obavljeno je nekoliko reorganizacija u PTT prometu. Tako je 1929. godine ukinuto Ministarstvo pošta i telegrafa, pa je PTT promet stavljen pod upravu Ministarstva građevina, od 1930. do 1935. bio je pod nadležnosti Ministarstva prometa (saobraćaja), a 1935. godine ponovno je uspostavljeno Ministarstvo pošta, telegrafa i telefona. Donesena je i nova "Uredba o organizaciji Ministarstva pošta, telegrafa i telefona" koja je osim nove organizacijske sheme donijela i "numerus clausus" za PTT radnike - žene. Po toj uredbi u PTT struci nisu mogle raditi fakultetski obrazovane žene, s nižom spremom moglo ih je biti 30%, a sa srednjom do 25% od ukupnog broja zaposlenih radnika. Nakon II. svjetskog rata Direkcija PTT-a u Hrvatskoj funkcionirala je u okviru Zajednice jugoslavenskog PTT-a (JPTT). Zakonom koji je stupio na snagu 10. listopada 1990. godine Sabor Republike Hrvatske utemeljio je javno poduzeće -HPT- Hrvatsku poštu i telekomunikacije s osnovnom djelatnosti obavljanja poštanskih i telekomunikacijskih usluga. Poduzeće HPT bilo je pravni sljednik bivših trinaest poduzeća PTT prometa Republike Hrvatske, te je u tom smislu preuzelo prava i dužnosti tih poduzeća. Sjedište HPT-a bilo je u Zagrebu - Jurišićeva 13, a poduzećem je upravljao Upravni odbor od devet članova. HPT se sastojao od Zajedničkih službi (Ured direktora; Sektor gospodarskih poslova; Sektor pravnih, kadrovskih i općih poslova; Služba unutarnje kontrole i revizije), te Direkcije pošta i Direkcije telekomunikacija koje su posebno organizirane radi organizacijskog i tehnološkog odvajanja poslova poštanskog i telekomunikacijskog sustava. Nepunu godinu dana kasnije, 25. lipnja 1991. godine Sabor RH proglasio je neovisnost Republike Hrvatske, temeljem rezultata provedenog referenduma o izdvajanju RH iz Jugoslavije. Uslijedila je oružana agresija tadašnje federalne jugoslavenske vojske i lokalnog srpskog pučanstva. I u tim teškim

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ratnim uvjetima djelatnici HPT-a su svojim zalaganjem i savjesnim radom dali velik doprinos razvitku poduzeća. Nakon rata Upravni odbor HPT-a nastojao je u okviru mogućnosti poduzeća ublažiti tešku materijalnu situaciju koja je uslijedila kao posljedica rata, te sanirati štete u imovini i poslovanju HPT-a. Usprkos ratu, HPT je u svojih osam godina postojanja postigao vrlo dobre rezultate poslovanja. S obzirom na različitost djelatnosti i tehnološki već odvojenog funkcioniranja Direkcije pošta i Direkcije telekomunikacija, a u skladu sa svjetskim trendovima, 1. sijećnja 1999. godine došlo je do razdvajanja HPT-a na Hrvatsku poštu d.d. i Hrvatske telekomunikacije d.d., te od tog datuma Hrvatska pošta posluje kao samostalno dioničko društvo, nastavljajući tradiciju i razvojni kontinuitet poštanske djelatnosti na području Republike Hrvatske.

LITERATURE

Web page: www.pošta.hr/ Date: 1.5.2002.

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