Prepare for your exams

Study with the several resources on Docsity

Earn points to download

Earn points by helping other students or get them with a premium plan

Guidelines and tips

Prepare for your exams

Study with the several resources on Docsity

Earn points to download

Earn points by helping other students or get them with a premium plan

Community

Ask the community

Ask the community for help and clear up your study doubts

University Rankings

Discover the best universities in your country according to Docsity users

Free resources

Our save-the-student-ebooks!

Download our free guides on studying techniques, anxiety management strategies, and thesis advice from Docsity tutors

Ch. 16: Data Analysis: Descriptive and Inferential Statistics

Typology: Exams

2023/2024

1 / 14

Download Ch. 16: Data Analysis: Descriptive and Inferential Statistics and more Exams Nursing in PDF only on Docsity! Ch. 16: Data Analysis: Descriptive and Inferential Statistics The nurse researcher is interested in estimating how reliably data can be used to generalize the findings of a study. In order for this to occur, the researcher should use what? a. Inferential statistics b. Descriptive statistics c. Nonparametric statistics d. Mathematical statistics - correct answer ✔✔ANS: A Feedback A Inferential statistics are used by researchers to make predictions and generalize findings on the basis of data. B Descriptive statistics are used to describe and summarize data by reducing data to manageable proportions by summarizing them. C Nonparametric statistics are a type of inferential statistics. D The term mathematical statistics is a circular answer. The nurse researcher is interested in describing and summarizing the characteristics of the sample used in the research study. In order for this to occur, the researcher should use what? a. Inferential statistics b. Descriptive statistics c. Nonparametric statistics d. Mathematical statistics - correct answer ✔✔ANS: B Feedback A Inferential statistics are used by researchers to make predictions and generalize findings on the basis of data. B Descriptive statistics are used to describe and summarize data by reducing data to manageable proportions by summarizing them. C Nonparametric statistics are a type of inferential statistics. D The term mathematical statistics is a circular answer. A nurse researcher would opt to use measures of central tendency in which case? a. When there is a need to describe how reliably the findings can be generalized b. When there is a need to describe how much dispersion is in the sample c. When there is a need to describe the accuracy of predictions made d. When there is a need to describe the average member of the sample - correct answer ✔✔ANS: D Feedback A This answer describes a function of inferential statistics. B This answer describes measures of variability. C This answer is incorrect. D Measures of central tendency yield a single number that describes the middle of the group and summarizes the members of a sample. The nurse researcher is interested in describing the assignment of numbers to objects or events. This is best achieved in which way? a. Through use of prediction b. Through use of dispersion c. Through use of variability d. Through use of measurement - correct answer ✔✔ANS: D Feedback Feedback A The data are represented by nominal-level data, categories, or classifications. B The data are represented by nominal-level data, categories, or classifications. C The data are represented by nominal-level data, categories, or classifications. D The data are represented by nominal-level data, categories, or classifications. The nurse researcher opts to use interval-level data. The researcher's primary concern will be what? a. Categories must be mutually exclusive. b. Intervals between data categories must be equal. c. The rank of zero (0) represents the absence of the measured variable. d. Variance between assigned categories is qualitative rather than quantitative. - correct answer ✔✔ANS: B Feedback A This response is true for all levels of data: nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio. B This is the defining characteristic of interval measurement. C The zero does not represent the total absence of a variable in interval-level data. D This response does not describe interval-level data. The nurse researcher opts to use ratio-level data. The researcher's primary concern will be what? a. Categories must be mutually exclusive. b. Intervals between data categories must be equal. c. The rank of zero (0) represents the absence of the measured variable. d. Variance between assigned categories is qualitative rather than quantitative. - correct answer ✔✔ANS: C Feedback A This response is true for all levels of data: nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio. B This is true for intervals between numbers for interval- and ratio-level data. C This is characteristic of ratio measurement. D This response does not describe interval-level data. The nurse researcher is using a nursing degree as a variable in a research study. The level of measurement most appropriate in this case is what? a. Nominal b. Ordinal c. Interval d. Ratio - correct answer ✔✔ANS: A Feedback A This variable (type of nursing degree) is scaled using categorical data, nominal level. The type fits only one characteristic. B This variable (type of nursing degree) is scaled using categorical data, nominal level. The type fits only one characteristic. C This variable (type of nursing degree) is scaled using categorical data, nominal level. The type fits only one characteristic. D This variable (type of nursing degree) is scaled using categorical data, nominal level. The type fits only one characteristic. The nurse researcher is using respiratory rate as a variable in a research study. The level of measurement most appropriate in this case is what? a. Nominal b. Ordinal c. Interval d. Ratio - correct answer ✔✔ANS: D Feedback A Rate is represented by a number representing frequency per minute. B Rate is represented by a number representing frequency per minute. C Rate is represented by a number representing frequency per minute. D Respiratory rate can have an absolute zero—absence of respirations. The nurse researcher is using the percentage of nurses holding various nursing degrees as a variable in a research study. Which type of statistics is most appropriate in this case? a. Inferential statistics b. Descriptive statistics c. Nonparametric statistics d. Mathematical statistics - correct answer ✔✔ANS: B Feedback A Percentage represents descriptive statistics. B Percentage represents descriptive statistics. C Nonparametric statistics are used when testing hypotheses on data generated at nominal and ordinal units. D This is a circular answer and does not apply. The nurse researcher opts to group frequency data using large interval widths in a research study. Which problem may be encountered by using this type of interval widths? a. Overlap can occur. b. Patterns can be obscured. c. Means cannot be determined. d. Some data may not fit into any category. - correct answer ✔✔ANS: B Feedback Feedback A Mean is a measure of central tendency. B Median is a measure of central tendency. C The range is very likely to be changed by a single extreme score. D The semiquartile range is more stable than the range; it is less likely to be changed by a single extreme score. The nurse researcher finds that the data include a score reported to be in the 75th percentile. The researcher interprets this to mean what? a. The score is at the median. b. The score has exceeded the mode. c. The score is exceeded by only 25% of the cases. d. The score represents the average of all scores measured at this time. - correct answer ✔✔ANS: C Feedback A You cannot conclude this on the basis of the data provided. B You cannot conclude this on the basis of the data provided. C The score of 75% is exceeded by only 25% of the cases. D This is not a logical answer. In a study of nurses' willingness to care for patients with a contagious disease, it was found that the greater the nurses' spirituality, the greater the willingness to provide care. This finding represents what? a. No correlation b. Perfect correlation c. Positive correlation d. Negative correlation - correct answer ✔✔ANS: C Feedback A The example suggests a correlation, not the absence of a correlation. B There is no indication in the example of a 1.0 correlation coefficient. C Both variables are correlated in the same (+, +) direction. D The variables are not correlated in opposite (+, -) directions. The alpha level that is interpreted by the nurse researcher as a highly statistically significant result is what? a. p = 0.20 b. p = 0.02 c. p = 0.002 d. p = 0.0002 - correct answer ✔✔ANS: D Feedback A This result is above the conventional 0.05 and is not statistically significant. B Although this result is statistically significant, it is not highly statistically significant. C This is a highly statistically significant result, but not the highest. D This is the most highly statistically significant result. A nurse researcher would opt to use factor analysis in which case? a. To control statistically for a variable and measure differences among group means b. To take a large number of variables and group them into a smaller number of factors c. To test the relationship between two variables measured at interval or ratio level data d. To measure the relationship between one outcome or dependent variable and several dependent variables - correct answer ✔✔ANS: B Feedback A This answer defines analysis of covariance. B This is a definition of factor analysis. C This defines a correlation coefficient. D This answer defines multiple regression. Which characteristic is an essential criterion for categorizing an object, event, or fact as nominal level data? (Select all that apply.) a. The degree of the characteristic must be positively related to the number assigned. b. Rank orders must be calculated for meaningful interpretation. c. Categories must be mutually exclusive. d. Category ranges cannot overlap. - correct answer ✔✔ANS: C, D Feedback Correct This is the definition of nominal-level data; categories are mutually exclusive. Category ranges must not overlap; each score fits into only one category. Incorrect This answer does not fit categorizing an object, event, or fact as nominal level. Rank orders apply to ordinal-level data, not to nominal-level data. Which statements regarding measures of central tendency are accurate? (Select all that apply.) a. This classification of levels of measurement is scientifically inaccurate. b. Having the mean, mode, and median exactly the same indicates the measures have been correctly applied. c. They have great flexibility with regard to the amount of mathematical manipulation possible. d. They vary from sample to sample, even when the same trait or characteristic is measured. - correct answer ✔✔ANS: C, D Feedback Correct Various inferential statistical tests employ mean, median, or mode in their calculations. Measures of central tendency vary from sample to sample, even when the same trait is measured.