Leadership and organizational change-Slajdovi-Leadership and Ethics-Ekonomski fakultet, Slajdovi' predlog Rukovodstvo i upravljanje timom. Univerzitet u Beogradu
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petrovic12124

Leadership and organizational change-Slajdovi-Leadership and Ethics-Ekonomski fakultet, Slajdovi' predlog Rukovodstvo i upravljanje timom. Univerzitet u Beogradu

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Ekonomski fakultet,ef,leadership and ethics,slajdovi,slajdovi sun a engleskom,LEADERSHIP AND ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE,Organizational routines,Organizaitonal culture,interpretative schemes,power structure,Phases in developme...
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UTICAJ ORGANIZACIONE KULTURE NA ORGANIZACIONO UČENJE, UPRAVLJANJE ZNANJEM I KONKURENTNOST

Docsity.com MGT 597 ETHICS & LEADERSHIP

LEADERSHIP AND ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE

Nebojša Janićijević Belgrade University, School of Economics

[email protected]

Docsity.com MGT 597 ETHICS & LEADERSHIP

References

Mandatory Yukl G. (2010).Leadership in Organizations. 7th edition. Upper Saddle River: Pearson

Supplementary Kotter J. (1996). Leading Chnage. Cambidge Ma.: Harvard Business School Press Janićijević N. (2009). Upravljanje organizacionim promenama. Beograd: Ekonomski fakultet .

Docsity.com MGT 597 ETHICS & LEADERSHIP

Initiating

Diagnosis

Creating vision

Planning

Motivating

Implementation

Power management

Management of personal transition

Stabilization

Monitoring and control

UNFREEZING MOVE REFREEZING

The process of organizational change management

Docsity.com MGT 597 ETHICS & LEADERSHIP

Initiating changes The first step in change management The importance of leader’s mental change In order to initiate changes, a leader has to:

1. Recognizes causes and drivers of change; 2. Develops his own awareness of the necessity of breaking with

status quo 3. Develops his wish to make changes and to make decision to

start changes; 4. Identifies and appoint a change agent, define his roles and

responsibilities and build productive relationship with him

Docsity.com MGT 597 ETHICS & LEADERSHIP

Model of causes of organizatioonal changes

External soruces – changes in

environment

Internal sources -. Changes in the

company

External and / or internal misbalance

Initiating of organizational

changes

The inertia of organization

Deacrease of performances and

crisis

Anticipation of the crisis

Anticipation of the crisis

1 1

2

Docsity.com MGT 597 ETHICS & LEADERSHIP

Inertia and crisis of organization

Sources of inertia Organizational routines

Organizaitonal culture, interpretative schemes

Power structure

Phases in development of the crisis Refusing the crisis Explaning the crisis Deepening the crisis Colapse of the organization

Docsity.com MGT 597 ETHICS & LEADERSHIP

Crisis and organizational change

CRISIS

Awareness of necessity of changes

Resources avaiable for conducting changes

Weak Deep

Changes impossible because of lack of

awareness

Changes are impossible because of lack of resources

Changes are possible

Docsity.com MGT 597 ETHICS & LEADERSHIP

Identifying change agent Change agent: a person who directly manage change operations Change agent’s tasks

Diagnosis of change causes Formulation of proposed changes Implementation of aproved changes

Change agent may be: a manager, an internal consultant (professional) an external consultant

Docsity.com MGT 597 ETHICS & LEADERSHIP

Goals of diagnosis

Acquiring the knowledge and information about organizatiion and its problems which causes changes

Raising the awareness of the necessity of changes and motivatiing employees for changes

Understanding of main directions of changes and mobilizing the enbergy for changes

Docsity.com MGT 597 ETHICS & LEADERSHIP

Methods of data collecting and analyzing in the diagnosis

Methods of data collecting Interviewing

Questionnaires

Observations

Secundary data

Methods of data analysis Qualitative methods: content analysis, discourse analysis, history analysis

Quantitative methods: statistical methods, econometrics, financial analysis

Docsity.com MGT 597 ETHICS & LEADERSHIP

A vision of new organization Vision is a general picture of the new organizatzion Vision assure that employees understand and accept a the new model of organization Key functions of vision in the process of change management

Explanation of changes Deacreasing the level of uncertainty, stress and fear of changes Motivation for changes

Purpose and meaning of changes Interests of employees in proposed changes Coordination and direction of efforts of all participants in the change process

Docsity.com MGT 597 ETHICS & LEADERSHIP

Content and characteristics of vision Content of vision

Cause or source of changes – articulation of a need for change Goal of the changes, traget state of organization after changes General direction of action for achieving chnage goals Emotional appeal

Characteristics of effective vision Desirable

Doable

Focused

Flexible

Simple

Docsity.com MGT 597 ETHICS & LEADERSHIP

Communication of vision

Importance of communication of vision – “communicating by factor 10”

Channels of vision communication Direct verbal communication: meetings, individual persuasion

Non verbal communication

Written communication: in paper or electronical

Symbolic communication: manipulation of semantic, behavioral, material symbols

Docsity.com MGT 597 ETHICS & LEADERSHIP

Communication of vision

Characteristics of the process of vision communication Simplicity

Metaphores, analogies, examples

Multiple channels of communication

Repeating the message

Avodance of technical vocabulary

Two way communication

Docsity.com MGT 597 ETHICS & LEADERSHIP

Planning of change Change process is never totaly planned or totaly spontaneous Plan of the change should give answers to questions: who, when, how, why and by which? Content of change plan

Change activities Sequence of activities: phases, steps Timetable Roles and responsibilities of change participants Resources: time, money, people Control indicators

Docsity.com MGT 597 ETHICS & LEADERSHIP

Organization of change Organization of change process comprisies three tasks: 1. Task division 2. Allocation of authority and responsibility 3. Coordination method

Change structure Steering committee Facilitation team Expeet team Support teams

Comminication team Trenning team Financial team

Docsity.com MGT 597 ETHICS & LEADERSHIP

Strategies of motivation for change

Two sources and two strategies of employees’ motivation to take part in the change process:

Developing unsatisfaction with the current state (stick)

Inforamtion about real situation

Setting a high performance standards

Disconfirmation of existing behavior model

Developing positive expectations from the new state (carrot)

Docsity.com MGT 597 ETHICS & LEADERSHIP

Techniques of motivation for change

Communication with employees

Exposing employees to objective information

Teams and participation

Change of performace appraisal and reward systems

Rewarding early acceptors of change

Pilot project

Incubation

Docsity.com MGT 597 ETHICS & LEADERSHIP

Managing power structure

I. The analysis and evaluation of power distribution before and after changes

I. Distribution of powerin the organization II. Power position of change participants III. Participants’ attitude toward changes

II. Development of strategy of influencing change participants

III. Implementation of the strategy through political actions

Docsity.com MGT 597 ETHICS & LEADERSHIP

Strategies of influence on change participants

Motivation to stop changes

Power to stop changes

Low

High

Low High

Certain problems

Try cooperation

Probably problems Keep them on eyeNo problems

Do nothing

Probably problems Keep them satisfied

Docsity.com MGT 597 ETHICS & LEADERSHIP

Implementation of changes

Planning the change implementation

The first cycle of the change implementation

Achievement and exploiting success of changes in the

first cycels

Subsequent cycels of the change implementation

Following changes

Facillitating changes

Docsity.com MGT 597 ETHICS & LEADERSHIP

Implementation of changes The implementation of changes through cycles because of neccesity of change sequencing and limited capacity of organization to implement changes Number of cycles depends on depth and complexity of changes The first cycle is most critical and most intensive one Importance of fast success of changes in first cycle: it raises energy for change and decreases resistance Subsequent change cycles includes more and more participants from lower hierarchical levels

Docsity.com MGT 597 ETHICS & LEADERSHIP

Personal transition during changes Changes always cause emotional reactions and stress even when they are positive Every employee passes through personal transition during radical changes Emotional reactions have positive and negative effects A change agent has to

Recognize phase in the proces of personal transition of employees Lead emploeyees thorugh the process of personal transition and provide them support

Docsity.com MGT 597 ETHICS & LEADERSHIP

Phases of personal transition during changes

I. Awareness and shock: anxiety, panic, paralyze

II. Refusing reality: okretanje prošlosti, izbegavanje

III. Admiting, defense, depression

IV. “Leaving”: symbolic death

V. Testing, adaptation, experimentation, accepting changes

VI. Consolidation

VII. Internalization of the new organization

Docsity.com MGT 597 ETHICS & LEADERSHIP

Personal sources of resistance to change Habits, inertion Intolerance of risk, uncertainty, fear of unknown Fear of incompetence Fear of losing the job, power or status Fear of greater workload Lack of information, knowledge, interest about sources and solution of problems that caused changes

Organizaitonal sources of resistance to change Organizational routines, structural inertion Power structure Organizational culture

Sources of resistance to changes

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