Postal Services History-Seminarski rad-Engleski jezik 1-Saobracajni fakultet

Postal Services History-Seminarski rad-Engleski jezik 1-Saobracajni fakultet

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Saobracajni fakultet, engleski jezik 1, seminarski rad, Postal Services History, Ancient and Medieval Service, Reemergence of Postal Services, Beginnings of Modern Postal Service, Drevni i srednjovjekovni poštanski servi...
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Postal Services History




Postal Services History HISTORY

Mail, consisting mostly of government dispatches, was carried from place to place by horse or horse-drawn wagon in ancient Egypt and Persia. Most mail was still being transported the same way in the middle of the 19th century, when stagecoaches carried letters and packages to the West coast.

Ancient and Medieval Service

Historical references to postal systems in Egypt date from about 2000 BC. The Persian Empire under Cyrus the Great (6th century BC) used a system of mounted relay messengers. The riders would stop at regularly placed posthouses to get a fresh horse or to pass on their packets of dispatches to another messenger for the remainder of the distance.

On the other side of the world, in China, a posthouse service had been started early in the Chou Dynasty (ruled 1122-221 BC). It was used mostly to convey official documents. The far-reaching system consisted of relays of couriers who changed horses at relay posts 9 miles (14.5 kilometers) apart. The system was enlarged under the Han Empire (202 BC-AD 220), when the Chinese came in contact with the Romans and their postal system.

The Roman Empire built the most advanced postal delivery system known until that time except for the service in China. Its area was the whole Mediterranean world. Reliable communication from Rome to governors and military officials in faraway provinces was a necessity. Rome met the need by developing the cursus publicus literally, "public course" a state-sponsored series of post roads with relay stations at intervals. The speed with which government dispatches and other mail could be carried about the empire was not equaled again in Europe until the 19th century. Using the relay stations, riders could cover about 170 miles (270 kilometers) in a 24- hour period.

The collapse of the empire in the West did not immediately destroy the postal system. Vestiges of it endured until at least the 9th century before it became fragmented and fell into disuse. In the Eastern, or Byzantine, Empire the system lasted longer because it was eventually absorbed into the Islamic kingdom based in Baghdad.

Reemergence of Postal Services

With the growth of international commerce during the Renaissance, there was a need for business correspondence. Corporations and guilds set up their own messenger services. The great merchant and banking houses of the Italian city-states provided the most extensive and dependable postal service of the time. By the 13th century links were maintained between the commercial centers of Florence, Genoa, and Siena and several communities in northern France that held annual fairs. These fairs

attracted merchants from all parts of Europe. The postal service to France thus provided a major international link for commerce and news. There was also a postal link between Venice and Constantinople, the Muslim capital. Russia too shared in the postal communications of the day.

The private postal systems created during the later Middle Ages carried personal mail as well as commercial correspondence. The invention of the printing press late in the 15th century increased the amount of mail and made letter carrying a profitable enterprise. Private postal services emerged to carry mail to all parts of Europe.

The best-known and most extensive such service was the Thurn and Taxis system. A family, whose Italian name was Tassis, had started operating courier services in the city-states from about 1290. Franz von Taxis served as postmaster for the Holy Roman emperor Maximilian I, beginning in 1489. He obtained the right to carry government as well as private mail throughout the empire. Under a patent from the emperor, branches of the family operated a network of postal routes in Spain, Germany, Austria, Italy, Hungary, and the Low Countries from 1512 to 1867. The system employed about 20,000 messengers to deliver mail and newspapers. The Prussian state nationalized the service in 1867.

By this time strong nation-states had emerged in Europe, and the need for private postal services was passing. In any case, governments were beginning to insist on controlling mail service. In France Louis XI had set up the Royal Postal Service in 1477. In 1516 Henry VIII of England appointed a master of the posts to maintain regular service along the roads leading out of London. Neither of these government systems was intended to serve the public. Carrying private mail was not legalized in France until 1627 or in Britain until 1635. Private mail delivery operations functioned side by side with government services for a while. Then in 1672 France declared all postal services to be a state monopoly. Private services were eventually forced out of business or purchased.

Private carriers did not give up, however. Some of them found a way to stay in business by introducing a new public service the collection and delivery of mail within cities. William Dockwra opened a Penny Post in London in 1680. The novelty of his operation lay in prepayment for sending letters and in stamping them to show when and where they were sent for delivery. Dockwra was so successful that he was prosecuted for infringing on the state monopoly. His enterprise was shut down in 1682 and quickly reopened as a government agency. It was nearly 100 years before a similar city service was started in Paris, and it too was rapidly taken over by the government.

The economic growth in Britain during the 18th century spurred a demand for better mail services. New post roads were built, beginning about 1765. Stagecoaches began carrying mail between cities and towns in 1784. The first route was between London and Bath. Mounted postboys also rode on the main routes. Next-day mail delivery became possible in towns throughout a good part of England by the 1830s.

Beginnings of Modern Postal Service

Between 1775 and 1815 Britain was at war almost constantly, either with the United States or with France. To help finance the wars postage rates were increased, and the higher rates remained in force for 25 years after the defeat of Napoleon in 1815. Spurred by popular discontent over postal rates, the English educator and tax reformer Rowland Hill formulated proposals on reforming the postal system between 1835 and 1837. His pamphlet, "Post Office Reform: Its Importance and Practicability," is now regarded as a milestone in the development of the modern postal system.

Hill proved that carrying charges were an insignificant factor in the total cost of handling mail. He further proved that the complex series of rates based on distance were needless. Most of the total cost came from administrative expenses. He also noted that the collection of payment for mail on delivery could be avoided. His solution to postal problems was simple a uniform rate of postage regardless of distance and prepayment of postage through the use of adhesive stamps sold by the post office. He proposed that payments be based on weight and suggested a penny for each half-ounce.

Povijest Poštanskih Servisa Povijest

U drevnom Egiptu i Perziji se pošta, koja se uglavnom sastojala od vladinih pošiljki, prenosila od mjesta do mjesta s pomoću konja ili konjskih zaprega. I sredinom 19 stoljeća posta se jos uvijek prenosila na isti način, dok su poštanska putnička kola prenosile pisma i pakete na zapadnu obalu.

Drevni i srednjovjekovni poštanski servis

Povijesni zapisi o postojanju poštanskog sistema u Egiptu datiraju od 2000 g. prije Krista. I u perzijskom carstvu pod vladavinom Kira Velikoga (6 st. prije Krista) se rabio sistem dostave pošte s glasnicima na konjima. Jahaći bi se zaustavili na za to određenim postajama da dobiju svježeg konja ili da bi predali pošiljke drugom glasniku koji bi je ponio preostalim dijelom puta.

Na drugom kraju svijeta, u Kini, poštanski servis je uspostavljen vrlo rano za vladavine dinastije Chou (vladala je od 1122-221 g. prije Krista). Rabio se uglavnom za dostavu službenih dokumenata. Sistem dostave poste do udaljenih dijelova dinastije sastojao se od glasnika koji su zamjenjivali konje na postajama za zamjenu koje su jedna od druge bile udaljene 9 milja/14.5 km. Sistem je proširen za vladavine dinastije Han (vladala je od 202 g. prije Krista do 220 g. poslije Krista), kada su Kinezi dosli u kontakt s Rimljanima i njihovim poštanskim sistemom.

Rimsko Carstvo je izgradilo napredniji poštanski servis koji je do tada bio jedino poznat kao takav u Kini. To područje je obuhvaćalo cijeli Mediteran. Pouzdan sistem komunikacije izmedu Rima i guvernera i vojnih zapovjednika u udaljenim provincijama bio je naprosto potreba. Rim je izisao u susret toj potrebu izgradivsi tzv. "cursus publicus", u doslovnom prijevodu "javne puteve", veliki broj od Carstva isfinanciranih postanskih puteva s postajama za zamjenu konja na odmorištima. Brzina s kojom su se prenosile vladine pošiljke i druga pošta nije se mogla usporediti u Europi sve do 19. st. Koristeći se postajama za zamjenu konja, glasnici su mogli prijeći oko 170 milja/270 km za 24 sata.

Nenadani slom Carstva na zapadu nije odmah doveo i do raspada poštanskog sistema. Njegovi ostaci su se usprkos teškoćama održali baram do 9 st.-a prije no sto se nije raspao i prestao funkcionirati. Na istoku rimskog carstva, ili Bizantu, sistem se duže održao zbog toga sto se konačno spojio s Muslimanskim carstvom sa sjedistem u Bagdadu.

Ponovno pojavljivanje poštanskih servisa

S razvojem međunarodne trgovine za vrijeme Renesanse, pojavila se potreba za poslovnom prepiskom. Korporacije i udruge obrtnika uspostavile su svoje vlastite poštanske servise. Velike trgovačke i bankovne kuće tadašnjih italijanskih gradova- država su se pobrinule za najpouzdaniji i najrašireniji poštanski servis toga vremena. Do 13 st. uspostavljene se veze između trgovačkih centara Firence, Denove i Siene i s nekoliko gradova u sjevernom dijelu Francuske gdje su se održavali godišnji sajmovi. Ti sajmovi su privlačili trgovce iz svih dijelova Europe. Zbog toga je poštanski servis za Francusku pružao glavnu međunarodnu vezu u svezi trgovine i novosti. Također je postojala poštanska veza izmedu Venecije i Konstantinopola, glavnog muslimanskog grada. Rusija je također imala udjela u poštanskim komunikacijama toga doba.

Tijekom kasnog srednjeg vijeka su stvoreni privatni poštanski servisi kojima se dostavljala i privatna i trgovačka pošta. Izumom tiskarskog stroja u kasnom 15 st. povećao se obim pošte, a raznošenje pisma je postalo unosan posao. Raznošenje pošte u sve dijelove Europe dovelo je do pojave privatnih poštanskih servisa.

Najpoznatiji i najrašireniji takav poštanski servis bio je porodice Thurn i Taxis. Porodica, čije je talijansko ime bilo Tassis, je bila započela s pružanjem servisa kurirske dostave u gradovima-drzavama negdje oko 1290 g. Franz von Taxis je služio kao upravitelj pošte svetog rimskog imperatora Maximilina 1, početkom 1489. Dobio je pravo da jednako raznosi i službenu vladinu i privatnu poštu diljem imperije. Poveljom samog Imperatora porodične podružnice su uspotavile mrežu poštanskih puteva u španjolskoj, Njemačkoj, Austriji, Italiji, Mađarskoj i teritorijem zemalja današnjeg Beneluxa od 1512. do 1867. godine. Sistem je zapošljavao oko 20.000 dostavljaća da raznose poštu i novine. Prusija je nacionalizirala servis 1867. godine.

U to vrijeme su u Europi počele nastajati snažne nacionalne države i jenjavala je potreba za privatnim poštanskim servisima. U svakom slučaju vlade su počele insistirati na tome da kontroliraju poštanski servis. U Francuskoj, 1477. godine je Louis XI osnovao kraljevski poštanski servis. U Engleskoj je Henry VIII 1516. godine imenovao upravnika pošta sa zadacom da vodi redovit poštanski servis duž puteva koji su vodili iz Londona. Nijedan od ovih vladinih poštanskih servisa nije bio namjenjen da služi pučanstvu. Raznošenje privatne pošte u Francuskoj nije bilo legalizirano sve do 1627., a u Britaniji do 1635. godine. Još je određeno vrijeme usporedo funkcionirao privatni poštanski servis s vladinim servisom. Tada su u Francuskoj 1672. godine svi poštanski servisi stavljeni pod državni monopol. Privatni servisi su tada konačno prestali poslovati ili su otkupljeni.

Međutim, privatni raznosaci poste se nisu predali. Neki od njih su pronašli način kako ostati u poslu ponudivši jedan novi javni poštanski servis skupljanja i urućivanja pošte unutar gradova. William Dockwra je u Londonu 1680. godine otvorio Penny Post. Invovacija njegovog funcioniranja sastojala se u namirenju poštarine unaprijed za slanje pisama i frankiranju istih da se predoči kada i gdje su pisma poslana na urućenje. Dockwra je bio toliko uspješan da je tuzen za uplitanje u državni monopol. Njegovo poduzeće je 1682. godine zatvoreno i ubrzo ponovno otvoreno, ali kao državna agencija. Bilo je to gotovo 100 godina prije nego što je sličan servis zapoceo s radom u Parizu i također je vrlo brzo bio preuzet od vlade.

Privredni rast u Britaniji tijekom 18 st. je potakao potrebu za boljim poštanskim servisima. Počevši negdje oko 1765. godine izgrađeni su novi poštanski putevi. Poštanska putnička kola su počela s raznošenjem pošte između većih i manjih gradova 1784. godine. Prva ruta bila je između Londona i Bath-a. Raznosači pisama na konjima su također jahali glavnim putevima. Do 1830. godine bilo je moguće uručiti pismo već slijedećeg dana u gradovima diljem Engleske.

Početci modernog poštanskog servisa

Britanija je izmedu 1775. i 1815. bila neprekidno u ratu ili sa Sjedinjenim Američkim Državama ili s Francuskom. Da bi potpomognula ratove povećana je poštarina i viši poštanski troškovi su ostali na snazi i 25 godina nakon što je Napoleon poražen

1815. godine. Engleski pedagog i porezni reformator Rowland Hill je između 1835. i 1837. formulirao naputke kako reformirati poštanski sistem potaknit općim nezadovoljstvom zbog visokih poštanskih troškova. Njegova brošura pod naslovom: "Reforma poštanskog sistema: njena važnost i izvedivost", se smatra prekretnicom u razvoju suvremenog poštanskog sistema.

Hill je dokazao da su troškovi dostave predstavljali neznatan faktor u sveukupnim troškovima dostave pošte. Nadalje, on je pokazao da su mnogostuki troškovi u svezi udaljenosti na koju se pošta dostavljala bili nepotrebni. Veći dio ukupnih troškova je poticao od administrativnih izdataka. On je konstatirao da bi skupljanje uplate za dostavu pošte također moglo biti izbjegnuto. Njegovo rješenje poštanskih problema bilo je uniformna naplata poštanskih troškova bez obzira na udaljenost i namirenje poštarine unaprijed za slanje pisama korištenjem ljepljivih poštanskih maraka koje bi porodavala pošta. Predlagao je naplatu na bazi težine i da se svaka težina od pola unce naplaćuje jedan penny.

Postal Services History Postal services had a very long, profuse and fascinating history. All peoples, regardless of their location, race, religion, or culture, had realized pretty early the necessity and significance of transportation and communication. The fabulous story of mail, mailing, dispatches of all sorts, and betimes postal services had started with horses and mounted relay messengers originating from the Egyptian and Persian Empire through centuries.

There had been particular and unique postal services in ancient China, Roman Empire, during the Middle Ages in Italian city-states for instance, France, Constantinople, Imperial Russia, Spain, Germany, Austria, Hungary, the Low Countries, Prussian state, and Britain. The communication between people had to be provided and maintained perpetually and everlastingly.

The matters of speed, accuracy, security and some other issues of both the deliverers and government dispatches in the beginning, and other mail later, had been taken care of unquestionably and undoubtedly. There had special postal routes and roads being built to provide and furnish the access to even the most remote

locations and spots of some region, area, or territory. Financial matters and financing of these projects had played pretty important, unavoidable and inevitable role.

Government dispatches and mail had been conveyed and delivered at the start not serving to the public. Private postal services appeared and occurred later and coexisted side by side with the governmental services but not for long. The authorities wanted and always succeeded in establishing and instituting the monopoly and absolute control under the service.

However, postal innovators, reformers and entrepreneurs like Rowland Hill, in Britain for example, always kept on trying and attempting to endow something new and fresh to this competition and rivalry between the private sector and the government. There was no lack of imagination, ingenuity, and wittiness in this field lasting and remaining to these days.

Thus, postal services, in one form or the other, are to persist and stay on existing for many centuries to come because the communication has no limits, or boundaries of any kind, and it is only a question, how far, how fast and under what price.

Key Words

Messenger- Person who carries a message- kurir,glasnik

Message- A communication that is transmitted by words os signals from one person to another- poruka

Empire- The territory or countries under dominion of an emperor- carstvo

Office- A place in which business are conducted- ured

Government- The person or persons authorized to administer the laws- vlast

Letter- A written message addressed to some person or organization- pismo

Charge- The price which is demanded for some thing or service- zaračunati

Mail- Postal material like letters or packages- pošta

Commerce- Buying and selling of goods- trgovina

Routes- Way for travel from one place to another- smjerovi,rute

Declare- Announce something to the public- objaviti

Legalize- To make something legal- legalizirati

Business- A commercial or industrial enterprise- posao

Comunnication- Means of communicating between persons or machines- komunikacija

Finance- Commercial activity of providing funds and capital- financirati

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