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An outline for a statistics class session, covering basic math review, descriptive and inferential statistics. It includes explanations of concepts such as the summation of sigma, rules of precedence, and applications of descriptive and inferential statistics. Students will learn how to summarize data and relationships between variables, as well as how to generalize from a sample to a population.

Typology: Study notes

2010/2011

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Download Statistics Review: Descriptive and Inferential Statistics - Prof. Yuan-Kang Wang and more Study notes Introduction to Sociology in PDF only on Docsity! 9/12/11 NEXT MONDAY WILL BE IN SANGREN 1206 SOC 2830 Outline Basic math review Descriptive and inferential statistics Basic over view (sigma) is “the summation of”sigma) is “the summation of” o Xi means “the summation of all the scores” Xi = 12, 17, 22 Xi =12+17+22= 51 Xi2= (sigma) is “the summation of”12)2 + (sigma) is “the summation of”17)2 +(sigma) is “the summation of”22)2 =144+ 289+ 484= 917 (sigma) is “the summation of”Xi)2 = (sigma) is “the summation of”12+17+22)2 = (sigma) is “the summation of”51)2= 2601 Rules of precedence o Squares and square root > multiplication and division > addition and subtraction o The rules may be overridden by parentheses 2 + 3 x 4 = 2 + 12 = 14 8 + 2 x 22/2 = 8 + 2 x 4/2 = 8 + 8/2 = 8 + 4 = 12 (sigma) is “the summation of”8 + 2) -4 (sigma) is “the summation of”3)2 / (sigma) is “the summation of”8-6) = 10 – 4 x 9/2 = 10 – 36/2 = 10 – 18 = -8 Statistical Applications Two main statistical applications: o Descriptive statistics “What is the average family income in Kalamazoo?” o Inferential Statistics Descriptive Statistics Summarize variable one at a time. Summarize the relationship between two or more variables Data reductions: reduce a large amount of data into a few easily understood numbers Univariate descriptive statistics include only one variable: o Percentages, averages, and various charts and graphs Bivariate descriptive statistics describe the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables o Example: older students have higher GPAs. o “time spent studying statistics” and “final grade in statistics” o Association (sigma) is “the summation of”correlation)≠ causation Multivariate descriptive statistics describe the relationships between three or more variables